Pataliputra: as seen by Megasthnese


Kumrahar is the site beneath which sleeps a city — the lost Pataliputra. Both in its richness and town planning, it was in no way inferior to any of its contemporary cities in the world. But sadly, it has hardly any significant remains to exhibit, says Somen Sengupta

Our history avows with pride that Pataliputra was the most glorious capital of the ancient era, and it was where today’s Patna city stands. If this is history, then why are there no archaeological ruins in or around Patna where the edifice of the great city — from where this country was ruled for more than 600 years — can be seen? Why don’t we have any majestic ruins of the royal seat like those in ancient Italy or Greece?

This question called for a visit to the Kumrahar Archeological Park, just 6 km from Patna station. A stone tablet installed by the ASI answered a disturbing but fundamental question. Soon, I realised that I am walking on a ground under which a massive archaeological excavation site is buried. It is Pataliputra, the glory of our pristine past. And both in its richness and town planning, it was in no way inferior to any city in the world. The only difference is that today when a plethora of archeological ruins and excavation sites are carefully preserved in all ancient capitals of the world to showcase their extraordinary past, Pataliputra — from where four royal dynasties ruled India — has hardly any significant remains to exhibit.

Thanks to the British officers of ASI, at least some signs of that city are visible in Kumrahar. Legend and history both have an equal share in forming the biography of the lost city. From these it is obvious that today’s Patna city stands over a treasure box of archeological relics which are nothing but footprints of Pataliputra.

The origin of the city finds its reference in mythology. Legends goes that King Putraka built the city in honour of his queen Patali and named it Pataligram. The name was changed to Pataliputra when she gave birth to her first son. A rational version explains that ‘Pattan’ meaning port in Sanskrit or ‘Patali’ meaning flower could have been the real inspiration for naming the city.

Buddhist texts suggest that when Buddha was undertaking his last journey towards the north from Vaishali, he came across Pataligram where he witnessed the construction of a fort by King Ajatshatru to protect his kingdom from the attack of Licchavies. At that time, Magadha’s capital was Rajagriha. Soon, Udayin, the son of Ajatshatru, shifted the capital to Pataliputra. That was the beginning of a glorious journey of a great city. The journey ended after 1,100 years when the last few weak Gupta rulers failed to hold the kingdom. Frequent floods, attack by invaders and gradual deurbanisation turned the city into a necropolis. It soon sunk into the dark, forgotten pages of history.

Chinese travellers Fa-Hien in the 5th century and Xuanzang in the 7th century visited the place, but by that time it was already a ghost city. The best description of Pataliputra was found in the writings of Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador in the court of Chandragupta Maurya. In his book Indica, he referred to the city as Patlibothra, describing it shaped as a parallelogram running 12.5-km-long east to west and having a width of 2.4 km. Situated between Ganga, Punpun and Gondak rivers, the city was exposed to frequent flooding. The beautiful city was encircled by a timber palisade, which had 570 towers and 64 gates. There was a broad and deep moat around the wall, providing protection and serving as a sewage canal. He gave an illustrative description of Chandragupta’s palace, clearly mentioning it as being much superior to the palace of Susa and Ecbatana of Iran.

Forgotten till the early 19th century, there was no effort to find the banished city, but the dream of finding ancient Pataliputra always hounded archaeologists. In the early 19th century, Buchanan and Rennel first made an effort. After that Alexandar Cunningham and JD Begler also tried to discover Pataliputra with not much success. It was concluded that the city was washed away and its ruins were under water.

The real credit of finding ancient Pataliputra goes to Dr Laurence Austine Waddell, a legendary British explorer. It was he who in 1892 first wrote an article ‘Discovery of the exact site of Asoka’s classical capital of Pataliputra, the Palibothra of the Greeks’, after discovering wooden beams arranged in double rows and a wooden drain. At a place called Bulandibagh near Patna, he unearthed a column capital. Waddell took reference from Xuanxang, who in his travelogue, had mentioned two Ashoka pillars, which he named Jambudavipa and Nilli. Waddell was sure that he had discovered Nilli pillar. In the true sense, Waddell was the real explorer of Pataliputra. His article created mayhem across the world.

He had a grand plan to excavate more but a transfer order moved him to Calcutta to teach chemistry in Calcutta Medical College. So, the excavation was handed over to PC Mukherjee, who in 1897 found a ditch along with many stone fragments and coins of Chandragupta-II. The discovery of the ditch matched with the description of Megasthenes, and the existence of Pataliputra under the base of Patna city was cemented with this.

In 1912, industrialist Sir Ratanji Tata of Bombay’s Tata Sons expressed his desire to fund the archeological excavation. A budget of Rs20,000 per year — a princely sum at that time — was sanctioned. His condition was that the ASI should undertake excavation at the Buddhist site of Peshawar province and all artifacts unearthed from the project be sent to the Prince of Wales Museum in Bombay, which was then in its formation phase.

However, the ASI chose Pataliputra over Peshawar for excavation, and this time the project site was shifted to Kumrahar. A young American archaeologist named David Brainerd Spooner excavated the same village from another side. Bad weather, floods and some local issues affected the pace of work, but on February 7, 1913, he discovered one of the richest archaeological treasures of India. He first found a brick wall under a structure and beneath that found 30 cm thick charcoal and ashes. Once that layer was removed, a huge square sub-structure with 72 massive Mauryan sandstone pillars made of black spotted buff sandstone monoliths were unearthed. The pillars were 15 ft apart and were arranged in eight rows.

He also found a series of parallel wooden platforms. Of the 72 pillars, only one column was found intact; the rest were broken. His excavation again established the fact that there was indeed a great city called Pataliputra. Spooner soon concluded that this huge structure was a grand conference hall where Ashoka conducted the third Buddhist council. As he could not match the structure with any present classical Indian structure, he also concluded that this palace was a replica of the great Persian structure hall of Persepolis. However, his theory was not accepted by many.

The project stopped due to heavy flooding in 1913. In mid-1914, Spooner re-excavated Bulandibagh and found a wooden palisade, which was the boundary wall of the city described by Megasthenes. Soon excavation entered a Muslim burial ground and with that all work stopped. In 1927, this place was again excavated by JA Page and M Ghosh. They unearthed a wooden wall made of heavy sleepers placed vertically in a double row with similar sleepers joining them horizontally from the bottom. Once again, Megasthenes’s 2,000-year-old description came under light.

From 1951-1955, AS Altekar and V Mishra from KP Jaiswal Research Institute conducted another excavation. It unearthed eight more pillar pits apart from the 72 already discovered by Spooner, and also found the ruins of a brick structure dating back to the 5th century. A terracotta seal found on the same spot read: “Arogyavihare Bikshusamghasya”. A seal was also found curved with the word ‘Dhanvantareah’ written in Gupta Bramhi script. A plethora of antiquities like copper coins, ornaments, antimony rods, terracotta seals, dice made of ivory, and toy carts were also excavated.

After this discovery, it was clear that legendary doctor of the Gupta era, Dhyanantari was indeed a man of medical repute and this was his hospital meant for Buddhist monks. The word Arogya Vihar by its literary merit means a hospital. The remains of the hospital can be seen today but only in a minimum form. The actual excavation trench of the palace of 80 pillars is no more visible today. As the area is still prone to floods. The Government had buried the entire site with soil in 1989. A museum at the site has a small replica of the original excavation and that is the only visual delight to have a feel of how the site looked like when it was explored in 1913. The museum also houses various artifacts found at the site.

A solitary pillar on display, with some inscription on the front, now rests under a covered and fenced shade. The pillar of the great conference hall is good enough to give you the idea of its shape and size. It carries the testimony of an extraordinary level of archeology and engineering of a time when the rest of the world could not have imagined it. This solitary pillar along with the Arogyashala are the last signatures of an ancient city which we will never be able to see again.

This article was published on 28th June 2015 in The Pioneer

Click here to view the original article

Argue away India and its Hinduism! And replace with ‘South-Asia’!

By: Prof. Ramesh Rao

I have taught since 1987 across four states and in four universities in the United States. I have a son, who is thirteen, and who comes home fretting about what is taught in school about religion and history. Next year, entering high school, he will take an AP course in History, which will include references to the “Aryan Invasion”, “caste”, “Brahmins”, and “untouchability”, among other references to the nature of Hindu spiritual/religious traditions, and social divisions and practices. Teaching the very complex and ancient but living traditions and the history of Indian civilization will be by teachers who have little knowledge about the area and its profundities.

This rot runs deep. While I was teaching at one university I found out that the Mahabharata and the Ramayana had been included in the readings for a “World Mythology” course but there were no texts included from Christian, Jewish, and Islamic “mythology”. My colleagues, with the requisite terminal degrees, were willing to compromise for political and ideological reasons to categorize Hindu texts as mythology but were unwilling or afraid to include Muslim, Jewish, and Christian “religious” texts. They claimed academic freedom, but when I asked them to consider academic integrity, I was met with haughty silence.

So, the contours of the California textbook controversy therefore are not unsurprising. It is the same old combination of deracinated Indians, religious groups inimical and profoundly opposed to the great Hindu traditions, and Left/Marxist academics who, trumpeting the cause of those they say are discriminated, are willing and eager to use their political axes to grind Hinduism and India to size if not out of existence in California. “We will go where the evidence leads us”, they claim, cherry-picking history and the complex dynamics of the present to push forward their political agendas.

These are powerful groups, and members of the “South Asia Studies” faculty have programmatically sought to argue away Hinduism and India. Thus, it should not have come as a surprise to me when I was recently comparing textbooks on intercultural communication (for students in the third or fourth year of college) and considering which textbook to adopt for teaching an online course on the subject.  In one of the books, I was shocked to find the following description of Hinduism:

“Hinduism is an inegalitarian, practice-based religion….  Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism is not monotheistic (i.e., purporting a belief in a single god) and has no organized worship.  Hinduism is practice based rather than faith-based, which means that practices — which are often social — are more important than beliefs. Jeff Spinner-Halev writes: ‘Hinduism is concerned with legitimizing hierarchical social relationships and mollifying deities, not with faith or belief….  Unlike most of the Western approaches to ethics, Hinduism categorically denies that people are equal and practices a rigid caste system.  A caste is a social ordering hierarchical system in which people are ranked.  Hinduism prescribes strict rules and regulations about how one is to act within one’s caste level.  In some cases, the lower caste may not be allowed even to interact with the higher caste.  In India’s caste system, there are four levels: (1) Brahmins — the learned, educated elites, and priests; (2) Kshatriyas — the noble and warriors; (3) Vaishyas — the traders, businessmen, and farmers; and (4) Sudras — those who serve the needs of the upper-caste members. The Sudras are further divided into the touchable and Untouchables.  The untouchable take on positions considered demeaning and polluting by the upper caste, such as barbers, hairdressers, or cleaners.  The untouchable Sudras are considered spiritually polluting and perform jobs such as garbage collecting. Hinduism prescribes that one is born into a caste level and it is virtually impossible to move from one caste level to the next — that is, from lower to higher levels.  In Hindu society, men and women are clearly not equal.  The birth of a son is a blessing while the birth of a daughter is met with misgivings.  She is a financial burden to the family”.

That was it!  No yoga and meditation, no Bhagavad Gita or the Shad Darshanas, no discussion about the influence of Hinduism on art, music, architecture, and dance in India, Southeast Asia, and also now in the West, and absolutely no mention of how some of the great American minds – Emerson and Thoreau, William James, and Huston Smith – responded to Hindu thought and belief.

In a book on intercultural communication, where the goal is to enable students to learn about other cultures this crude, simplistic depiction of Hinduism is what students read.  That such a description of Hindus/Hinduism could be presented in a textbook which went through numerous reviewers’ hands indicates the level and the kinds of bias that infect the work of some scholars in the United States in the humanities and social sciences. These authors did not just happen, by chance, figure out what to say about Hindus and India. They have been fed this “knowledge” since their middle school days. This prejudice, this bias, and this deliberate campaign to malign Hinduism are what are in play in the California textbook case. Nothing more, nothing less.

‘Nirbhaya – the raped womanhood’ – In India or in the US?

By: Prabhat Gupta

Nirbhaya – a woman – was not long ago raped in India, who later on died in hospital.  It was indeed a gruesome rape. At that time the Western media dubbed India as ‘The Rape Capital’ of the world. At that time, if my memory does not fail me, BBC said about Indian men, ‘It is not a case of few rotten apples but the barrel itself being rotten’ implying that most Indian men were sexually perverts.

What is the reality? Where does the world’s ‘Capital of Rape’ lie? To put it more graphically, to which place on Earth ”It is not a case of few rotten apples but the barrel itself being rotten’ does the reality lead us?
Before answering these questions, please watch this video aptly titled ‘The Hunting Grounds’:

This documentary puts the spotlight on the highly sexualized and porn fueled civilized West.

Indians gripped by inferiority complex should note that India is far more safer and should rely on RAINN ( ) and see how the Western men, whom they think as their saviour, are actually far “ahead” when committing crimes against women and are far more deviant and pervert than most in the “developing” world, including India.

I have copied this to Prof Michele Decker of John Hopkins University who runs this, so that she and her colleagues can better understand where the problem spots are.

I must hasten to add that she did write back to me saying words to the effect that “India does not have the unusual burden when comes to dealing with GBV”.

I was pleased to hear that from her and I also understand that she is also aware of the cultural sensitivities involved in the matter.

It is on these pages that they had shown Devi Durga Mata with a torn lip, as if to indicate that Indian men were responsible for this depraving violence. That image, a very offending to Hindus, has since been removed. That offending image was akin to Mother Mary being shown naked or some imagery which showed her being injured by several thugs effectively putting her in a perdition, in primarily a Judeo-Christian America. One can imagine the furor this would cause in the US and the right-wing and then seeking “justice”.
Nonetheless the work – the work of correctly educating people – needs to be done everywhere, not just in the US and not just in India. It needs to be done everywhere with the right contextual settings realising that a simple cut and paste of ideas and a reductionist approach are all bound to be very measured in their success and at times will simply fail.

In ‘War of cultures’ the unique place of Rajiv Malhotra

By: Vedic Desi

Curry smells, eating with hands, not using toilet paper, squat toilets, public defecation, pollution, caste system, accent, 33 million gods, driving in India, Paan spitting, vegetarianism, reincarnation, British gave you everything, and other clichés.

Astonishing! When people hear about India this is all they will get to know. As if somebody carefully trains them. Although there are many facts on India readily available thanks to the development in couple of years, the “Third World” image is carefully crafted and nutured.

There is another set of people who are totally in love with India. They love yoga, and they want this “SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE” from India. In between the spectrum there are the people, who are still formulating an image about what is India. These form the think tanks, universities who know the reality on ground and know how to spin it, wherever and whenever needed.

At some point, if you feel you need to correct these stereotypes and get a true picture, you need to understand who you are in the first place to present yourself and the facts. Sadly most Indians neither have the depth of knowledge nor interest to explain about themselves. History is distorted. Media is biased. Cultural festivals have ended up being all about Bollywood song and dance.

It is Rajiv Malhotra who brought it all together. Nobody has integrated the current geopolitics and its effects on India as done by Rajiv. He authored Breaking India, which is a seminal book that explains the role of US and European churches, academics, think-tanks, foundations, government and human rights groups in fostering separation of the identities of Dravidian and Dalit communities from the rest of India.The research tracked the money trails that start out claiming to be for education, human rights, empowerment training, leadership training, but end up in programs designed to produce angry youths who feel disjointed with their Indian identity. More importantly everyone should think about what it takes to put this together. When the problem is explained in such clarity, 50% of it is solved.

Rajiv Malhotra ji is unique because the integrated understanding his works provide is unparalleled. Dr. Subhash Kak’s work is creditable when it comes to Myths of Aryan Invasion and others for other specialties in Indology. But to understand the full spectrum of Indology, you have to come to Rajiv Malhotra.

On why the West works on specialization? 

Simple, America has a goal of global dominance. If the traditional scholars and their pawns understand the foreign policy of US, they would just be glad that someone like Rajiv exists and would put their force behind him to save our Sanskriti.

Not just study of religions regions and languages, do look up, US has an expert on almost everything imaginable on earth. Experts on Science, geopolitics, Religion, regions, languages, cultures, sports, Mathematics, Space, etc list goes on and on. Recently there was an alarm in the US on dwindling Russian experts and this was seen as responsible for hampering the policy decisions.

In US Universities, at the top-level the research direction is determined by National Science Foundation and the topics are split into small sections for research by different universities. This may be seen as a mundane practice by the uninitiated, but it is effective to obtain mastery. Do our traditional scholars know this?

It is the US which is the only country in the world that can print currency continually to fund its needs. As a supplement of the global dominance agenda, there is the goal of some to have Pan Christian world. If you want to dominate the world, you need to understand it thoroughly, only then you can control it. So where are the traditionalist doing the Purva Paksha to understand the US?

Rajiv in his new book – The Battle for Sanskrit has laid open all his years of work and encourages the traditionalists to know the battlefield and join in to save Sanskriti.

In such a complicated situation, if someone like Rajiv is offering a way to fight back, why are traditionalists attacking him? This whole outcry about not crediting previous Indologists is just comical. It is Rajiv Malhotra’s humble attempt and request that others have to take it forward. What more do the critics want? The attacks on Rajiv are unwarranted. All Dharmic minds need to help stop these illogical attacks by traditionalists and start contributing to save our Sanskriti.

In my personal view, an even bigger aim of Swadeshi Indology, as Rajiv Malhotra suggests we work on (not Indology, which is a western view) is to help in spiritual advancement.

In a world, where Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavatham are totally distorted, imagine what lies ahead for the future generations to tackle and develop faith and understanding of Dharma. Today it’s Sheldon Pollock, tomorrow someone else, but the battle has to be fought with a unified front. And the battlefield is best studied and explained by Rajiv Malhotra. Let’s stay on the path of Dharma, let’s unite to support and contribute to The Battle for Sanskrit.

This article is borrowed from this site:

Watch wonderful moments!

(Net Discovery made by: Shreepal Singh)

Bounty of Nature:

Bounty of humans:

India can, and should, emerge as ‘knowledge producing’ international hub of education

By: Rajiv Malhotra

Indians were once upon a time (during the days of Nalanda, Taxashila and other world-class universities) the preeminent producers and exporters of knowledge, ideas and values to the rest of Asia. Now we are consumers of what the Western institutions teach us. We are stuck in a system of dependency so serious that our elites feel they must get certified by the West in order to be credible back home in India.

But I will explain that a window of opportunity has opened up and we cannot afford to miss this chance to take back our leadership role as knowledge producer and exporter. This window is due to the disruptions caused by the internet.

One of the latest trends in US universities is the growing role of foreigners, including Indians, in the affairs of these universities. First this role was only in the form of foreign students bringing in billions of dollars. Many US academic institutions are financially dependent on foreign students because they cannot meet their expenses through domestic student tuitions alone. An effect of this has been that a large number of Indian elites (both in USA and those returning to India) have been influenced by American values and principles, both good and bad. From the US side, this is not only a great source of tuition fees but also a way to spread its intellectual influence.

A more recent trend is for wealthy Indians to invest in US universities for personal brand building. (See an interesting article, titled, ‘Harvard is a hedge fund with a university attached.’) This is shortsighted and dangerous. Indians are giving grants and endowments to US universities without adequately evaluating the subject matter being produced by the scholars. It’s about wealthy Indians seeking a seat at the high table of prestige in American society. They see their family name on a building or attached to an academic chair as their next step in climbing the social ladder. Few donors get sufficiently involved in the details of the subject matter and the impact that is being created by their donation.

A major contrast between India and China in this regard is that China retains strict control over the disciplines pertaining to its civilization, values, domestic politics and culture. They readily buy (or use unscrupulous means to acquire) Western science, technology and business knowhow. But they do not want to brainwash their youth with Western prejudices in areas of the humanities that are considered sensitive to the interest of national unity and security. India has not been able to appreciate this strategic point even now.

Against this backdrop, I want to explain how some tectonic trends that are taking place in US higher education are rapidly making brick and mortar university campuses obsolete. I wish to advise those giving donations to US academic institutions to step back and rethink their strategies with future trends in mind. Most donations being given are wasteful because they fund obsolete models at a time when they should be funding the incubation of new models.

The single most important trend that is revolutionizing education is information technology, especially the internet. Teaching platforms like the Khan Academy are the wave of the future, not the physical classroom in a brick and mortar building. The old-fashioned teacher is being squeezed out along with the physical classroom. The total cost of higher education in the US is estimated to exceed $500 billion annually, using old delivery models. Many administrators in major universities are worried that their institutions are becoming like the dinosaurs. A disruption is long overdue and we should see this as an opportunity for creative entrepreneurship. This may be seen as a part of the wider trend in dis-intermediation (bypassing of the middleman) taking place in various industries.

The new cloud-based teaching methods are rapidly threatening the old school systems in many ways, such as the following:

Huge campuses are becoming obsolete. In the future, the buildings required will be mostly those with laboratories and high-tech infrastructure that cannot become virtual. The ordinary classroom will become almost extinct.

Old teaching materials are already obsolete. The teacher’s class notes that were once written on the board or handed out in class are now a waste of time because all that is readily available online. With video conferencing, considerable interaction is also available without physical meetings.

This trend will lower tuitions significantly because it is not necessary to hire full-time faculty.

 This also changes the demand side of university professors and impacts the future of academicians as a profession. Many subject matter experts who are not formally classified as professors will be teaching part-time and sharing their knowledge and practical experience. The old style professor with limited real world experience will be replaced by learned persons who will also bring their lived experience to teach.

All this means an end to the ivory tower academic snobbery of the past, in which there was great prestige associated with being a professor disconnected from mundane life. Now the floodgates are opening for teaching that is brought by knowledgeable individuals who are embedded within communities and who also speak as voices of the community.

Higher education will be a lifelong pursuit and not limited to a few years of college/university. Most workers will take online courses as a regular part of staying current with the trends in their field. Education will be seen as something you do all your life and for which you do not need necessarily to take several years off.

While the above list of changes pertains to the teaching side of higher education, there are equally revolutionary changes expected in the research side, especially in the humanities. Let us discuss religious studies in the US academy, as an example.

Twenty-five years ago, when I first started monitoring and intervening in the American academic research on Hinduism, the academic fortress was a formidable center of power. To make any impact, it was crucial to get inside the system one way or another. But today, an increasing amount of high quality scholarly works are being published by scholars and practitioners outside the walls of the academic fortress. Many guru movements have their own writings and publishing houses. The new works produced by Hindu movements are not only about standard topics like Bhagavad Gita, but also pertain to issues of society, politics, family, health, etc. Many other groups started by civic society now nurture non-academic research and publishing. These new suppliers are seen as threats to the turf traditionally controlled by the academicians. The academic empire is fighting back, but it is a losing battle. (I am an example of someone seen as a threat to the officially credentialed producers of knowledge about my culture.)

The number of readers who receive their knowledge about religion from sources outside the academy far exceeds the number who are sitting in class to learn from their professor. The American academicians refused to accept this trend during the past two decades when I tried to explain it to them. They were too arrogant to be open to this new reality. The pride of being the exclusive source of knowledge had been instilled in them during their PhD, and was seen as their ticket to success that could never be taken away. This attitude of the senior professors has misguided the new generation of academicians, and made the academic system insular and vulnerable.

Today, most people get their knowledge about religions (their own and those of others) through television, online sources, personal travels to sacred and holy sites, teachings from their gurus and swamis, and reading materials published by non-academic writers. If someone wants to invest in spreading particular ideas about our traditions, the investment is better spent on such platforms and not on feeding the old system which is rapidly becoming obsolete. Instead, they should rethink the dynamics of this intellectual kurukshetra of civilizational discourse. Only then can they develop a more viable strategy for interventions.

Indians have in the past bought used technologies and obsolete models in certain industries, at a time when the Western countries exporting these were migrating to new paradigms. I feel many of us are being fooled into investing in what will become obsolete models of higher education.

Instead of funding American higher education’s pre-internet era system, India should develop the next generation platforms. And India should not be content with a back-office role in this emerging industry, but should develop and own the brands seen by the end users (i.e. the students). Besides developing the platforms and delivery systems, Indians should also lead in content development and educational methodology, especially in areas where traditional Indian systems would give us a competitive advantage.

“Replacement of India with South Asia” controversy: Facts and propaganda

12 Apr 2016 — In the past few days, there have been several propaganda attempts made by either dishonest or ill-informed journalists and writers to discredit our petition.

The LA Times and some others have tried to argue that the “South Asia” name change was ONLY about references to the Indus Valley Civilization, and that India is “not being erased.” That is a blatant lie.

Please read the attached summary of all the edits made by the South Asia Faculty to the history curriculum. It goes far beyond some benign Indus Valley references, and includes egregious moves like deleting “India” and subsuming it within some pan-Asian “Islamic civilization” in one instance.

Please pass on the link to friends and others who might be finding it hard to believe that India could be erased like this…

Following are the 76 revisionist edits proposed by “South Asia Faculty Group” of which 80% of them were initially accepted by California Board of Education, some of which were recently reversed in response to…

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