A few things to know about Hindu civilization

विन्देश्वरी मिश्रा – हिंदी अंश (Shreepal Singh – English part)

दो पक्ष- कृष्ण पक्ष , शुक्ल पक्ष ! (Based on Lunar calendar, there are two fortnights in a month: Krishna or Black one and Shukla or White one)
तीन ऋण – देव ऋण , पितृ ऋण , ऋषि ऋण !(There are three kinds of debts one can owe: Debt due to Deity; Debt due to one’s forefathers; Debt due to Spiritual Guru or Rishi).
चार युग – सतयुग , त्रेतायुग , द्वापरयुग , कलियुग ! (There are four Yugas or icons for humanity on Earth: Sat-Yuga, when people are pious; Treta-Yuga, when comparatively lower stage arrives; Dvapar-Yuga, when still inferior age arrives; Kali-Yuga, when the lowest stage arrives – at the end of which again Sat-Yuga arrives. It is believed that today humanity is passing through Kaliyugअ).
चार धाम – द्वारिका , बद्रीनाथ , जगन्नाथ पुरी , रामेश्वरम धाम ! (There are four pilgrimage places to go).
चारपीठ – शारदा पीठ ( द्वारिका ) ज्योतिष पीठ ( जोशीमठ बद्रिधाम ) गोवर्धन पीठ ( जगन्नाथपुरी ) , शृंगेरीपीठ ! (Four religious centers – Dwarika Peeth;  Badridham Peeth; Jagannath Peeth; Shringeri Peeth – were established by Adi or the First Shankracharya).
चार वेद- ऋग्वेद , अथर्वेद , यजुर्वेद , सामवेद ! (There are four Vedas: Rigveda, Atharv veda, Yajur veda, Sam veda).
चार आश्रम – ब्रह्मचर्य , गृहस्थ , वानप्रस्थ , संन्यास ! (There are four stages – Ashram – of life, namely: Brahmcharya, when one leads a rigorous life of student abstaining from all kinds of pleasures; Ghrahist Ashram, when one carries out his worldly duties and responsibilities; Vanprasth Ashram, when one takes his mind away from world and his involvement in it; Sanyas Ashram, when one renounces the world and disassociates oneself from human company).

चार वर्ण: ब्राह्मण क्षत्रिय वैश्य शुद्र (There are four classes – Varna – of people in society, namely: Brahmins who devote their life and attention only to things spiritual, do not own property, survive by begging, have affection or enmity towards none, roam freely fearing or harming none, teach students and guide the king – kshtriya, set example by their conduct for society to follow, and command highest respect; Kshtriya, who have mental makeup to fight and be a king, duty to protect the other three Varnas, punish the wicked, not fearing the death, obeying the Brahmin; Vaisya, who have inclination to pursue mercantile activities, earn king-set profits, not allowed to hoard merchandise over to next year, feed the three Varnas; Sudras, who by their conduct are not able to rise to become either Brahmin, Kshtriya or Vaisya, who have to eat but cannot do business, have to be protected against enemy but cannot fight, who enjoy the peace and order established in society but cannot contribute anything to the society, had to serve other three Varnas).
चार अंतःकरण – मन , बुद्धि , चित्त , अहंकार ! (There are four parts of inner consciousness. One may translate them as: Man or desires; Buddhi or mind; Chitta or heart; Ahankar is ego (or perhaps the totality of consciousness of one’s personality).
पञ्च गव्य – गाय का घी , दूध , दही , गोमूत्र , गोबर ! (There are five pious outputs obtained from cows: Ghee; Milk; Curd; Urine).
पञ्च देव – गणेश , विष्णु , शिव , देवी , सूर्य ! (Five deities to worship).
पंच तत्त्व – पृथ्वी , जल , अग्नि , वायु , आकाश ! (Five elements).
छह दर्शन – वैशेषिक , न्याय , सांख्य , योग , पूर्व मिसांसा , दक्षिण मिसांसा ! (Six philosophies).
सप्त ऋषि – विश्वामित्र , जमदाग्नि , भरद्वाज , गौतम , अत्री , वशिष्ठ और कश्यप! (Seven sages).
सप्त पुरी – अयोध्या पुरी , मथुरा पुरी , माया पुरी ( हरिद्वार ) , काशी , कांची ( शिन कांची – विष्णु कांची ) , अवंतिका और द्वारिका पुरी ! (Seven abodes of God’s avatars).
योग के आठ अंग- यम , नियम , आसन , प्राणायाम , प्रत्याहार , धारणा , ध्यान एवं समािध ! (Eight parts of Patanjali’s Yoga)
आठ लक्ष्मी – आग्घ , विद्या , सौभाग्य , अमृत , काम , सत्य , भोग ,एवं योग लक्ष्मी ! (Eight kinds of worldly opulence).
नव दुर्गा — शैल पुत्री , ब्रह्मचारिणी , चंद्रघंटा , कुष्मांडा , स्कंदमाता , कात्यायिनी , कालरात्रि , महागौरी एवं सिद्धिदात्री ! (Nine Durga).
दस दिशाएं – पूर्व , पश्चिम , उत्तर , दक्षिण , ईशान , नैऋत्य , वायव्य , अग्नि आकाश एवं पाताल ! (Ten directions).
मुख्य ११ अवतार – मत्स्य , कच्छप , वराह , नरसिंह , वामन , परशुराम , श्री राम , कृष्ण , बलराम , बुद्ध , एवं कल्कि ! (Eleven incarnations of God).
बारह मास – चैत्र , वैशाख , ज्येष्ठ , अषाढ , श्रावण , भाद्रपद , अश्विन , कार्तिक , मार्गशीर्ष , पौष , माघ , फागुन ! (Twelve months).
बारह राशी – मेष , वृषभ , मिथुन , कर्क , सिंह , कन्या , तुला , वृश्चिक , धनु , मकर , कुंभ , कन्या ! (Twelve constellations).
बारह ज्योतिर्लिंग – सोमनाथ , मल्लिकार्जुन , महाकाल , ओमकारेश्वर , बैजनाथ , रामेश्वरम , विश्वनाथ , त्र्यंबकेश्वर , केदारनाथ , घुष्नेश्वर , भीमाशंकर , नागेश्वर ! (Twelve Jyotirling – places possessing spiritual force).
पंद्रह तिथियाँ – प्रतिपदा , द्वितीय , तृतीय , चतुर्थी , पंचमी , षष्ठी , सप्तमी , अष्टमी , नवमी , दशमी , एकादशी , द्वादशी , त्रयोदशी , चतुर्दशी , पूर्णिमा , अमावास्या ! (Fifteen dates for each fortnight).
स्मृतियां – मनु , विष्णु , अत्री , हारीत , याज्ञवल्क्य , उशना , अंगीरा , यम , आपस्तम्ब , सर्वत , कात्यायन , ब्रहस्पति , पराशर , व्यास , शांख्य , लिखित , दक्ष , शातातप , वशिष्ठ ! (Fifteen Smirtis – books of Laws).

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