Correct the malicious suppression of ancient and medieval Indian history!


By: Nagesh Bhandari
(Note by Shreepal Singh: What is borne out by the stark facts is that in free India it is not only the history of revolutionary freedom fighters (like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ras Bihari Bose, Master Surya Sen, Batukeshar Dutt and thousands of like them) that has been suppressed by the powers that be in a calculated and planned manner but equally it is the history of ancient and medieval India that has also been suppressed with a design. This ancient and medieval Indian history gives an idea as to what a mighty, brilliant and wise this country was in the past. This suppression of history of a nation logically seems to aim at diminishing the Indian people in their self-esteem and get them mentally prepared to accept their later masters as superior to them. This article by Shri Nagesh Bhandari reconstructs the part of this suppressed history.)
Let us know our true history:
All we ever studied in our history books was all about the glorified history of a very few kingdoms like Mughal Dynasty, Mysore Dynasty and the Delhi Sultanates.
 
In this article we are trying to bring out the real legacy of Indian Kings and dynasties under whom India progressed and flourished as a cultural, spiritual and social nation.

1. PALLAVA DYNASTY.

mahabalipuramSourceFlickr
The Pallavas ruled the area of Andhra pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka from 275 BCE to 882 BCE with Kanchipuram as their capital.
They are famous for their architectural work with rocks which produced marvels like the Mahabalipuram temple and creating the modern form Brahmi script which influenced the genesis of almost all Southeast Asian scripts.
Thailand, Indonasia, Burma and other Southeast Asian Scripts are evolved from Brahmi script which was the Pallavas creation.

2. THE MARATHA EMPIRE.

chatrapathi shivajiSourcehttp://iyadav.com/
The Marathas were a Hindu warrior group who established an empire that existed from 1674 to 1818 in the present day Maharashtra that rose to prominence by establishing ‘Hindavi Swarajya’. They are mainly credited for ending the Mughal rule in India.
maratha empireSourcewikipedia
They ruled almost the whole India with an exception of Andhra and tamil nadu and a part of kerala. They are known to be fierce warriors of small stature who are said to be devoted Hindus and never ate meat. Thanjavur was their capital.
Some of the famous rulers include Chathrapathi Sivaji, Baji Rao 1 and Rajaram Chhatrapati.

3. VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE.

640px-Vijayanagara-empire-map.svgSource
The Vijayanagara Empire lasted for 3 centuries from 1336 to 1660 before losing it to the Deccan sultanates. This period is said to be the golden period for the Telugu and Kannada cultures as they have established many monuments across South India and enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada,Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. They ruled the whole south India with Vijayanagara as their capital city.
Balakrishna-as-Sri-Krishnadevaraya
Srikrishna Devaraya was the famous king of Vijayanagara samrajya. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara and the Diamonds and Gold we see on lord Balaji in Tirumala are mostly his donations. It was known that Vijayanagara kingdom was equal to the rule of Lord Sri ram where people where happy and prosperous. He was called as  “Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana” (Lord of the Kannada empire) and  Andhra Bhoja. 

4. KINGDOM OF KOCHIN.

kings of CochinSourcewikipedia
This Kingdom lasted for 7 centuries from early 1200s to 1947 surviving every foreign invasion. They are said to be excellent negotiators and tacticians. They formed relations with all their surrounding kingdoms and played their cards wisely. Their capital changed over time but they mainly ruled in the areas surrounding Kochin.

5. KAKATIYA DYNASTY.

kakatiya dynastySourceexploretelangana.com
The Kakatiyas ruled from 1083 to 1323 with orugallu (Warangal) as their capital extending to the whole of Andhra along with a part of Telangana, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. The kakatiya kings are said to be given low importance to Caste system as a social identifier, anyone, regardless of birth, could use the nayakatitle to denote warrior status and the inscriptions suggest that people were not bound to an occupation by birth. This helped them flourish in war and arts alike. Agriculture was encouraged and many tribal people who previously had been nomadic settled as farmers and remained loyal to the Dynasty.
The Warangal Fort, Thousand Pillar temple and the famous Kakatiya Toranam stand as an epitome of the kakatiya legacy.
Rani Rudramadevi, the famous queen of the Kakatiya dynasty set path for the Women to lead kingdoms in India as early as 12th century.

6. GAJAPATHI KINGDOM.

konark sun templeSourceFlickr
The Gajapatis were a medieval Hindu dynastythat ruled over Kalinga (the present day Odisha), large parts of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, and the eastern and central parts of Madhya Pradesh and the southern parts of Bihar from 1434-1541.  They were claimed to be descended from the Surya Vamsha (Sun Dyanasy) of the Mahabharata
“Gaja” in Oriya means elephant and “Pati” means master. As such, Gajapati etymologically means a king with an army of elephants. The literature  Oriya flourished during this period and there have also been a merging of Oriyan, Telugu and Kannada cultures.
They ruled from Mukhalingam of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh and later moved their Capital to Cuttack. Religious leader Ramanujacharya had a great influence on the Raja Choda Ganga Deva, who renovated the Puri Jagannath Temple and another king from the dynasty, Narasimha Deva built the Sun Temple at Konark which are both Archaeological wonders.

7. THE PANDYAS.

Pandya_territories
The Pandyan  dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
No other dynasty in the world has ruled more duration than the Pandyas, if you refer ancient Mahabharata text you can see the name of Pandya King and they have survived till the early British conquest.
Pandyas were experts in water management, agriculture (mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

8. THE CHOLA DYNASTY.

chola_map_new.svg
The Chola dynasty  was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India spanning between 300s BCE–1279 CE.
Together with the Chera and Pandya dynasties, the Cholas formed the three main Tamil dynasties of Iron Age India, who were collectively known as the Three Crowned Kings.
They mainly ruled the area between the Kaveri and Tungabhadra rivers. Their rule extended out of india when they successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya in Malaysia, Indonesia and Southern Thailand.

9. SATAVAHANA KINGDOM. 

SatavahanaMap
The Satavahana Empire also known as Andhra kingdom was an Indian dynasty based from Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh which is now back as Capital of Andhra Pradesh State. This dynasty extended to Junnar and Prathisthan in Maharashtra during the later years.
The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. History suggests that it lasted about 450 years from 230 BCE to 22- CE.
The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.

10.  HOYSALA EMPIRE.

Hoysala_Empire_extent.svg
The Hoysala empire was a prominent Southern Indian Kannadiga empire that ruled most of the modern-day state of Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu.
The empire is remembered today primarily for its temple architecture. Over a hundred surviving temples are scattered across Karnataka, including the well known Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The Hoysala rulers also patronised the fine arts, encouraging literature to flourish in Kannada and Sanskrit.

11. MAGADHA KINGDOM.

map-500bc
Magadha was a kingdom which existed right from by Vedic period. It was born from the Gupta Kingdom and as the story goes, the kingdom was founded by King Jarasandha with Rajgir of Bihar as the capital.
Later Jarasandha was killed by Bheema in a wrestling duel and Pataliputra (Patna) was choosen as the new capital of this kingdom during the start of Kali Yuga. In the later years this kingdom transitioned into the celebrated Mauryan Empire that spanned almost whole of India.

12. THE CHALUKYAS.

chalukyas
The Chalukya dynasty  was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
They had their capital in 3 cities namely Badami and Kalyani of Karnataka and Vengi on the river of Godavari. This marks the first time a Southern India based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers.
The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called “Chalukyan architecture”. The Kannada and Telugu literature flourished during their reign.

13. THE MAURYAS.

Mauryan_Empire_Map
The Maurya dynasty was the superpower of the Iron Age India which existed between 320 BC to 185 BC. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in pataliputra and later extended to Afghanistan.
During the rule of Ashoka, the Great the kingdom managed  to conquer the whole Indian sub continent and rule it as one dynasty. They were credited as the only people who could defeat King Alexander the Great. The Jain and Buddhist cultures flourished during this Kingdom.

14. THE RAJPUTS.

Mehrangarh Fort rajputsSourcearoundtheglobe.com
The Rajputs are a ancient dynasty that ruled a vast area of the subcontinent whic includes western, central, northern India and current eastern Pakistan.
They seem to have risen to prominence from the late 6th century CE and governed the the country with Rajastan as their base.
They are credited as one of the very few dynasties who were unmoved from their capital by the Muslim sultanate.

15. THE NANDA DYNASTY.

Nanda_Empire,_c.325_BCE
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BC and lasted between 345–321 BCE. At its greatest extent, the empire ruled by the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya mountains.
The rulers of this dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they accumulated. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.
The Nandas are described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and expanded it to yet more distant frontiers. To achieve this objective they built a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants.

16. THE GUPTAS.

429px-Gupta_Empire_320_-_600_adThe Gupta Empire which existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy that crystallized the elements of  Hindu culture.
Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.
Vatsayana of this kingdom wrote the world famous “Kama Sutra“. One of the greatest inventions ever ” 0 “ was invented by Aryabhata in their period as Shoonya. Imagine world without it now.!

 

Now bottling water from Mansarovar Lake! Human greed knows no bounds!!


By: Sahana Singh

It has come to light that Shanghai resident of Indian origin Vaishali Midha, wife of the Dell chief for the Asia Pacific region, Amit Midha is launching a mineral water brand, sourced from the Mansarovar Lake in Tibet. According to Rahul Kanwal, Managing Editor, TV Today Network (http://www.dailyo.in/politics/rahul-kanwal-modi-china-jinping-jaishankar-weibo-keqiang-chinese-airlines-make-in-india-mansarovar/story/1/3794.html), the bottles of water from one of the highest freshwater lakes in the world will be priced at INR 80 per bottle starting October 2015. The special packing of the bottles is purported to be designed by TV actor Mohit Raina and comes with rudraksh beads on the cap, and Hindu god Shiva’s teachings printed on a parchment inside the pack.

This plan of bottling water from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, one the world’s most fragile ecosystems is shocking and beyond ridiculous. Already, climate change is threatening this Himalayan region, which provides key environmental services such as carbon and water storage to Asian countries. The plateau even regulates regional climate systems such as the Asian monsoon.

By now, it is common knowledge that plastic bottles used for bottling water are causing enormous environmental damage all over the world. Not only is fossil fuel being used in its manufacturing process but the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) used to make bottles is not biodegradable. Most bottles are not being recycled in any useful manner and are being thrown away to often form unsightly mountains of garbage. Plastic pollutes waterways, contaminates soil, and sickens animals (which are often eaten by humans). According to a UNEP-IUCN report, over 46,000 pieces of plastic litter are floating on every square mile of ocean today.

It cannot be overlooked that for millions of Hindus and Buddhists around the world, the Mansarovar Lake is sacred as the abode of tranquil spirituality. The waters of the lake are the reward for pilgrims who make one of the most difficult journeys in the world. Bottling such water for commercial purposes makes a mockery of the very god in whose name the water will be sold. The bottles with Shiva’s teachings will only end in garbage heaps.

Mining water from ecologically fragile areas, offending cultural sensitivities and adding to the burden of the world’s plastic waste is foolish and unsustainable.

Unravel the mysterious deaths of Indian leaders!


By: Santanu Dey

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is the first in the list of quite a few prominent Indian leaders who had sudden deaths shrouded in mystery.

To name a few of them, the first name that comes to mind is that of Shyamaprasad Mukherjee who was very critical of the first PM and had a sudden death in police custody in Kashmir.

The next is that of Air Marshall Subrata Mukherjee who was supposed to have died by choking while having his dinner in a foreign land on one of his official visits.

Last but not the least, which is of course after the demise of the first PM is that of the second and one of the most popular PMs of the country that is Lal Bahadur Shashtri the story of which is known to almost all of us (again a clear trace of Russian hand in this death).
When will all these mysteries be unravelled and the guilty duly punished?

Why does Modi make so many foreign trips?


By: Asha Knott
Why does Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, make so many foreign trips? Any answer? There has been going on much criticism by political forces opposed to Modi on this count. Any answer? Please read the following, if you love the rising of India as an international power to reckon with, you will not be disappointed after reading this information.
First a few fact:
1. Jawahar Lal Nehru – 16 years 286 days
2. Indira Gandhi – 15 years 91 days
3. Rajiv Gandhi – 5 years 32 days
4. Narasimha Rao – 4 years 11 months
5. Manmohan Singh – 10 years 4 days…..
In these total 57 years, these people could not get “Achche din”. The heir of Congress wants “Achche din” in just 12 months. What a Shame! Trying to be-fool people of India? Again and again, and once more?
Now a reality check:
In Modi, we have elected a prime minister and not a magician.
Why is Narendra Modi making more foreign visits ? Here it is “why”:
1. Now Barack Obama and China supports India’s bid for permanent UNSC seat.
2. $35 billion investment by Japan over a period of 5 years and along with it their expertise in making bullet trains.
3. Australia is set to sign a Nuclear Power deal with India to supply around 500 tonnes of Uranium to India.
4. Satya Nadella (Microsoft), Indra Nooyi (Pepsico), Sheryl Sandberg (Facebook), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) discuss possible investments in India.
5. Israel inks $5 million deal for Joint Educational Research programme.
6. $20 billion investment from Xi and his Chinese counterparts.
7. 2 Billion Euros support from France for sustainable development in India.
8. Airbus to increase outsourcing in India from 400 million euros to 2 billion euros over the next five years.
9. French National Railways has agreed to co-finance an execution study for a semi- high speed project on upgradation of the Delhi-Chandigarh line to 200 kmph.
10. Canada agrees to supply 3,000 metric tonnes of uranium to India from this year to power Indian atomic reactors.
11. Japan and India agree to jointly produce mixed rare earth.
And while we are all yearning for a transformation, development, etc. there is someone who is actually setting up the infrastructure for it!
Marketing of ‘Brand India’ has never been so important!
Number of days Modi stayed abroad touring:
15 countries as a PM on official trips = 45
(Compare it with the number of days Rahul stayed abroad (Bangkok) without informing his voters = 57).
Let’s be sensible to analyze and make a judgment for ourselves.
Specially , let them analyze these facts who question about modi’s foreign trip.
For the last few days, I have seen few jokes on Narendra Modi’s foreign visits. And all people are curious to know why Narendra Modi is visiting so many countries. What India is achieving from these visits?
Few not-so-known achievements of Modi are as given below:
    1. BJP Govt. convinced Saudi Arabia to not charge “On-Time Delivery” Premium charges on Crude Oil – young Petrolium minister Dharmendra Pradhan and External affair minister Sushma Swaraj seal the deal.
    2. India will build 4 Hydro-power station + Dams in Bhutan (India will get share in Green energy – will be produced – in future).
    3. India will build biggest ever dam of Nepal (China was trying hard to get that) – India will get 83% Green energy produce from that hydro-power station in free – in future.
    4. Increased relationship with Japan and they agree to invest $30 Billion in DMIC (Delhi – Mumbai Investment Corridor).
    5. Increase relationship with Vietnam and Vietnam now agrees to give contract of Oil exploration to ONGC-Videsh (UPA was not ready to take because they were worried of China – major conflict on south-china sea).
    6. Increase Oil Import from Iran despite there is ban by USA. Iran agrees to sell in Indian rupees and it saves our Forex. India didn’t stop to build “Chabahar” port of Iran.
    7. India – Australia (NaMo is first PM to visit Australia after 28 yrs): Despite Australia being major supplier of Coal & Uranium, NaMo is able to convince Tony Abbott and now Australia will supply Uranium for our energy production.
    8. ‘China-favoring’ President lost election in Sri Lanka – Remember UPA lost “Hambantota” port development – read latest report of CIA where they mention RAW has major role in power shift of Sri Lanka. Now Modi has confirmed he is visiting Sri Lanka in April.
    9. With China as Trade Deficit was increasing – NaMo forced ‘either Anti-Dumping will be come soon or China have to invest into India’. China commits $20 billion Investment in India.
    10. On Security – I think adding “Ajit Doval” in his team is the best decision by NaMo. See the recent tie-up with Pantagon, Israel & Japan. Remember I.K.Gujaral as PM stopped RAW’s offensive operations in foreign countries.. Now see how we stop ‪#‎TerrorBoat‬ and listen his word … “Any Mumbai like attack from Pakistan and Pakistan will lose Baluchistan”
    11. India approves the Road in North-East and around India-China border – Remember Just because of China’s opposition ADB (Asian Development Bank) didn’t give us fund during UPA regime and UPA held that file under “Environment Ministry” node – Remember “JAYANTHI TAX” ?
    12. India manage to bring back 4000+ Indians from War zone Yemen and also bring foreign nationals of 41 different countries, which put India’s name globally in rescue mission – PM Narendra Modi specially talked to Saudi Arabian king and told him to allow Indian Air-force planes to fly – as Saudi Arabia was attacking on Yemen and Yemen sky was declared NO-FLY Zone.
    13. India’s Air defense was getting weaker day by day, NaMo has renegotiated Rafale fighter Jets deal with France and bought 36 Jets on ASAP basis.
    14. First time after 42 yrs Indian Prime Minister visits Canada; in Bilateral deal, India is able convince Canada to supply Uranium for India’s Nuclear reactors for next 5 yrs. It will be great help to resolve India’s Power problems.
    15. Till yet we were buying the Nuclear Reactor from Russia or USA and it was much like Beggar kind of situation because they were worried about usage of Nuclear reactor for some other purpose. Now Narendra Modi is able to convince France and now France will make Nuclear reactor in India. On MAKE IN INDIA efforts.. with collaboration with Indian company.
    16. During 26th Jan Visit of Barak Obama, NaMo convinces USA to drop rule of Nuclear fuel tracking rule and sort-out Liabilities rules which now open the gates for next 16 Nuclear power plant projects.”
We should be cautious of this fact:
The paid media and Presstitutes will ensure you never get to hear this. It is for the people of this country to spread the word about these achievements. And, yes the information technology has made it possible to spread the word among the common people, notwithstanding its suppression by this media.

History has been twisted in India


By: Santanu Dey

History of Indian independace struggle that has been so skillfully fabricated post-independence is a total bunch of falsehood. It varies marginally as it appears in the curriculum of various states. There are just four/five names in the list of achievers of Indian independence viz Mr. Gandhi, J. Nehru, Sarojini Naidu (these three names are fixed in all states) and added to them would be one or two names of local characters who have had some contribution (but definitely did not have any direct role) like in the case of Tamil Nadu the name of Subramiam Bharati (the revolutionary poet) would be added.

So any young Indian of today if he or she is asked about Indian freedom struggle and its leading heroes would name only those first three names that have been fed to them in their curriculum.

I do not think there has been any other country in the world where the national history has been twisted with so much of falsehood like it has been done in India. The sole purpose of this whole effort has been to highlight a particular individual so that an image is created of that individual in a way that any descendant/progeny of this individual is an unquestionably accepted leader of the nation, even if this descendant / progeny is a total duffer; or is a person even of foreign origin (who keeps her foreign citizenship for not less than 15 years after her marriage) .

I think time has come to tell the real history of these unsung heroes of Indian freedom struggle who have remained totally neglected. A nation that does not remember its selfless heroes who have made the ultimate sacrifice without thinking about the fruit of independence would have to face the wrath of providence.

Ratings Mutiny that Forced British to Leave India


Ratnakar Sadasayula

HMIS Hindustan

In March, 1976 P.V.Chakraborty,  former Chief Justice of Kolkata HC  wrote a letter, where he described a correspondence between him and the British Prime Minister Clement Atlee in 1956. Atlee often mocked by Churchill as a “Modest man, with much to be modest about”, was visiting India in 1956, after it became independent. And during his visit, met Chakraborty, who was then acting Governor of West Bengal, and was asked  “The Quit India Movement of Gandhi practically died out long before 1947 and there was nothing in the Indian situation at that time, which made it necessary for the British to leave India in a hurry. Why then did they do so?”. Atlee gave out several reasons, one was Netaji Subash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army, which weakened their army, and the other was the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. And when Chakraborty asked him about impact of Gandhiji’s 1942 Quit India movement, Atlee wryly remarked with a smile “Minimal”.
I had mentioned this earlier in my article on Netaji about impact of INA, and am quoting an excerpt from that article.

But it  could not prevent mutinies from breaking out in the British  Army ,  especially the one by the Indian soldiers of the Royal Navy.  Chennai,  Pune, Jabalpur all saw the Indian soldiers rising in mutiny.  The  British often used the Indian soldiers as cannon fodder, they did  all  the dirty work, were the persons on front line in conflict and in  many  World Wars, many Indian soldiers died fighting for the British  empire.  Yet in grant for this, the British, treated the Indian soldiers  as  second class citizens, and exploited them. It was Bose’s Indian   National Army which sparked the uprising. Years later Clement Atlee ,   cited the revolts of the Indian Army, as a major decision, to grant   independence. Britain already economically and militarily weakened,   after WW2, knew that it could no longer trust the Indian armed forces  to  prop up it’s Raj. So in a way, Bose, contributed significantly to  the  end of the Raj.

Royal Naval Ratings Mutiny, or what is often called the forgotten mutiny in India’s history, an event which unlike the 1857 mutiny or the Quit India movement, does not really strike much resonance, except among hard core historians. Or Leftists, since they were the only ones to have backed this whole heartedly.
The Beginning.
Like the 1857 Mutiny, the 1946 Royal Naval ratings mutiny had a rather mundane beginning.  It was not an overnight event however, the resentment was building up among the naval ratings, and other Indian members of the Army. The INA was the most serious of all that really shook the faith of the British. Not that well known is something called the Royal Air Force Mutiny that also took place in 1946, over the working conditions, and demobilization of British troops after the end of the war.

The Naval Ratings

The beginnings of the Naval Ratings Mutiny were in an event that occurred on Jan 16, 1946 when a contingent of Naval ratings arrived at the Castle Barracks in Mint Road of Mumbai’s Fort Area.  This contingent was from the training ship HMIS Akbar, that was at Thane, and it was around evening 4 PM. On being informed of the arrival of the contingent, the galley cook, took out 20 loaves of bread, casually added some water to the mutton curry as well as the dal, that was from the previous day and served it.   The food was so tasteless and substandard that only 17 of the ratings took it, the rest of them went ashore.
This was not a one off incident, such neglect was quite common, and what was even worse, repeated complaints to senior officers of the working conditions, did not elicit any response.  As the complaints became galore, the ratings were more and more frustrated, both with the conditions as well with the indifference of the higher ups. Adding fuel to the fire was the trial of the INA leaders,  Netaji Subash Chandra Bose fight for freedom and the exploits of INA during Siege of Imphal began to be fed to the ratings. It gave them a sort of inspiration, and hope that the mighty British empire was not that invincible.

HMIS Kumaon

The Events
On Feb 18, 1946, Naval Rating M.S.Khan led the revolt on HMS Talwar, and a strike committee was formed.  In Karachi, ratings began the revolt on HMIS Hindustan, anchored off the Manora Island. M.S.Khan and another naval rating Madan Singh, had by now taken control of the mutiny, and it began to spread. By Feb 19,  ratings from Castle and Fort Barracks had joined  the revolt.  Ratings left their posts, and began to go around in Bombay on trucks carrying pictures of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, who by now had become their inspiration.

 
And soon it spread, to Kochi, Vizag, Kolkata, officers who opposed the strike were thrown off ships, and the mutineers used radio sets to communicate among themselves. HMIS Talwar became the epicenter for the mutiny as the strikers used the radio sets to send messages to and fro between themselves. It was a perfectly co-ordinated revolt, that was now striking back. And soon the other workers in the Navy too joined,  from the sloops, the minesweepers and the offshore establishments in Mumbai, along Hornby Road, near CST, now the Dadabhai Naoroji Road.  The White Ensign of the British was lowered from all the ships, and British officers were singled out for attack by mutineers, using hockey sticks, crowbars and whatever else they could lay their hands on.

Flora Fountain soon reverberated with cries of Jai Hind,  and slogans of liberation. British officers and their wives were forced to shout Jai Hind by the protestors. The Taj Mahal Hotel, Yatch club all had guns trained on them throughout the day. The Royal Indian Air Force joined in solidarity with the striking ratings, and 1000 men from Andheri, Marine Drive camps came in. The Gurkhas in Karachi,  one of the sword arms of the British army, refused to fire on the mutineers.  The mutiny now began to spread like wildfire, Kolkata, Vizag, Chennai, Karachi, reverberated with slogans of “Strike for Bombay”, “Release 11,000 INA prisoners” and “Jai Hind“.

The tricolor was now flying on all the ships, and by Feb 20, British destroyers positioned themselves near the Gateway of India. The British Govt, now headed by Clement Atleee, was alarmed, orders were given to the Royal Navy to put down the revolt.  Admiral J.H.Godfrey, the Flag Officer in command of the Royal Indian Navy, gave an ultimatum to the mutineers to submit or perish. On the other side, a wave of patriotic fervor,surged ahead in support of the mutineers.  The mutineers had taken control of all the ships and were prepared for a last ditch stand from the clerks to the cleaning hands to cooks and wireless operators, every single Indian was ready for the battle.

On Day 3, the Royal Air Force flew a squadron of bombers near Mumbai harbor, while Admiral Arthur Rullion, issued an ultimatum, asking the mutineers to surrender unconditionally. In the meantime, the 2nd Battalion of the Black Watch, silently managed to secure the island of Manora near Karachi.

Soon the decision was made to engage HMIS Hindustan in a straight confrontation,  which was now under the control of the mutineers. The ultimatum was given by the Royal Artillery on Manora island,  to either surrender or be prepared for war. At 10:33 AM, the guns began to fire on HMIS Hindustan,  and the naval ratings returned the fire. However they could not hold on for long, and by 10:51 they surrendered and HMIS Hindustan was taken over by the British. Soon HMIS Bahadur and Himalaya were subdued, and taken over by the British,  and the revolt at Karachi was put down.

With increasing bombardment and not much hope in winning a long drawn war, the mutineers began to surrender, and on Day 4, negotiations took place, where most of the strikers demands were conceded in principle. Immediate steps were taken to improve the quality of the food, and living conditions, and assurance was given, that release of INA prisoners would be considered favorably. 7 RIN sailors and 1 officer was killed, while around 34 were injured and 476 discharged from duty.

The Betrayal.

Sadly the mutineers got no support at all from the Indian National Congress as usual, in fact they were even condemned for their actions.  Mahatma Gandhi issued a statement condemning the mutineers for revolting without any guidance from a political party. One of the lone voices in the Congress who supported the mutineers was Aruna Asaf Ali, who said she would rather unite Hindus and Muslims on the barricades. The Muslim League too denounced the mutineers, arguing that unrest on the streets was not the best way to deal with grievances and it should be through constitutional methods only.  One reason could be that spontaneous uprisings like these threatened the centralized political authority of both Congress and Muslim League, and affected the dealings with the British Govt. One more reason was that neither Congress nor Muslim League was genuinely a mass based party, they still remained a preserve of the upper class, upper caste, elite, and these kind of mass upsurges left them uncomfortable.

The only political party that supported the mutineers was the Communist Party of India then, all others just left them in the lurch. Both Sardar Patel and Md.Ali Jinnah were united in their condemnation of the mutineers actions, and Aruna Asaf Ali was the lone voice from Congress in support of them.  The mutineers faced court martial and imprisonment on surrender, and what was worse even after independence, they received no support from either the Govts of India or Pakistan.

The Royal Naval Ratings Mutiny lasted only for 4 days and was put down swiftly, however the impact went much beyond. The British were now fully convinced, that they could no longer trust the Armed forces to maintain their control over India. So far the British managed to hold on to India, through the Armed forces, but when they began to revolt, they knew their time was up. First the INA revolts and then the Naval Ratings mutiny, add to it the revolts in the Air Force too, plus the fact that Britian was effectively pauperized after World War II,  all influenced their decision to quit India, much more than that 1942 movement.

(This article is borrowed with thanks from History under your feet)

Sanskrit fever grips Germany – 14 universities teach Sanskrit


By: (Name withheld for privacy reasons)
A news article about demand for Sankrit teachers in Germany. For those uninitiated to Rajivji’s work will feel proud that Sanskrit is taught in Germany and think high of them.
But what a shame and tragedy, instead of India becoming the epic center of Sanskrit learning world is going elsewhere, we had a huge uproar for replacing German in Kendriya Vidyalayas, Indian youngsters are learning other foreign languages for better career prospects, while westerners are learning Sanskrit to get to the source of mind sciences and advanced computing.

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