Article 370


Article 370 of the Constitution of India is in the hot debate now a day. It provides a special status to Jammu and Kashmir in the Union of India. India holds Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir as well as Pakistan Occupied part of Kashmir as its integral part. But it is a bone of contention and confrontation between India and Pakistan since 1948. Without going into the history of this tangled situation, we intend to discuss this article in the light of Indian constitutional law.

Article 370 finds place in Part XXI of the Constitution, which part is titled “Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions”. This very article itself is titled “Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”. The placement of article 370 in a part that deals with provisions which are temporary in nature and the specific heading of the article mentioning it a temporary provision, exhibit the unambiguous intention of the Constitution that article 370 has to be removed from its body at some point of time. However, the title of an article does not override its substantive part; the title may only be read to help ascertain the real meaning of the substance.

There are restrictions placed by this article in the matters of application of article 238 and of the power of Parliament to make certain laws in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Clause (C) of 370 (1) says “Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution the provisions of article 1 and of this article shall apply in relation to that State”. Mark the words, “Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution”, which makes the matter look grave because article 368 (power of Parliament to amend the Constitution) is also a part of the Constitution. Article 1 (2) says the States and the territories of the Indian Union shall be as specified in the First Schedule, which includes the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir. On the first reading of these provisions, it looks the State of Jammu and Kashmir is constitutionally linked to India only through articles 370 and 1 and the clause “Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution” makes it constitutionally impossible to change this situation without the recommendation/concurrence of the Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir.

But the Constitution, like any other law, cannot be read clause by clause in isolation or in a piecemeal manner. It has to be read as a whole and one document in order to ascertain its intention and meaning. Sometimes, there are peculiar situations arising out of apparent inconsistencies and they need to be resolved judicially.

Article 368 deals with the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure thereof and its clause (1) opens with the words, “Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution”, which obviously includes article 370 also. Article 368 very carefully makes provisions for three aspects of amending the Constitution: firstly, the article gives plenary constituent power to Parliament to amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution [368 (1)]; secondly, it places certain procedural restrictions on this amending power in certain situations [368 (2)]; and, thirdly, it clarifies and removes doubts in the matter of Parliament’s constituent power for making constitutional amendments [368 (3, 4, 5)].

Article 370 uses the words, “Notwithstanding anything in the Constitution” and places certain restrictions on Parliament in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Article 368 also uses the words, “Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution” and gives the plenary constituent power to Parliament to amend the Constitution. Judicially, how do we reconcile these two seemingly contradictory non obstante clauses?

Article 368 (5) removes any doubts and declares that there shall be no limitation on the power of Parliament to amend provisions of the Constitution under this article. This provision has been judicially interpreted by the Supreme Court that this constituent unlimited power of Parliament to amend the Constitution has one limitation: the basic structures of the Constitution cannot be done away with by Parliament by making an amendment. Though much of the contours of what constitutes the basic structure have been left undecided, several features (like fundamental rights etc.) have been judicially declared to be basic features of the Constitution. Though article 370 does not constitute basic feature of the Constitution, it still leaves a scope for judicial intervention.

Article 368 (2) puts certain procedural restrictions (ratification by States Legislatures) on Parliament for amending the Constitution if it makes any change in articles 54, 55, 73, 162, 241, chapter IV of Part V, chapter V of Part VI, chapter 1 of Part XI, Lists of Seventh Schedule, representation of States in Parliament and article 368. However, article 370 does not find a mention in article 368 and it can be legally repealed by Parliament.

If India is to survive as a nation against many kinds of onslaughts, it needs to be alert in attitude, efficient in performance and transparent in working. In the age of empowerment of people through information and transparency, the need of the hour is to bring the Judicial Accountability Bill on the statute book by the fastest route. Even the route of an Ordinance may be considered in this respect by the representatives of the people, in whom the sovereignty of India lies.

Before article 370 is repealed, it must be thoroughly discussed and debated in public domain to make its merits/demerits a public knowledge. This article is temporary in nature and meant to be repealed at the appropriate time. If Jammu and Kashmir is a part of India, as it is, it must be integrated with India. It breeds a sense of alienation and not belonging to India.

An alternative assessment of Mahatma Gandhi


Note: This material is borrowed with thanks from HERE.

TRUTH ABOUT SERGEANT MAJOR  MOHANDAS GANDHI NOT COVERED IN THE MOVIE OR HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY, A British Secret Service Agent – (Credits to Patrick Scrivener – Edited and Enhanced for General Reading by – Deepak Sarkar, Victoria, BC, www.kolki.com)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1868, in Gujarat, Western India. His father was a poor Hindu merchant who died in 1885. Gandhi received the Indian equivalent of a U.S. High School Diploma in 1887:

In his own words, “I passed the matriculation examination in 1887. It then used to be held at two centers, Ahmedabad and Bombay. The general poverty of the country naturally led Kathiawad students to prefer the nearer and the cheaper center. The poverty of my family likewise dictated to me the same choice. This was my first journey from Rajkot to Ahmedbad and that too without a companion”. (Gandhi, An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth, p. 35).

Gandhi attended Samaldas College in Bhavnagarbut after the end of the first term he had to drop out because he could not understand the English language. Here is an excerpt from a biography of Spouse Kastur Gandhi:

“The months passed but not quickly enough for Mohan. He had realized almost from the day of his arrival at Samaldas College that he was floundering. He understood little that was said in classes. Lessons were conducted in English; his marks were abominable; he was fighting loneliness, frustration, and an oppressive awareness that he was soon to assume the responsibilities of parenthood. When his first term ended in May, he quit the college and went home to Kastubai determined never to return to Samaldas College”. (Gandhi, The Forgotten Woman: The Untold Story of Kastur, Wife of Mahatma Gandhi, pp. 34-34).

It was soon after he dropped out of college that a “friend”(??) suggested that he go to England and study to become a “barrister.”

Coat of Arms of the Inns of Court.
university degree, and a knowledge of English, are minimumrequirements to enter the Inns of Court in London.

Gandhi was a college dropout and he came from a poor family.

He spent his 3 years at the school for spies . . . and definitely not at the aristocratic, expensive Inns of Court.

 

The Inns of Court where
barristers train.

Like fellow spy Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Gandhi could have entered the Inns of Court after graduating from a university in India, but he had neither the brains nor the money to pursue a legal career.

Mohandas Gandhi
(1869–1948).
In 1887, Mohandas Gandhi began his training as a British Secret Service agent in the capital of the Empire.

His cover was “barrister” or “lawyer.”

The British were determined to retain the “Jewel in the Crown” at any cost and that necessitated saturating India with British trained spies.

 

Gandhi with some of his
fellow spies in London..

Two (2) committed British imperialists were responsible for recruiting Gandhi as a spy and paying for his expenses while undergoing training in London.

Lord Roberts of Kandahar
(1832–1914).
Lord Roberts of Kandahar (“Mr. British Empire”) was stationed in India for most of his military career.

He recruited Gandhi for training as a spy.

Aristocratic admiral Edmond Slade provided the finances for Gandhi’s training in London.

His daughter Madeline (later Mirabehn) fell “madly in love” with Gandhi!!

Admiral Edmond Slade
(1859–1928).

Gandhi was not charged any tuition while he studied at the spying school so admiral Slade was only responsible for his living expenses while in London. Adolf Hitler was another famous or infamous graduate of that school.

The “Apostle of Non-violence” had the backing of two (2) of the top military men in the British Empire….While he was staying in London, Gandhi forgot to mention his benefactor admiral Slade . . . or staying at his country mansion, Milton Heath.

In June 1891, his spy training completed, he sailed home to India. When he arrived home to Bombay, no adoring crowds greeted him because the Gandhi legend was not yet born:

The voyage home was a sad one, and his homecoming even more dismal. The Bombay docks were bathed in a misting monsoon rain as he landed on July 5, 1891. Not even the reunion with Kasturbai and his family could lift the gloom–or a growing “sense of helplessness and fear.” Within a few months of trying to start his own law practice in Rajkot, he confesses in his autobiography, “I had serious doubts as to whether I should be able even to earn a living.”(Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, p. 82).

Gandhi need not have worried about his future as a “lawyer” because admiral Slade and the British Raj was committed to taking care of the financial needs of all of their spies!!.

Gandhi fought for the British during the brutal Boer War!!

In 1893, Gandhi sailed for South Africa. Until the discovery of gold in South Africa, the Cape Colony was just a stopover on the passage to India.

Gandhi in South Africa.
In 1893, Mohandas Gandhi arrived in South Africa without his wife and 2 children.

South Africa already had a large Indian population so he was more successful as an “attorney” there than in India.

Gandhi as an “attorney” in South Africa.

Upon arriving in South Africa, Gandhi started practicing law. He returned to India on July 4, 1896, to collect his family from Jajkot. In 1899, the very man who had recommended him for training in Britain, Lord Roberts, arrived in Cape Town determined to steal the gold from the Boers.


Gandhi with the Indian Ambulance Corps.
In 1899, Lord Roberts commanded the British Empire during the Gold War.

Gandhi was part of a special ambulance corps that assisted the British Empire forces.

Lord Roberts commanded the
Empire army during the Boer War.

Lord Roberts was the architect of the brutal concentration camp system for Boer women and children. Gandhi never seemed to be bothered by the abysmal treatment of innocent women and children . . . as long as it was for the good of the British Empire! Just imagine if Gandhi was a real Indian Lawyer why he would Volunteer as Sergeant Major to fight as British Soldier to colonize native African Zulu!

Once the British Empire defeated the Boers, the vast quantity of gold was shipped to the Bank of England in London. That gold was used by the British to finance the Kaiser and the German military buildup prior to WWI. The gold was also used to finance the Russian Revolution!!

Sergeant major Gandhi.
After the British conquered South Africa, the Zulus felt the iron heel of oppression.

In desperation, they rose in revolt, which was brutally crushed.

Sergeant major Gandhi commanded an ambulance brigade during the uneven contest.

Chief Bambhatha
(1860–1906).

The Bambatha Uprising was a Zulu revolt against British rule and taxation in Natal, South Africa, in 1906. The revolt was led by Bambhatha kaMancinza, leader of the amaZondi clan of the Zulu people, who lived in the Mpanza Valley, a district near Greytown, KwaZulu-Natal.

Unlike the Boers, the natives fought with swords and spears and they were no match for the superior firepower of the British Empire. The death of Chief Bambhatha brought an end to the conflict.

Mohandas Gandhi sailed for England in July 1914–just in time for World War I.


1914 Indian Ambulance Corps with Gandhi seated in the center.
It never occurred to Gandhi that WW I was financed by South African gold!!
Gandhi during WWI, as organizer of the Indian Volunteer Corps, London, 1914.

He raised a battalion of ambulance drivers but fell ill with pleurisy and was unable to serve on the Western Front.

To his big disappointment, Gandhi never served on the Western Front because he fell ill with pleurisy and was unable to fill his command tasks. He sailed for India on December 19, and reached Bombay on January 9, 1915.

Gandhi’s propaganda press had preceded him and this time he was hailed as a hero of non-violence and civil rights for the oppressed. The legend of Gandhi was born and a Nobel prize winning poet named Rabindranath Tagore gave him the flattering title Mahatma or “great soul.”

Mirabehn (Madeline Slade) was Gandhi’s liaison with the British Secret Service!!

Madeline Slade followed in the footsteps of her “intelligence officer” father. According to her biography, she fell in love with Gandhi after a French writer named Romain Rolland called him “another Christ” and the greatest figure of the 20th century….Nothing could be further from the TRUTH, she met Gandhi while he was training in London.

Madeline Slade
(1892–1982) aged 14.
Madeline traveled all the way to India to be with her hero Mahatma Gandhi.

She called him “Bapu” (father in Gujarati) and he changed her name to Mirabehn, after Meera Bai, an Indian goddess.

It was a meeting of old friends.

Madeline with admiral Slade can
be seen in the background.

Madeline Slade sailed for India in October 1925, and she arrived at Gandhi’s Ashram on November 7. Madeline provided the funds from the Bank of England for Gandhi’s passive resistance or satyagraha. G. D. Birla was also a Liaison between Winston Churchill and Gandhi to promote the Harijan movement, to further division against unity!  

Gandhi’s adoring devotee claimed that the relationship was purely platonic!!

Gandhi and Mirabehn before leaving India for the 1931 Round Table Conference in London.
In 1931, Gandhi left for Britain to discuss Indian “independence.”

He was accompanied by his political adviser Mirabehn.

 

 

Gandhi and Mirabehn on board SSRajputana on the way to London.

Gandhi was treated like a celebrity when he arrived in London in 1931. He met Prime Minister Ramsey MacDonald, and he had tea with the king at Buckingham Palace. He toured the Lancashire linen mills that supplied the huge Indian market.

Gandhi at 10 Downing St.
Gandhi was treated like a celebrity during his stay in Britain.

He visited the textile workers in Lancashire which manufactured most of the clothing worn in India.

 


Mirabehn with Gandhi at Darwen, Lancashire, 1931.

The financial stakes were enormous for Britain because India was a “captive market” and dumping ground for most of her manufactured goods. As expected, Gandhi played his part as a spy very well and he returned to India empty handed.

Gandhi fasted to keep the British in India!!

Winston Churchill was determined to keep India a part of the British Empire at any cost. He overlooked no weapon–no matter how insignificant–to accomplish this.

As well as being a master of disguise, Gandhi had another unique talent for a spy: the ability to fast….Churchill loved the idea of fasting and non-violence because it would accomplish absolutely nothing to free India . . . except help his spy Gandhi to lose weight . . . and live longer.


Gandhi fasting unto death to
keep the British in India.
Gandhi went on several long fasts to keep the British in India.

His emaciated homespun frame became an icon around the world.


Emaciated homespun Gandhi
spinning a yarn.

The emaciated frame of Gandhi spinning a yarnbecame famous throughout the world.

Gandhi forced Subhas Chandra Bose to resign from the INC Presidency!!

Subhas Chandra Bose was the real hero of Indian independence and the true FATHER of the Indian Republic. From the very beginning of his quest for Indian freedom from British oppression, he was mightily opposed by Gandhi . . . even to the stratagem of having him poisoned.

Bose as President of Congress in1938.
In February 1938, Subhas Chandra Bose was elected President of the 51st session of the Indian National Congress.

Under his leadership, a united India was on the road to true freedom.

Gandhi opposed him mightily . . . even resorting to poison!!

 


Gandhi trying to put his best face on his relationship with Bose.

As Congress President, Bose worked tirelessly to lay the groundwork for Indian independence and unity:

As Congress president, Bose pursued the deep interest in international affairs he had developed during his European exileHe sent a Congress medical mission to China as a symbol of solidarity against Japanese aggression. He encouraged cultural troupes, such as the dancers Uday Shankar and Amala Shankar, to visit Europe and disseminate Indian arts. He closely monitored political and military developments in Europe as the Third Reich spread its tentacles, and he sharply criticized the British and French betrayal of Czechoslovakia in 1938. On the death of Kemal Atatürk in November 1938, he held up the father of modern Turkey as “a magnificent example of the dictum that those who strive for liberty and win it should also put into effect the program of post-war reconstruction. (Bose, His Majesty’s Opponent, p. 152).

In January 1939, Mr. Bose was reelected to Congress for another yearGandhi was highly displeased with the result of the election. After visiting him, Bose fell dangerously ill:

Bose headed to Wardha for a meeting with Gandhi. He hoped that a face-to-face meeting would clear the air, but no breakthrough was to be achieved during their talks on February 15. On his way back by train to Calcutta the next day, Bose fell ill with a high fever. When he asked for a postponement of the Congress Working Committee scheduled for February 22, Vallabhbhai Patel led all the members–except for Jawaharlal Nehru and Sarat Chandra Bose–to resign. Nehru issued an ambiguous separate statement, which led many to believe that he too had joined Patel in leaving the Working Committee (Bose, His Majesty’s Opponent, pp. 157-158).

Unable to get any cooperation from Gandhi, Bose resigned from the Presidency on April 29, 1939This was a momentous moment for India, as World War II was about to erupt in Europe, and a chance for India to gain independence from Britain. [British Got Everything They Needed For WW II Support from Gandhi – who eventually will ask Indians to Volunteer for the British Army – recruiting 2.5 Million Indians as British Soldiers who fought with courage for British Victory – without knowing their efforts will only help post WAR Cruel Partitioning of India which will Massacre 1+ Million and Displace 10+ Million Indians from their cozy home, community, city and secured livelihoods! IMAGINE UNITED FREE INDIA, IF GANDHI RATHER ASKED THOSE 2.5 MILLION INDIAN FIGHTERS TO JOIN SUBHAS BOSE’S FREEDOM FIGHTING which already hoisted the Indian Flag in Andaman and Nicobar Islands!  Gandhi couldn’t do it as British Secret Agent – The Mighty Raj would expose him disfiguring Bapu as traitor!

Gandhi presided over the partition of India in 1947!!

[British Empire Already Had Post WW II Partitioning of India Proposed by the House of LORDS with details of two (2) Dominions with guaranteed loyalty to Royalty, all it needed to sell it to Nehru and Zinnah – using Gandhi as a faithful Mediator, who always fought for British with Pledge of Allegiance.]

Subhas Chandra Bose would never have agreed to the partition of India into warring factions. The partition of India caused a dreadful civil war between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi’s answer to the millions who were uprooted from their homes was to FAST. [That’s why Nehru, knowing Subhas is still alive, urged Lord Mountbatten to ensure Partitioning done before Subhas’s Return – so that he can be the Prime Minister of Partitioned India!]


Gandhi and Jawaharlar Nehru.
Jawaharlar Nehru worked with Gandhi for the partition of India and he was Prime Minister from 1947 to 1964.

Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first “Muslim” governor-general of the newly created nation of Pakistan as British Dominion. Both men trained as spies in Britain!!

In 1947, India was partitioned and 2 hostile nations were created where one nation had existed for 4,000 years. The British divide and rule strategy was applied, with Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims divided along ethnic lines.

After the partition in 1947, a further partition took place in 1971 with the creation of Bangladesh. More countries mean more wars and wasteful military expenditures which could be used to improve the lives of the people.

Raj Ghat Gandhi Memorial, Delhi.
British Secret Service agent Gandhi underwent cremation on January 31, 1948Following Assassination by Secret Service! Bled to death at Birla House!

 

“Saint” Gandhi.

A memorial to the spot where he was cremated now exists at Raj Ghat. Subsequently, mighty man Mahatma Gandhi was canonized by most of the World’s Religions.

[Gandhi knew his death was imminent, he mentioned many times during the day if I can survive this evening. Even his top secret plan to travel to Karachi next morning was already printed by BBC, [Probably Mirabehn who was always a British Secret Agent sitting right in the Gandhi’s movement and happenings inside Congress]. Two (2) BBC Reporters were already strolling around for the right moment to confirm and report Gandhi’s Death! Gandhi rejected the idea of secret service around him for security but eventually gave in to Nehru administration’s desire! That evening secret service was missing as the Nathuram Godse patsy team was freely moving around near the prayer area taking positions. Secret service people re-appear at the back of Gandhi once Godse started firing towards him, probably firing few rounds in the back of Gandhi to ensure death! That is the only reason why Gandhi left to bleed towards death in Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti, on Tees January Road, formerly Albuquerque Road) instead of rushing to nearby Willingdon Hospital (founded 1932) (now Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital) – only less than 10 minutes away! Satyameva Jayate – Kolki

References

Bose, Sugata. His Majesty’s Opponent. Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s Struggle for Independence. Harvard University Press, 2011.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth. Beacon Press, Boston, 1957.

Gandhi, Arun & Sunanda. The Forgotten Woman: The Untold Story of Kastur, Wife of Mahatma Gandhi. Ozark Mountains Books, Huntsville, Alabama, 1998.

Herman, Arthur. Gandhi & Churchill: The Epic Rivalry That Destroyed An Empire and Forged Our Age. Bantam Books, New York, 2008.

Mirabehn, The Spirit’s Pilgrimage. Great Ocean Publishers, Arlington, Virginia, 1960.

Roberts, Frederick Sleigh. Forty-One Years in India, From Subaltern to Commander-in-Chief. R. Bentley, London, 1897.

Singh, G.B. Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity.Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 2004.

ADDITIONAL READING: NEHRU MOUNTBATTEN FALSE FLAG PLOY TO DECLARE NETAJI SUBHAS BOSE DEAD: http://www.kolki.com/Nehru-Mountbatten-Ploy.htm

KOLKI PEACE FOUNDATION: Truth is the Real Peace Foundation:  http://www.kolki.com/peace/KPF-Worldwide-PT-Links.htm

Soaring expectations from Narendra Modi 


by Advocates Shreepal Singh & Parmanand Pandey

Now that the Narendra Modi government has come to power at the Centre with historic trust of the people, it will take some time to sink in this reality in the minds of Modi-haters. We have been listening the chant ‘Abki Bar Modi Sarkar’ for the last more then six months but we never imagined that the people of the country are so frustrated with the spectacle of alliance government that they will repose their unambiguous confidence in Modi. In fact, this confidence is more in Modi than in the BJP.  Political pundits will keep on analyzing the landslide victory of Narendra Modi for many months. These unrealistic pundits will come out with innumerable theories of the victory from their air-conditioned comforts. Some Modi haters’ are not able to digest the judgment of the Janata Janardan.

We have also analyzed in our on way the unbelievable grand success of Shri  Modi .The credit for the success must be given to Narendra Modi in full measure , without any ifs and buts, to his relentless campaign with clarity of thoughts across the country. He successfully reached out the people with success story of good governance and development of his Gujarat. Initially there was great deal of resistance in his party also but he overcame of all difficulties and now he has proved to be undisputed leader with the comprehensive victory. That the most of the political parties have been virtually decimated but nobody is shedding any tears for them i.e. the losers.

The once mighty Congress Party has almost been reduced to a rump. Even regional parties have proved to have stronger hold than the Congress of the post 2014 Lok Sabha election. The most remarkable victory of Narendra Modi is in Uttar Pradesh where everybody was thinking that the BJP will certainly get more seats but Mayawati -led BSP or Mulayam -led SP will be very close to the BJP. The BSP has been reduced to a very pathetic condition and it could not open even its account but the condition of Mulayam Singh is also no better. He has been barely able to win five seats of Parliament, which is divided in his family members.

Now let us come to the brass-tacks. Good Governance and development apart, Narendra Modi has been able to successfully demolish the theory of  pseudo secularism, which has been nourished and nurtured for more than six decades by the power-hungry and selfish leaders. Political parties of all hues and spectrum have been thriving on this phony theory of communalism and secularism. In the process, many political parties have got to be identified with castes, religion or region. They relegated nationalism and love for the country to the background. Almost all leader of any reckoning was shamelessly playing the Vote bank politics. This is for the first time that Modi has been able to break the enigma of caste, religion and region because of his bold and courageous leadership. India has been in the need of such a leader for quite long time, which has been thrown up by the luck of the people and circumstances prevailing in the country. This is al the more delightful that he has led his party to win the absolute majority and now he will not have to remain dependent of any of other allies. The experience of the alliance government in India has been not very encouraging. Smaller parties have been dictating the terms for bigger parties. It is like tail wagging the dog.

Expectations

Now the expectations of every Indian citizen have also soared from Narendra Modi. Indian Peoples’ Congress has also certain expectations from the Modi government but these expectations are less materialistic, more spiritualistic and in the larger interests of the country.

There is no gainsaying that the undercurrents of unity have been flowing in throughout India from time immemorial. The language, rites and rituals, customs, eating habits and many other things of the people might have been different but the essence of unity has always been found from North to South and East to West. This essence is without doubt spiritualistic. This has been the reason that despite barriers and differences an Indian from North has been quite at ease in the South, West, East, and the same has been the case with vice versa. Nobody has faced any difficulty of being an alien in moving all four corners of the country. This has mainly because the spiritual unity that has always existed in India. There is therefore, the need for now has become all the more intense to strengthen the spiritualism among all Indians.

The second expectation from Narendra Modi is that he will provide impetus to scientific thinking. Science is the master-key to most of the problems, which are ailing to the country. Science can be used as the best instrument to root out the corruption and improving the life style and economic betterment of the people.  Science, needless to state, is incorruptible and it does not differentiate among persons regardless of his/her being rich or poor, black or white, small or tall. The best thing that can be done by the government of Narendra Modi is to develop the scientific temperament of high intensity in the country. We hope and believe that science and technology will be promoted for ameliorating the lot of the people and to take them out from the wretched condition that they are living in. It will not be kept confined within the reach of only wealthy persons. The wide-ranging use of science and technology will be benefiting all sections and persons of all economic status. The science and technology must trickle down to the last person, this is what we expect from the newly elected of Narendra Modi.

Last but not least, it is the expectation of bringing about to prosperity to all. It has to be ensured that few islands of prosperity will not be allowed come up and flourish. Enough employment is to be generated to properly tap the talent and energy of the youngsters to make India vibrant and strong. The manufacturing sector must be given the maximum boost for the generation of employment and for reducing the imports. This will certainly crush the fangs of corruption caste-ism and the narrow-minded religiosity, not spiritualism, of vested interests.

 

Unsung Heroes: Rudra Dutt Mishra


We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. We all owe a debt to all those who fought the British for the freedom of this country and made great sacrifices.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of make-believe political leaders – who took reins of the free India in their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cosy jails or in palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers.

We have a long, really a very long, list of such make-believe official ‘Freedom Fighters’ and the make-belive ‘heroes’ of this freedom struggle; but there is no mention of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for this country. In this regard, the Indian history needs to be corrected and the real and the fake freedom fighters need to be put in the places in Indian history where they actually belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and thus deprive them “the Jewel of their Empire”. They were pragmatic and knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others of the same elk had mesmerizing effect on the Indian people’s psyche; that if they were not pragmatic enough to hand over soon enough after the WW 2  the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and worked for the amicable settlement of the question of Indian independence, Indian people would rise in the foot-steps of these belligerent and ferocious revolutionaries. The imperialists were pragmatic and decided in their best interest to disband their empire in India.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish their heroic deeds. We are narrating here the life story of one such revolutionary. His name is Rudra Dutt Mishra.

Rudra Dutt Mishra was born into a wealthy family of the Alwar region. Mishra was known to be very bold and was never intimidated. He was always the one to voice his opinions. Mishra was a doctor by profession. It is said that one day he was asked by a notorious robber of the area to accompany him and treat one of his ill relatives. Being the bold man he was, Rudra Dutt consented. He was blindfolded and led to the hideout where he successfully treated the patient and then dined with the robber himself.

Rudra Dutt has been known to throw a shoe at a British judge at a court hearing.

On May 25, 1932, Rudra Dutt Misra, Dhanwantri, K B Gupta, B R Gupta, S H Vatsayana, Azad Vidyabhushan, Vaishampayan, Bhagirath Lal and Harkesh, the individuals who were the accused before the Delhi Conspiracy Commission, sent a petition from Old Viceregal Lodge, Delhi to the viceroy in his summer residence in Shimla, which is now a centre of advanced academic research.

The British government looked into the evidence produced by the prosecution before the Commission. The only evidence against the accused persons was the statements made by persons – mainly by Kailashpati and two others – who were revolutionaries of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association / Army (HSRA) but who had agreed to give evidence supporting the State case of conspiracy (called in legal language Approvers). There was no evidence of independent witnesses. The evidence of these co-accused (who were pardoned by the government on the condition of supporting the state case of conspiracy) was considered not enough. The conspiracy charge was finally dropped in February 1933 as untenable in view of this fact that there was not enough evidence to take it any further. Four of the accused were let off and the rest were to be tried individually ‘for severe overt acts’. Nothing more is known about this revolutionary. Help is needed to fill this gap.

Gurgaon Model versus Punjab Model: Let next Govt. choose!


Post by: Shreepal Singh

LS 2014 election is almost nearing its end. Nobody yet knows the contours of the new government. If one puts oneself in the place of a neutral observer, it may be said there is a Narendra Modi wave in India; the entire country is divided between pro-Modi and anti-Modi camps. It seems Narendra Modi will be the next Prime Minister of India. But, and this but is a very heavy but, there is the Arvind Kejariwal Spanner in his way to the ascent. If Narendra Modi loses the magic mark in the new Lok Sabha, the entire blame (to some) or credit (to others) of this situation shall go to Arvind Kejariwal. Though for such scenario the blame or the credit goes to him, it will not be the Arvind Kejariwal’s victory; it will be the victory of Congress. In the net result, AK would be nothing more than a pawn used by Congress in this great Indian chess game of power. Unmindful of who makes the next government in Delhi, let us move to a subject that is more important for India: Gurgaon or Punjab, which one of the two economic models is better for India.

What is this Gurgaon model? And, what is Punjab model anyway? Wait a moment. Gurgaon and Punjab are only symbols. Take them as symbols only.

Let us suppose, Gurgaon is one India; and, Punjab is another India. Let us see what these two regions are doing in terms of their economic progress.

In Gurgaon we are inviting capital, foreign and Indian both, to invest in all sorts of industries, ranging from motor cars to paints and chemicals to real estate. For establishing these industries, Gurgaon needs land for capital holders; so, we acquire land from farmers; pay them compensation (let us not talk of corruption of changing land-user for money); and, we leave these farmers to fend for themselves with the compensation money.

What is the net result of this Gurgaon model? The moment the land is acquired by investors, the land price rockets and compensation amount turns out a meager sum unable to compete with big money; if the compensation-amount is wisely invested, farmer loses the land and becomes a petty shop keeper; or a truck driver; or adopts some such other vocation. But, if he is not wise and squanders his money or the money is not sufficient, then the farmer tries to survive by becoming a peon; or chowkidar; or industrial worker; or something like that. He and his next generation are doomed forever. A farmer from his farmland comes on the road.

But if a person had no land, what happens to him? Land, which he too needs, and life’s other necessities become costly for him; if one finds some petty job, it is o.k.; otherwise, he turns to crimes; phenomenal rise of crime in Gurgaon is not a secret. Then, Gurgaon makes pollution in air; discontent in common people; jams on roads; high rise apartments, which Gurgaon-walas cannot afford to buy. It is a suffocating life for those who have lived there since ages; full of crime, deprivation and insecurities.

Punjab has lush-green farmlands and its major population has migrated to the U.S. Canada, U.K., Australia, and, to almost every country (you name it, and you have a Punjabi settled there). Punjab has Bobby Jindals, Preet Bharars and many Singhs of fame in the U.S. They have made their way there by great struggles and sacrifices. There was no policy of Indian government to encourage the people from Punjab to emigrate to foreign lands; they did it on their own; they made the Punjab model with their blood. There are many Agrawals, Singhs, Patels in the U.S. etc. from India who are at the top in their chosen field of enterprise.

Why can India not educate and produce top talents who will go out of India to the wide open world and compete, and conquer there? What should be the top priority of the next government: highest investment in education (particularly, in fundamental science and technology) and encourage the talents to compete and conquer the world out of India?

Or, call foreign capital into India to invest and turn Indians into their guards and workers?

You may allocate the maximum possible government budget (not less than 20%) to education; even government provision for free or aided education to all talents; all and every effort of the country to the education, top quality education!

If you give top priority to education of the highest quality and encourage talents to go out and compete in the world, it is the Punjab Model.

The Punjab model will leave India lush-green in farms; high-tech farmers in their farms; young generation fully employed by those who need them and who cannot survive in the competition without such Indian talents; high-tech Indian heartland without pollution; talented Indians well settled around the world – along with their culture and heritage – in the Global Village.

Punjab model versus Gurgaon model: let the next government choose the better one!

 

Unsung Hero: Babu Ram Charan Singh


PART – 1:

We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. While we enjoy these powers, we always tend to forget that we all owe a debt to all those sons and daughters of mother India who fought the British for the freedom of this country and in return suffered great brutalities, pains and agonies at their hands, and even courted death willingly for the cause of their motherland.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of ‘make-believe’ freedom fighters – who later on took reins of the free India into their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cozy jails and palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers. None of them suffered even as little as a lathi blow on their head, while these great Indians – revolutionaries – suffered brutalities at the hands of the British and many of them went to gallows.

We have a long – really a very long – list of such ‘make-believe’ official freedom fighters and heroes of India’s freedom struggle.  But in this list – in the official history of Indian freedom struggle – there is no mention of the contribution of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for the sake of this country. In this regard, the history of Indian freedom struggle needs to be corrected for this flaw; and the true freedom fighters and the make-believe freedom fighters need to be assigned their ‘rightful’ respective places in the history of India’s freedom struggle, where they in fact and in honesty belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and deprive them of “the Jewel of their Empire”, which India was regarded by them.

The British rulers knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chapekar brothers, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Ras Bihari Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others like them had a mesmerizing effect on the mind and psyche of the Indian people. These rulers were well aware of the fact after they were weakened militarily and financially in the WW-2 that if they did not soon hand over the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and were in favor of an amicable settlement of the Indian independence issue, Indian people would rise in revolt against them and win their freedom, which they would not be able to stop with the use of their weakened military power.

The British knew that these revolutionaries had no faith in the Gandhian policy of non-violence and passive resistance in dealing with their rule of India. These revolutionaries were of the firm view that such tactics of passive resistance were mistakenly relying on the good moral sense of the British and vainly hoping the British to leave this country on their own under the moral pressure of  these Gandhian method of non-violence and non-cooperation. It is borne by the historical record and admitted by the British – post Indian independence – that it was only the rebellious impact of Subhash Chandra Bose and his Azad Hind Fauz on the mind of the Indian people that made them (the British) decide to leave India in 1947; when asked of the impact that Gandhi made on their decision to leave India, the British Prime Minister Attlee spoke in a slow tone to emphasize the meaning of his words: Mi ni mal !

The British did not have the slightest doubt in their mind that these teeming Indians – who numbered into crores -would rise in armed revolt against them; that they would follow in the foot-steps of revolutionaries; that these ferocious revolutionaries and their millions of followers did not believe in non-violence like Gandhi; that the British – who were running the imperial administration in India – would suffer a bloodbath at the hands of these violent Indians, in the worse way than they had in 1857.

The British imperialists were pragmatic. They decided at the end of World War 2 to disband their empire in India, hand India over to those who favored reconciliation with them (the British) and leave this country in the hands of those who were their friends in their best interest. The British were mortally afraid of the Subhash Bose’s Indian National Army, better known as ‘Azad Hind Fauz’. They had a foreboding of coming events in India in the Imperial Navy’s mutiny in Bombay and passionate national stirrings against the trial of Azad Hind Fauz’s soldiers.

The credit for creating circumstances that forced the British to take the decision to leave India goes to Indian revolutionaries in the major part. This claim is based on an objective analysis of these hard facts: firstly, the British imperialists were pragmatic people; secondly, India was indeed a ‘Jewel in the Imperial Crown’, which they were not willing to forgo; thirdly, in the World War Two the British were devastated militarily and financially; fourthly, revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Subhash Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad etc. were more loved and cherished by Indians than Gandhi and Nehru etc.; fifthly, there was mutiny in imperial navy in Bombay against the British; sixth, there was national resentment against the British for putting the Azad Hind Fauz’s soldiers on trial; seventh, Attlee – the British Prime Minister – himself admitted that in taking their decision to leave India Mahatma Gandhi had the ‘minimal’ effect and Subhash Bose’s factor had been a major consideration. The tall claims of the Gandhian pacifists that India won freedom by waging a non-violent struggle fly in the face of these hard facts.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish the memory of their heroic deeds. We are narrating here the life stories of some of them. One of such revolutionaries participating in Chandra Skher Azad’s Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was Babu Ram Charan Singh.

PART – 2:

Chandra Shekhar Azad had always carried with him a Mouser pistol to face any exigencies in his revolutionary work. As a tocken of his confidence, Chandra Shekhar Azad had given to Babu Ram Charan his personal Mouser pistol for the use in revolutionary work. Unfortunately, this pistol  given to Babu Ram Charan was prone to misfire at times. This defective pistol became a cause of trouble for Babu Ram Charan leading to his arrest and trial.

At one occasion when he was engaged in a revolutionary mission, he was accidently got injured in the palm of his hand by this pistol. His injury was being treated by one Bal Kishon, who was a co-revolutionary and a medical compounder by profession.

After the blowing up of the Vice Roy train, the British Government got the wind of a big conspiracy being hatched by the revolutionaries. The police in Delhi (and other parts of India) was at its job with full might snuffing at any available clue to the revolutionary activities.

To the British, these activities were sedition against their established rule. The following details about Babu Ram Charan Singh have been compiled from the official and certified copy of the “Proceedings of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission.” One such copy is in possession of this author and some others may perhaps be found in the British archieves. In this respect, post independence the Nehru / Congress government did nothing to preserve the memory of Indian revolutionaries; in fact, this government detested all revolutionaries, just to appropriate to itself the credit of getting India free from the British yoke.

At the end of October 1930, at about 7 A. M. when Bal Kishon was going from the house of Babu Ram Charan Singh after applying a dressing to his injury to his hand to Dr. H. Sen’s clinic,  a police constable stopped him on the way at a shop near Chawari Bazar close to the lane which leads to the Arya Samaj temple and went away after speaking something with him.

The next day, Sardar Karam Singh, a C.I.D. man, came to Dr. H. Sen’s shop, where Bal Kishon (son of Ramji Lal Sharma resident of village Khaira Meerut district) was working as a Compounder and called him out of the clinic. Sardar Karam Singh told him that he was wanted by the police for some thing.

Bal Kishon requested the constable to let him go inside the shop of Dr. H. Sen and arrest him there if necessary but the constable made him sit in the bazaar. Then, a sub-Inspector and several constables arrived there and told him to come with them. They asked him where his house was. Bal Kishon replied that he had no house of his own and was staying with Babu Ram Charan Singh in his house.

The police told him to take them to the house of Babu Ram Charan Singh and thereupon he took them to that house. On arriving there, the police searched the house but Ram Charan Singh was not found there. Bal Kishon was under watch not only by the police but also by the revolutionaries. Police’s interest in him was being watched by the co-revolutionaries and it was not safe to attempt to meet him. Bal Kishon was taken to the Kotwali and arrested.

Thus came Babu Ram Charan Singh to the notice of the police for the first time and his troubles began from then on.

Compounder Bal Kishan was arrested by the police near the clinic of Dr Sen and on coming to know of his arrest, Babu Ram Charan sensed his impending troubles and immediately left the house where he was staying. He met with other co-revolutionaries and informed them of this development. Immediately he was shifted to another safe-house of the organization. There were many safe-houses or hiding places rented by revolutionaries in Delhi through innocuously looking tenants, which were in fact revolutionaries or the sympathizers of the revolutionary organization. Some of these places were in the Hostel of Hindu College, Lachchmandas Dharamshala, Chawari Bazar, Sharma’s Farm House, Matia Mahal etc.

In Matia Mahal area safe-house, which was rented by the revolutionaries, four or five revolutionaries were already staying there. It was a secret place, away from the gaze of general public and on the upper story of a house. Babu Ram Charan Singh was shifted to that house. However, when the British police and its intelligence wing were highly active because of the Vice Roy’s train bomb-explosion, this safe-house was also not safe enough from the preying eyes of the foreign rulers police.

Soon thereafter that house in Matia Mahal where injured Ram Charan Singh was staying too was raided by the police in the mid-night hours.

The house was surrounded by the police from all sides in the best possible way; all exit points of the house were guarded by the police and one of the police detachments started climbing up the stair-case to the upper floor of that house.

The revolutionaries staying in the upper story of the house were not sleeping in the care-free way; they were fully alert to the possible impending danger, as if they were already waiting for this moment to happen. One thing that we all should always keep in our mind today, today when we are enjoying the pleasures of a free and independent India, is that all these revolutionaries were aged less than 24 or 25 years. What an irony of fate! They were youngsters in body but matured in mind, playing with fire and death but without any expectation of worldly reward except the freedom of this country – their motherland; mindless of the danger to their life, family and welfare but mindful of their duty towards the pains, sufferings, ignominy of their motherland called India!!

They immediately knew that the police was at their door-step and took no time to decide their next action i.e., fleeing away from the house.

But it was a three storied building and the only exit from the house was by climbing down the stair-case, which was now being used by the police to climb up. It was a dangerous moment for the revolutionaries and there was no time left now to think to devise some way out of the danger.

They all immediately took a desperate decision – to jump from the house down to the ground. Fortunately for them, on the second story of the house there was a projection (called Chhajja) to save them from directly falling to the ground from a height.

They all, one by one, jumped down from the third story of the house to that projection on the second story and, then from that place, jumped to the ground in the street. After landing on the ground, they all started running away in different directions.

Finding that their prey were about to escape before their own eyes, the police stationed on the ground guarding the house immediately raised an alarm and ran in hot pursuit of the fleeing revolutionaries.

Babu Ram Charan Singh was being chased by several constables; while running after him, these police-men raised alarm saying, “Daku, Daku, Pakado, Daku” (catch hold of them, they are dacoits).

On alarm being raised by the policemen, several ordinary people living in the neighborhood also joined in the chase and overtook the policemen in speed coming very close to Ram Charan Singh.

Realizing that he was about to be caught by these fellow compatriots, Babu Ram Charan said in a commanding voice, “Khabardar, Ham Krantikari Hain (Don’t touch us, we are revolutionaries!)”

The pursuers at once gave way to allow him to escape, slowed down themselves in speed, pretended as if they did their best to grab the fleeing criminal, looked back to the police-men following them who were left far behind them, as if to show them the uselessness of their chase and to discourage them, and stopped their chase. Thus, Babu Ram Charan Singh made good his escape from the police.

After escaping from the police encirclement, while still injured in his left hand palm, he reached his native village Barkali to take shelter in the safety of his native place. However, the police already had several revolutionaries in their dragnet and from them had extracted under torture the necessary information about his native place. Armed with this information, the police reached Babu Ram Charan Singh’s village. He was found there, arrested and taken away.

Initially, he was not produced before a judicial magistrate. He was kept in police custody for long and severally tortured by them to get information about his revolutionary activities and particulars of his fellow revolutionaries. He pretended innocence and denied any wrong doing. This was the standard technique of the revolutionaries in those days, which invited more torture at the hands of the police.

On being questioned of the cause of the injuries in his hand, he offered a simpleton native explanation. He said he was an ordinary village boy landing a helping hand to his family occupation of agriculture and, while tethering his domestic oxen, the oxen pierced its horn into his left hand palm.

The police was not convinced of this explanation.

When he did not succumb to the police pressure, he was produced before a judicial magistrate at Meerut. The magistrate directed that he be medically examined of his hand injuries. The district civil surgeon, an Englishman, examined him and prepared a medical report of his injuries. This medical report stated that the accused had one injury on the palm of his left hand; that the injury was caused by some piercing object like bullet.

Though the accused was arrested from a place in Meerut, was produced before a judicial magistrate there and medically examined by the civil surgeon of that place, he was an accused of the conspiracy in Delhi to throw the lawfully established British government of India by violence, that is, an accused in a sedition case in Delhi.

So he was directed by the Meerut judicial magistrate to be taken by the Delhi police to stand his trial there.

The police in Delhi was obsessed with the revolutionary activities and bomb explosions in Delhi,  and wanted to frame Babu Ram Charan Singh in these bomb explosion incidents.

On reaching Delhi, Babu Ram Charan Singh was produced before a judicial magistrate, who directed to get him medically examined. He was examined by the civil surgeon in Delhi and again a medical report of his injury was prepared. This time the report stated that the injury was caused by some explosion like a bomb.

After his medical examination, he was given by the court in remand to police custody for questioning. Once in their custody, the police in Delhi questioned him about his activities.

He again pretended innocence of any revolutionary activity. On being questioned the cause of the injury in his hand, he once again repeated the same native explanation that he was an ordinary villager, who while tethering his domestic oxen, was pierced by oxen with its horn in his hand palm. The police again was not convinced of this simple explanation.

To break his spirit and to spill the beans of his revolutionary activities, police applied all tricks of the trade on him. He was threatened that he would be implicated in the seditious revolutionary activities, which may even involve his whole family; and he may be sent to gallows for these crimes; as an alternative to save himself and his family, he was offered to be let off accepting his explanation, provided he truthfully revealed his revolutionary activities and activities of his fellow revolutionaries. But the trick did not work with him and he remained steadfast in his version of the story of the injury.

The police finding him non-cooperative and not forthcoming in revealing the revolutionary activities carried out by him and his fellow activists, resorted to the last weapon in their arsenal, i.e. torture.

While questioning him in custody, he was routinely forced by the police to lie down naked on ice-slabs for hours together. He was badly beaten and denied food for days together; and, then was given unwholesome food to eat.

To force him to reveal the secret activities of revolutionaries, the police applied for and got several remand extensions from the court, and every time he was tortured in police custody. This treatment broke his health and he developed dysentery.

This ailment though was successfully treated later on when he was sent to jail as under trial prisoner by a kind English jail doctor, ultimately resurfaced again in his old age and became the cause of his untimely death in 1976.

Broken in his health but not in spirit, he was sent in judicial custody to jail as under trial prisoner to stand trial on the charge of sedition. He remained in jail as under trial prisoner for about two years and six months, without the grant of bail.

During the trial, the prosecution’s case was that he had been participating in the seditious (read: revolutionary) activities (with other accused persons who were being tried independently in separate trials in different courts); these activities were aimed at overthrowing the government by the use of force; to achieving this objective of overthrowing the government by force, he was making bombs and exploding them.

In support of this version, the government/prosecution relied, in addition to some police witnesses, chiefly on the medical report of the civil surgeon in Delhi.

It was averred by the prosecution that the injury to the accused was caused by the explosion of a bomb.   To prove its case, the prosecution relied on the medical report of the Delhi civil surgeon  which had stated that the injury was caused by an explosion like a bomb. The concerned civil surgeon was called as a witness in the court and examined by the prosecution.

In his examination-in-chief (main examination) the civil surgeon stood by the correctness of his report. Then, he was cross-examined (confronted with his statements by asking questions) by the defense counsel.

These questions and answers were the masterpiece of legal oratory. The questions by the defense and answers by the doctor went like this:

Q – You say that the injury of the accused was caused by a bomb explosion.

A – Yes.

Q – Could it be caused by a bullet?

A – No.

Q – Are you absolutely certain that it was caused by a bomb explosion and not by bullet?

A – Yes, absolutely certain.

Q – How can you be so certain?

A – A bullet fired from a weapon would pierce through and through across the palm. But a bomb explosion would not so pierce through and through, as is the case with the injury of the accused.

Q – How can you say that the wound of the accused was not through and through across the palm?

A – I put a wire into the wound and tried to pass it through, which it did not.

This pointed question by the defense and the pointed answer by the civil surgeon ended his cross-examination.

To rebut the prosecution case of a bomb explosion, the defense submitted the medical report of the civil surgeon of Meerut and summoned him as a witness in the court to prove his report.

In his examination-in-chief, he stood by his report that the injury of the accused was caused by a bullet. He was cross-examined by the prosecution about his report. It went like this:

Q – Could the injury of the accused be caused by a bomb explosion?

A – No.

Q – You say that the accused injury was caused by a bullet.

A – Yes.

Q – How can you say so?

A – To make sure of the nature of the injury, I put a wire into the accused wound and it passed through it.

This answer by a government civil surgeon completely demolished the prosecution case of the seditious activities of the accused by exploding bomb and saved Babu Ram Charan Singh.

He was acquitted of the charge. Although he had already suffered a tremendous amount of torture and had remained in jail.

To the great disquieting and discomfiture of the government, this unwanted outcome of his trial was caused by two factors: firstly, the over-enthusiasm of the prosecution to somehow prove that the accused was indulging in bomb-making activities of the revolutionaries to overthrow the government by force; and secondly, the credit to civil surgeon of Meerut for sticking to the truth of bullet injury.

In fact, the wound was caused by a bullet.

Babu Ram Charan Singh, though acquitted of the charge by the trial court, suffered great brutalities at the hands of British government and remained in jail as under trial prisoner.

While he was away in prison, his family suffered great hardships – in financial and other ways. As he was the only son of his father – who was already much distressed because of his being preoccupied with the work of legal defense of defending his son in criminal court and who was solely dependent for sustaining on the earnings from his agricultural land  – it ruined his family financially.  Being a revolutionary who was fiercely against the established government, not only his family came under the constant police pressure but even his village – Barkali – became notorious (!) in the eyes of the government because of his activities. The village was nicknamed as ‘Red Barkali’ among the people of the area. Much of his family’s agricultural land had to be given by them for cultivation on the ‘crop-sharing’ basis to other villagers, which land never came back to them because of the ‘Zamindari Abolition’ laws.

After his acquittal in this case, he was given two mouser pistols as reward by his HSRA revolutionary friends, who were still active after the death of Chandra Shekhar azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and many other prominent leaders. These weapons were kept by him concealed in a ‘cavity’ specially made for this purpose in a wooden ‘Pata’ – field leveler used in agriculture – and to be used in revolutionary struggle against the British rule. He carried on his revolutionary activities thereafter for some time but death of so many revolutionary leaders made him dejected.

PART-3:

Babu Ram Charan Singh was the resident of village Barkali, Tehsil Sardhana, district Meerut in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). He was the only son of Gajraj Singh (alias Umrao), by caste a Jat. His was an agriculturist family having a considerable Zamindari in Barkali.

Around 1928, while studying at Sardhana, he came into contact with his fellow villager Bhagirath Lal, who was a revolutionary activist of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. A Brahmin by caste, Bhagirath Lal was then studying in Delhi and staying along with his younger brother Aman – aged about 12 years – in Lachhman Das Dhramshala at Nigambodh Ghat on the bank of river Yamuna.

While still a young boy studying in middle school, Babu Ram Charan got involved himself in the revolutionary activities of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He was supplied revolutionary literature by his mentor Bhagirath Lal, which included “The Life of Jatindra Nath Das”, “Desh-Ki-Bat” (Let’s talk about the nation), “Nav Yuvakon se do baten” (A few words to youths), “Amar Puri: by Kishan Dutt Paliwal”, “Azadi ke Diwane”, “Mulki Maya”, “Bandi Jiwan” (Slave Life) etc.

Greatly influenced by such literature and the stories of revolutionary heroes like Chandra Shekhar Azad etc., and inspired by the revolutionary zeal of Bhagirath Lal, Babu Ram Charan left in 1928 his school in Sardhana to participate in the revolutionary activities of HSRA.

He came to Delhi. He was then a middle class student and of about 17 years. As he hailed from a zamindar family, he was habituated to live a life of luxury. He was so easy-going in his childhood that when his private teacher taught him, he used to lie down on his cot while listening to his teacher and in his school was nicknamed ‘Jahangir’ because of his easy way of life (after the name of a Mughal king famous for his extravagant way of life). He was the only son of his father, who owned a big zamindari. Incidently, when his ancestors who were originally from Khirwa village in Meerut district, had bought this village Barkali in or about 1850 from some Muslim man in partnership with some of their Jat relatives, they (his ancestors) had owned 1/3 of the total land of Barkali. 

By joining the revolutionary activities of HSRA, he voluntarily chose a life full of pains and sacrifices for the sake of his motherland. In Delhi he lived in a house in Sirkiwalan. The avowed aim of HSRA was to awaken and unite people, particularly youth, to make India free of the British rule by the revolutionary force.

To pass on in the preying eyes of the area residents as an innocent civilian engaged in legitimate occupation to earn his livelihood, he joined as a Store Keeper at the ‘Brooke Bond Company’.

This job was only for the namesake, was arranged by a party sympathiser there and was not supposed to go there and work as store keeper. In reality, he was carrying on revolutionary activities of HSRA led by Chandra Shekhar Azad.

He started working in Delhi at ‘Himalyan Toilets’ company – a manufacturing facility bearing such an innocuous name. ‘Himalyan Toilets’ in fact manufactured bombs and bomb-making materials, like picric acid, sulfuric acid and poisonous gas. Babu Ram Charan, in addition to working there, was engaged in distributing revolutionary propaganda literature, books and pamphlets etc.

Babu Ram Charan was very close to Bhagirath Lal and Bhagirath Lal was in the inner close circle of Chandra Shekhar Azad, and because of this proximity Babu Ram Charan came into close contact of Azad earning his full confidence.

In Delhi Babu Ram Charan was engaged in revolutionary activities, like opening bomb-shell factory, deliberating to rescue Bhagat Singh from Borestal Jail in Lahore, buying arms, cyclostyle machines to print party pamphlets and things like organizing and participating in provincial committees of HSRA etc.

Once he, along with his another revolutionary friend, was going somewhere in Meerut, a city in United Provinces. They both were riding on a bicycle and it was late evening time. The bicycle had a pump on it – it used to be hung on bicycles in those days for inflating the wheels’ tubes in case of a necessity. In those days. Then, it was also necessary to have bicycles equipped with a lamp for light in night, wgich lamp was powered by a dynamo. But these revolutionaries were riding two persons on a single bicycle and the light of the vehicle too was not put on.

Near Begum Bridge area, a British policeman riding on a horse beckoned them to stop. On stopping the bicycle, the policeman arrogantly asked them why they were riding two on a single bicycle and why there was no light on in the vehicle. They knew that it was their mistake but they felt very bad on the arrogant tone of the policeman. Before they could say anything in response to the policeman, the policeman got down from his horse and deflated the tubes of the wheels of their vehicle. They got enraged of his arrogant behavior. While the policeman was kneeling down busy in deflating the tubes, these revolutionaries took the pump hung on their bicycle and struck him with this weapon. The policeman groaning in pain, raised an alarm suspecting them to be revolutionaries. Both of them leaving behind their cycle escaped unmolested by the British power.

It was the courage of revolutionaries in those days of the British power when Indians, by and large, used to remain afraid of police; they normally used to avoid facing even a constable, let alone confronting him.

These were the times of the Soviet communist power in the world and the remaining HSRA revolutionaries in India, including Yashpal, after the mytrdom of Bhagat Singh, Chandra Sekhar Azad etc.  slowly drifted towards communism and communist party of India.

After India got freedom, the government of Uttar Pradesh somehow got to know his struggle and sacrifices as a revolutionary and the District Magistrate of District Uddham Singh Nagar (then in U. P.) addressed a letter to him of the government’s decision to allot him 12 Acres of agricultural land in Gadarpur Tehsil (in District Uddham Singh Nagar). On receiving letter, he went to the District Magistrate and said to him, “We had not fought the British to get a reward. My conscience does not allow me to accept any reward.” He declined to take the offered land. He used to wear hand-woven Khadi cloths throughout his life and, when someone asked him for the reason of being so steadfast in adhering to the habit of wearing only Khadi cloths, he said, “While I was in Jail, I had taken a vow to always wear Khadi cloths. I cannot break my vow.”

Babu Ram Charan was a self-made person with great appetite for reading. He read the classics of Marxism, like Anti-Dhuring, Das Capital, Communist Manifesto, Dialectic of Nature etc. He started thinking on deeper questions of Nature and its mysteries. On his thoughts, he wrote a long essay in Hindi language that reflected his mind and which may be read here.

Fortunately at that time he got possession of a book by Sri Aurobindo “Glimpses of Thoughts and Aphorism”, which changed his life forever. He found answer to all his questions in Sri Aurobindo. He was now a spiritual person. He plunged himself deep into the practice of Yoga. He became an accomplished Yogi in his own way and he remained so till his death.

He had a premonition of his approaching death and one day at the beginning of July, 1976 he told his relatives that he was taking their leave forever.

He told his family his death had come and no treatment was possible. Even at his death bed, while still in possession of his consciousness and aware of his coming end, he bid all his dear family members to leave him absolutely alone so that he may prepare himself for his journey to the next world in all joy.

And, thus a revolutionary departed with grace from this world.

‘A to Z’ of Marxism and ‘Fate’ of capitalism (7)


Posted by: Shreepal Singh

Is Marxism a religion? Let Marxists not make Marxism a religion. Marx was an acute observer of Nature and a sharp philosopher. He organized everything around dialectics, a concept borrowed from Hegelian philosophy. In his initial life, Marx was a disciple of Hegel and was one of other ordinary ilk of intellectuals of his times. Then, what prompted Marx to take the concept of dialectics out of the realms of fanciful polemics and put it on the concrete world of matter to explain away this world’s working? It were the dismal conditions of working people in the industrial Britain that made Marx to look into dialectics seriously to find an answer to the phenomenon. We find a parallel to this incident in the scientific world. Marx’s explaining away everything in Nature in dialectical terms was just like Albert Einstein’s explaining away everything in Nature in relativity terms. We all know, in the case of Albert Einstein it was the impasse created by the Michelson and Morley experiment in classical physics that prompted him to conceive and propose relativity to explain away the experimental results.

Relativity is science and not religion because it is not identified with Einstein, though it was proposed for the first time by him. Dialectics is religion and not science because it is identified with Marx.

Dialectics is a wholesome explanation of the working of Nature (to the extent the infinitely complex Nature is amenable to such explanation), much like relativity is the wholesome way of looking at the working of Nature.

Dialectics need to be rescued from Marxism, if this wholesome concept is to be put on the hallowed pedestal of science.

Dialectics as a concept has been precisely defined by Hegel and refined in material terms by Marx. Can these definitions and refinements be subjected to tests, verifications and validation? If dialectics is not identified with Marx and its equations relating to the working of Nature (and, that includes society) are found correct, then, can we check out once again, and verify whether Marx had committed some mistake somewhere in the application of dialectics in regard to capitalism’s life and fate?

Marx could have made mistake – and, in fact had made mistake – in the correct application of dialectical principles in respect of the emergence of a new society beyond capitalism. The right to question, the right to verify is the scientific approach to dialectics; this is rescuing dialectics from Marxism; this is saving Marxism from turning into a religion.

This explains away in the dialectical terms why Soviet Union collapsed; why China is forced to adopt capitalism once again; why a forced-socialist economy cannot compete in innovation with capitalism. However, this also explains away in dialectical terms why capitalism, by its own working, is inching towards its death and demise; why with the advancement of technology capitalism is forced to lose the grip on private property and to turn such private property into common property or community’s property (e.g. Wikipedia; free apps; free dictionaries; free books; free knowledge; free information; free news). All these items, which have been made free/common property by the force of technological advance, need human labor to produce them; they are very much items of private property, which capitalism would otherwise never let go off its hands.

This entire bizarre phenomenon happening in capitalism, which swears by private property, is easily explained away by dialectics. Once you apply dialectics correctly to the society, you could make prediction what next is going to happen to capitalism.

One can also plainly see where Marx went wrong in the application of dialectical principles to capitalist society in his eagerness to establishing a new society of the common ownership of property, without waiting for the arrival of a new technology; without waiting for the arrival of a new mode of production based on that new technology.

There is redline here: unless first there is the radical change in mode of production of commodities in a society, dialectics does not permit you to even think of a new society (that is, next to capitalism) based on the economic system of property’s common/community ownership. If you somehow establish such a society, its birth would be unnatural; it would be unstable; you would need force and violence to maintain it.

On applying dialectics to society, one would not fail to realize that for the birth of a new and different society (that is, qualitatively different society), the role of the emergence or arrival of a new and different mode of production of commodities (that is, qualitatively different mode of production) is the prerequisite and the primary condition; the role of revolutionary leadership, armed force, dictatorship etc. is only secondary. This may look discouraging the revolutionary struggle of the economically exploited teaming millions around the globe but such is the dictate of dialectics.

This also explains away in dialectical terms why Soviet Union had collapsed; or China taking the capitalist road; need of political dictatorship in such countries to rule by force; restrictions on the flow of information; suppression of freedom and liberty; unviable economy in comparison to capitalism; poverty; lack of innovations.

One may also not fail to notice that in eagerness to establishing a new society (socialist society) dialectics was much twisted and distorted to make the theory fit into a volatile situation more of a political nature than an economic one. New concepts unknown to dialectics were formulated to suit the available situation; like February revolution and October revolution were invented to compensate for the dialectical need of the existence of capitalism in Russia before Socialism could be attempted there; need of the proletariat dictatorship to secure socialism; permanent revolution; need of the vanguard of proletariat in the form of a political party; cultural revolution; need of the intellectual indoctrination of the population. All these concepts are aliens to dialectics as applied to society. In dialectics, logical deductions are very smooth and smart flow, without any place for such ill-fitting and artificial concepts.

To find out this distortion of dialectics, you just look back to the past; you look the birth of capitalism out of feudalism; there were no armies raised by capitalists to crush feudal lords/kings; kings and their economy simply became unviable in comparison to capitalism and they and their socio-economic system went out of fashion; there was no need of capitalist dictatorship or indoctrination of the public for securing capitalism. Simple dialectical explanation: technology advanced; mode of production of commodities changed by the new technology; the old feudalist socio-economic system was rendered unviable; nothing more was required on the part of humans to dismantle feudalism. This dialectical logic equally applies to the future; it applies to capitalism. Capitalism’s days are numbered. Technology will do the needed work; and, nothing more is required on the part of humans to dismantle it.

 

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