Justice Karnan May Have Served India Well

By: R. Veera Raghavan

What would happen if, instead of Justice C S Karnan, some other High Court judge was acting so funnily and passing such ‘orders’ like Karnan? And if that other judge is not a Dalit? He could not have carried on with more than 5 per cent of what all Karnan did or said or ‘ordered’ atrociously. He would have been tackled within the judiciary early on, which would be right. He would have been sternly criticised in public by all around, which would be justified. If Karnan was given a long rope that is understandable too.

The Indian public which followed Karnan news was clear about one thing, while Karnan did not grasp another. All including Dalits knew over time that Karnan did not inspire anyone, not even an ant, with his appalling statements or ‘orders’.  Second, Karnan wrongly believed Dalits would rally around him and agitate uncontrollably if law and judges stood up to him and so he could go on saying or ‘ordering’ anything against other judges, even those of the Supreme Court. By projecting himself as a Dalit amidst his horrible conduct he was hurting poor Dalits, not espousing their cause.

In a letter to the prime minister, Karnan had named twenty judges, a few in the Supreme Court and many in High Courts, as being corrupt in office, but offered no proof against any of them.  This chiefly led to a contempt-of-court action against Karnan in the Supreme Court, before a bench of seven senior most judges of that court. He appeared once before the Supreme Court in that proceeding and spoke irrelevantly.  Then he was granted time to submit his reply to defend himself, but he neither filed a reply nor turned up at following hearings.  Meanwhile he began issuing laughable ‘orders’ against the seven judges who were trying him.  In the end the Supreme Court adjudged him guilty on 9th May.

Before ruling that Karnan was guilty of contempt, the Supreme Court did well to direct his medical examination to know if he was of sound mind and had the capacity to understand what all he was doing, from a legal point of view. Karnan declined to take a medical examination, claiming he was all well in his mind. Still, however, he continued with his outrageous ‘orders’ against those seven Supreme Court judges, asking for their medical examination too, unseating them from the Supreme Court, calling them to appear in his ‘residential court’ at Kolkata and announcing a five-year jail term for those judges. But none of Karnan’s ‘orders’ like these had any force since much earlier, at the beginning of the contempt action against him, the Supreme Court had stripped him of all his judicial and administrative powers.

If some thought Karnan was perhaps deficient in mind in legal terms – to be issuing such kinds of orders nonstop – they must look at this.  When the Supreme Court finally held Karnan in contempt and punished him with a six-month imprisonment, he did not issue one more tit-for-tat ‘order’ holding the seven Supreme Court judges in contempt of his ‘court’.  He did not also call them before his ‘court’ anymore. Instead, he approached the Supreme Court – that is, the same seven judges whom he earlier ordered as removed – to recall the judgement and punishment they handed. This shows Karnan was never legally out of his mind. All along he had carried on with his monstrous‘orders’ and defiance because he believed even the Supreme Court judges would not dare to punish him when he was taking cover under his Dalit status. But when the highest court confronted him with restraint and dignity, and punished him in the end, he realised that his hollow audacity had not shielded him. Then he quickly went into hiding to evade arrest – he is yet to be traced – and applied to the Supreme Court through his lawyer for recalling its judgement on some pleas.

Don’t you see, the moment the Supreme Court held him guilty and ordered jail for him he began acting like anyone faced with a court order, who wished to follow court procedures for lifting that order. So let no one imagine that a person out of his mind was insensitively punished by the Supreme Court.  And we should also know: By law, a medically recognized insane person is excused and let off when tried for an offence done out of such insanity.  But when mere immaturity, foolishness or arrogance are behind an offence, the offender is not excused and he must take punishment.

The Supreme Court was really lenient on Karnan. The ‘orders‘ he issued against the seven judges of the Supreme Court even as they were trying him were also acts of contempt of court.  But here the Supreme Court rightly ignored Karnan and did not launch actions against him on those fresh acts of contempt.

Some may still have a question if the Supreme Court was right in giving a long rope to Karnan, and in being so lenient on him. Yes, the court was right. It is true that poor Dalits suffer injustice in many ways in several parts of India. When the country is addressing this complex issue, Karnan was falsely crying out that he was being victimised because he was a Dalit. The judiciary had to give a clear and undoubted impression to all concerned – many of whom would not know the full facts surrounding Karnan – that Karnan was not singled out or victimised in any way and that he was himself all at fault. As several judges of the Madras High Court and of the Supreme Court patiently bore his lengthy onslaught, Karnan scaled new heights of stupidity through his successive ‘orders’, to the point no one would want to defend him.  Many in public life did not wish to speak against him so they are not misunderstood. All hoped that the judiciary should check him, and the Supreme Court did it. The court cannot do a Karnan to Karnan, and had to act slowly and soberly as we witnessed. This is a moment of quiet pride for our judiciary in doing a self-cleansing act with courage and dignity. Give a big salute to the Supreme Court and to those seven judges.

Karnan will surely be remembered for one thing. No other high ranking individual had dared to humiliate and defy the judiciary so publicly and so nonchalantly.  When the Supreme Court brings such an offender to justice and sends him to jail, it is a message to all little brothers in public life or government service who freely break laws for personal gains, that they should watch themselves. Here, though not intending, Karnan has helped showcasing the prowess and majesty of our laws and law courts, whatever the status and background of the man before the court. That way, he may have served the nation well.

{ Note: This article originally published HERE.

A comment to this article was posted by Shreepal Singh there. The edited comment is given here:

There are three elements to the Karnan saga: One – his acts as a person; Two – his acts as a Dalit; and Three – his acts as a judge. As a person Karnan gave an impression to the general public that he was daring person to challenge the established system for a good national cause (fighting corruption at high places); that notwithstanding his courage, he was the man with a disturbed personality who was unable to understand what he had undertaken to accomplish, where he had landed himself in his venture and at that point what he should do to absolve himself of any blemish. As a Dalit, he has caused more of a loss to that community by his acts than garnering of any public sympathy by creating a false general impression that Dalits – and their symbol as he was sitting at a high place like a judge of a High Court – are unreasonable people as a group. As a judge, Karnan has given a very poor impression of his knowledge of law where-under he accuses someone – his brother judges – without offering any semblance of proof whatsoever, passes allegedly judicial orders while he is divested of his judicial powers by the Supreme Court, tries his own cause by making the concerned Supreme Court judges accused before himself for committing offense against him and sentencing those accused with imprisonment. It is the height of ignorance of law. He is almost certain to go to jail as the President of India (seeing that no action is taken for so many days on his clemency petition) is not likely to pardon him. Still, by his bizarre acts he has shaken to the core the the dignity or the majesty or the credibility (in the way one likes to look at it) of the Indian judicial institutions. If you look at this episode from any angle, you will find that he has given a sever jolt to the present system of making appointment to the higher judiciary in India.  He will be remembered for a long time in the judicial history of India.}

Triple Talaq Demeans Dignity of Muslim Women

By: Parmanand Pandey, Advocate, Supreme Court

In Islam marriage is a contract not a sacrament as it is in many other religions. ‘Offer’ and ‘acceptance’ are the necessary ingredients of the contract. Among Muslims the groom proposes to bride and when she accepts the proposal then the nikah is performed by the Qazi in the presence of witnesses.

However, a million dollar question remains unanswered that when the consent of both parties, here the brides and the grooms, is required for solemnizing Nikah, why then only the males should have the exclusive and unilateral right to break the marriage regardless of the pathetic condition of the wives to which they are reduced to after their desertion by the husbands? This painful question has been simmering in the Muslim society for quite long.

However, with the passage of time and due to education and increased awakening among the Muslim women, this issue has now obtained the centre-stage. There have been many cases where the High Courts have dealt in their own way but there has been almost remarkable unanimity in the judicial pronouncements that triple talaq is ethically abhorring, logically untenable, religiously undesirable and socially very undesirable.

It is a welcome sign indeed that opposition to triple talaq has come from within the Muslim community. The petition was initially filed in the Supreme Court by one Muslim woman from Allahabad namely; Shaira Bano which was later converted into a Public Interest Litigation and other parties were allowed to jump in. After a six-day long hearing by the bench of five judges headed by the Chief Justice of India –Justice J.S. Khehar (Sikh), Justice Kurian Joseph (Christian), Justice R.F. Nariman (Parsi), Justice U.U. Lalit (Hindu) and Justice Abdul Nazeer (Muslim), the judgment has been reserved.

Triple talaq as it is practiced in India—the husband saying “talaq” thrice to the wife in one go—needs be addressed on multiple fronts.

The same holds true for the associated practice of Nikah Halala—a divorced woman having to marry another man, consummate the marriage and have him divorce her before being able to remarry her first husband.

The first front is that of constitutional protection—whether these practices are safeguarded under Article 25(1) of the Constitution, which guarantees the fundamental right to “profess, practice and propagate religion”. This is the approach the SC has adopted; it is examining if triple talaq forms an essential part of Islamic belief and practice.

However, the general feeling in the public is that the Supreme Court must travel beyond the criterion that it has set for itself.

On the face of it, there is substantial evidence that triple talaq is an innovation that has little to do with Quranic prescriptions. This is the argument made by the petitioners. It is buttressed by the text of the Quran as interpreted in the bulk of Islamic scholarship, as well as historical evidence and legal precedent. After all, a number of Islamic states, from Morocco and Algeria to Iran and Indonesia, have introduced modernizing legislation when it comes to divorce.

And in multiple instances – A. Yousuf Rawther v. Sowramma, (by the Kerala High Court) and Shamim Ara v. State of UP And Ors (by the Supreme Court) – the judicial authorities have ruled against triple talaq as it is practiced in India today.

The All India Muslim Personal Law Board, on the other hand, defends triple talaq as an integral part of Islamic law and, therefore, outside the realm of the judiciary.

In view of such conflicting claims made by purely religious organizations like the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, the Supreme Court must in effect take a clear stand in a long-running global debate: Is Islam a “blueprint for a social order” or is there a distinction between “Islamic religious edicts” and “cultural phenomena inspired by Islam”?

The All India Muslim Personal Law Board has lately come with a proposal before the Supreme Court that a provision should be added in the nikahnama for conciliation between the enraged husband and the victim-wife before giving effect to talaq. This has been rubbished by the contending parties as ‘eyewash’, which should be rejected at the threshold.

Placing Islamic or any other personal law in the context of constitutional liberalism rather than depending merely upon religious reform is important.

A number of the petitioners have argued that triple talaq violates their fundamental right to equality before the law, to non-discrimination on grounds of sex and to life and liberty. Indeed, Article 25(1) explicitly states that freedom of religion is subject to other fundamental rights. The other argument against subjecting personal law to the constitutional validity test is that it is not a “law” as defined by Article 13 of the Constitution and this theory has a precedent in the 1951 Bombay high court judgement in State of Bombay v. Narasu Appa Mali.

And that brings in the third front: the uniform civil code. Much of the opposition to the Supreme Court taking up the triple talaq issue stems from the fear that it is a back door for bringing in the Uniform Civil Code. That would be the wrong way to go about it but the goal is a worthy one.

Arguments that this will stifle diversity and result in the imposition of Hindu laws are specious.

Seven decades ago, the members of the Constituent Assembly chose the politically expedient path. The Uniform Civil Code has been frozen as a directive principle of the state policy since then. If the ideal of a common law for all citizens in a secular republic—the one that adheres to constitutional principles and ensures gender equality—is to be realized, the Union Government and Parliament will have to show both courage and statesmanship.

Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi was right when he said that ‘the practice of triple talaq is a tussle between the haves and have-nots inside the community concerned. The prism through which you see the case is not like majority versus minority; this is a case where it is an intra-community tussle between Muslim men and women. This time Muslim women have questioned the centuries-old hegemony suffered by them at the hands of their male counterparts. He argued that ‘fight is between men of the Muslim community, who are more powerful and educated, and the women, who are frequently uneducated and aren’t as powerful.

As one legal commentator has rightly said that, ‘ultimately, the choice before the court is a stark one. Ever since the Narasu Appa Mali case, there has been a domain of law-i.e., uncodified personal law – that has simply been deemed to be beyond the realm of the Constitution, and beyond the scrutiny of constitutional norms such as equality, freedom of conscience, and the right to personal liberty. Not only has time created a paradoxical situation where as long as personal laws are uncodified, they escape constitutional scrutiny, but the moment they are legislated by the state (as large parts of Hindu laws were in the 1950s), they become subject to the Constitution’.

There is no doubt that triple talaq violates women’s rights to equality and freedom, including freedom within the marriage, and should be invalidated by the Supreme Court.

The larger question, however, is whether the court will stick to its old, narrow, colonial-influenced jurisprudence, and strike down triple talaq while nonetheless upholding a body of law that answers not the Constitution, but to dominant and powerful voices within separate communities; or will it, in 2017, change course, and hold that no body of law can claim a higher source of authority than the Constitution of India?

Let us keep our fingers crossed and wait for the verdict.

Authentic Bible – Buddhist Christ

(To the reader: You will find information in the related article linked HERE about the travels of Nicolas Notovitch into India and, there, to Leh in Ladakh, where he chanced upon the discovery of very ancient Buddhist Chronicles about the arrival of Jesus Christ in India, his spiritual training under Buddhist Masters and his preaching in India, who was known there as Saint Issa, and the publishing of these ‘Leh Rolls’ by Notovitch in his book in 1887 under the title “The Unknown Years of Jesus Christ”. Here is the re-production of these “Leh Rolls”, wherein we have put Chapters One, Two and Three after Chapter Fourteen for sequential and historical reasons.)

Chapter Four:

1. And now the time had come, which the Supreme Judge, in his boundless clemency, had chosen to incarnate himself in a human being. 2. And the Eternal Spirit, which dwelt in a state of complete inertness and supreme beatitude, awakened and detached itself from the Eternal Being for an indefinite period, 3. In order to indicate, in assuming the human form, the means of identifying ourselves with the Divinity and of attaining eternal felicity. 4. And to teach us, by his example, how we may reach a state of moral purity and separate the soul from its gross envelope, that it may attain the perfection necessary to enter the Kingdom of Heaven which is immutable and where eternal happiness reigns. 5. Soon after, a wonderful child was born in the land of Israel; God himself, through the mouth of this child, spoke of the nothingness of the body and of the grandeur of the soul. 6. The parents of this new-born child were poor people, belonging by birth to a family of exalted piety, which disregarded its former worldly greatness to magnify the name of the Creator and thank him for the misfortunes with which he was pleased to try them. 7. To reward them for their perseverance in the path of truth, God blessed the first-born of this family; he chose him as his elect, and sent him forth to raise those that had fallen into evil, and to heal them that suffered. 8. The divine child, to whom was given the name of Issa, commenced even in his most tender years to speak of the one and indivisible God, exhorting the people that had strayed from the path of righteousness to repent and purify themselves of the sins they had committed. 9. People came from all parts to listen and marvel at the words of wisdom that fell from his infant lips; all the Israelites united in proclaiming that the Eternal Spirit dwelt within this child. 10. When Issa had attained the age of thirteen, when an Israelite should take a wife. 11. The house in which his parents dwelt and earned their livelihood in modest labor, became a meeting place for the rich and noble, who desired to gain for a son-in-law the young Issa, already celebrated for his edifying discourses in the name of the Almighty. 12. It was then that Issa clandestinely left his father’s house, went out of Jerusalem, and, in company with some merchants, traveled toward Sindh 13. That he might perfect himself in the divine word and study the laws of the great Buddhas.

Chapter Five:.

1. In the course of his fourteenth year, young Issa, blessed by God, journeyed beyond the Sindh and settled among the Aryas in the beloved country of God. 2. The fame of his name spread along the Northern Sindh. When he passed through the country of the five rivers and the Radjipoutan, the worshipers of the god Djaine begged him to remain in their midst. 3. But he left the misguided admirers of Dja’ine and visited Juggernaut, in the province of Orsis, where the remains of Viassa-Krichna rest, and where he received a joyous welcome from the white priests of Brahma. 4. They taught him to read and understand the Vedas, to heal by prayer, to teach and explain the Holy Scripture, to cast out evil spirits from the body of man and give him back human semblance. 5. He spent six years in Juggernaut, Rajegriha, Benares, and the other holy cities; all loved him, for Issa lived in peace with the Vaisyas and the Soudras, to whom he taught the Holy Scripture. 6. But the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas declared that the Great Para- Brahma forbade them to approach those whom he had created from his entrails and from his feet : 7. That the Vaisyas were authorized to listen only to the reading of the Vedas, and that never save on feast days. 8. That the Soudras were not only forbidden to attend the reading of the Vedas, but to gaze upon them even; for their condition was to perpetually serve and act as slaves to the Brahmans, the Kshatriyas, and even to the Vaisyas. 9. “Death alone can free them from servitude,'” said Para-Brahma. “Leave them, therefore, and worship with us the gods who will show their anger against you if you disobey them.” 10. But Issa would not heed them; and going to the Soudras, preached against the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas. 11. He strongly denounced the men who robbed their fellow-beings of their rights as men, saying: ” God the Father establishes no difference between his children, who are all equally dear to him.” 12. Issa denied the divine origin of the Vedas and the Pouranas, declaring to his followers that one law had been given to men to guide them in their actions. 13. ” Fear thy God, bow down the knee before Him only, and to Him only must thy offerings be made.” 14. Issa denied the Trimourti and the incarnation of Para-Brahma in Vishnou, Siva, and other gods, saying: 15. “The Eternal Judge, the Eternal Spirit, composes the one and indivisible soul of the universe, which alone creates, contains, and animates the whole.” 16. “He alone has willed and created, he alone has existed from eternity and will exist without end ; he has no equal neither in the heavens nor on this earth.” 17. “The Great Creator shares his power with no one, still less with inanimate objects as you have been taught, for he alone possesses supreme power.” 18. “He willed it, and the world appeared; by one divine thought, he united the waters and separated them from the dry portion of the globe. He is the cause of the mysterious life of man, in whom he has breathed a part of his being.” 19. “And he has subordinated to man, the land, the waters, the animals, and all that he has created, and which he maintains in immutable order by fixing the duration of each.” 20. ” The wrath of God shall soon be let loose on man, for he has forgotten his Creator and filled his temples with abominations, and he adores a host of creatures which God has subordinated to him.” 21. For, to be pleasing to stones and metals, he sacrifices human beings in whom dwells a part of the spirit of the Most High.” 22. ” For he humiliates them that labor by the sweat of their brow to gain the favor of an idler who is seated at a sumptuously spread table. ‘ : 23. “They that deprive their brothers of divine happiness shall themselves be deprived of it, and the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas shall become the Soudras of the Soudras with whom the Eternal shall dwell eternally.” 24. “For on the day of the Last Judgment, the Soudras and the Vaisyas shall be forgotten because of their ignorance, while God shall visit his wrath on them that have arrogated his rights.” 25. The Vaisyas and the Soudras were struck with admiration, and demanded of Issa how they should pray to secure their happiness. 26. “Do not worship idols, for they do not hear you; do not listen to the Vedas, where the truth is perverted; do not believe yourself first in all things, and do not humiliate your neighbor.” 27. “Help the poor, assist the weak, harm no one, do not covet what you have not and what you see in the possession of others.”

Chapter Six:

1. The white priests and the warriors becoming cognizant of the discourse addressed by Issa to the Soudras, resolved upon his death and sent their servants for this purpose in search of the young prophet. 2. But Issa, warned of this danger by the Soudras, fled in the night from Juggernaut, gained the mountains, and took refuge in the Gothamide Country, the birth-place of the great Buddha Cakya-Mouni, among the people who adored the only and sublime Brahma. 3. Having perfectly learned the Pali tongue, the just Issa applied himself to the study of the sacred rolls of Soutras. 4. Six years later, Issa, whom the Buddha had chosen to spread his holy word, could perfectly explain the sacred rolls. 5. He then left Nepal and the Himalaya Mountains, descended into the valley of Rajipoutan and went westward, preaching to divers people of the supreme perfection of man, 6. And of the good we must do unto others, which is the surest means of quickly merging ourselves in the Eternal Spirit. ” He who shall have recovered his primitive purity at death,” said Issa, ” shall have obtained the forgiveness of his sins, and shall have the right to contemplate the majestic figure of God.” 7. In traversing the pagan territories, the divine Issa taught the people that the adoration of visible gods was contrary to the laws of nature. 8. ” For man,” said he, “has not been favored with the sight of the image of God nor the ability to construct a host of divinities resembling the Eternal.” 9. “Furthermore, it is incompatible with the human conscience to think less of the grandeur of divine purity than of animals; or of works made by the hand of man from stone or metal.” 10. “The Eternal Legislator is one; there is no God but him; he has shared the world with no one, neither has he confided his intentions to anyone.” 11. “Just as a father may deal toward his children, so shall God judge men after death according to his merciful laws; never will he humiliate his child by causing his soul to emigrate, as in a purgatory, into the body of an animal.” 12. “The heavenly law,” said the Creator through the lips of Issa, “is averse to the sacrifice of human victims to a statue or animal; for I have sacrificed to man all the animals and everything the world contains.” 13. ”Everything has been sacrificed to man, who is directly and closely linked to Me, his Father; therefore, he that shall have robbed Me of My child shall be severely judged and punished according to the divine law. 14. “Man is as nothing before the Eternal Judge, to the same degree that the animal is before man.” 15. “Therefore, I say to you, abandon your idols and perform no ceremonies that separate you from your Father and bind you to priests from whom the face of heaven is turned away.” 16. “For it is they who have allured you from the true God, and whose superstitions and cruelty are leading you to perversion of the intellect and the loss of all moral sense.”

Chapter Seven:

1. The words of Issa spread among the pagans, in the countries through which he traveled, and the inhabitants abandoned their idols. 2. Seeing which, the priests demanded from him who glorified the name of the true God, proofs of the accusations he brought against them and demonstration of the worthlessness of idols in the presence of the people. 3. And Issa replied to them : “If your idols and your animals are mighty, and really possess a supernatural power, let them annihilate me on the spot ! 4. “Perform a miracle,” retorted the priests, “and let thy God confound our own, if they are loathsome to him.” 5. But Issa then said: “The miracles of our God began when the universe was created; they occur each day, each instant; whosoever does not see them is deprived of one of the most beautiful gifts of life.” 6. “And it is not against pieces of inanimate stone, metal, or wood, that the wrath of God shall find free vent, but it shall fall upon man, who, in order to be saved, should destroy all the idols they have raised.” 7. “Just as a stone and a grain of sand, worthless in themselves to man, await with resignation the moment when he shall take and make them into something useful.” 8. ” So should man await the great favor to be granted him by God in honoring him with a decision.” 9. “But woe be to you, adversary of man, if it be not a favor that you await, but rather the wrath of Divinity; woe be to you if you await until it attests its power through miracles ! 10. “For it is not the idols that shall be annihilated in His wrath, but those that have raised them ; their hearts shall be the prey of everlasting fire, and their lacerated bodies shall serve as food for wild beasts.” 11. “God shall drive away the contaminated ones of his flocks, but shall take back to himself those that have strayed because they misconceived the heavenly atom which dwelt in them.” 12. Seeing the powerlessness of their priests, the pagans believed the words of Issa, and fearing the wrath of the Divinity, broke their idols into fragments; as to the priests, they tied to escape the vengeance of the people. 13. And Issa also taught the pagans not to strive to see the Eternal Spirit with their own eyes, but to endeavor to feel it in their hearts, and, by a truly pure soul, to make themselves worthy of its favors. 14. “Not only must you desist from offering human sacrifices,” said he, ” but you must immolate no animal to which life has been given, for all things have been created for the benefit of man.” 15. ” Do not take what belongs to others, for it would be robbing your neighbor of the goods he has acquired by the sweat of his brow.” : 16. “Deceive no one, that you may not yourself be deceived; strive to justify yourself before the last judgment, for it will then be too late.’ 17. “Do not give yourself up to debauchery, for it is a violation of the laws of God.” : 18. “You shall attain supreme beatitude, not only by purifying yourself, but also by leading others into the path that shall permit them to regain primitive perfection.”

Chapter Eight:

1. The fame of Issa’s sermons spread to the neighboring countries, and, when he reached Persia, the priests were terrified and forbade the inhabitants to listen to him. 2. But when they saw that all the villages welcomed him with joy, and eagerly listened to his preaching, they caused his arrest and brought him before the high-priest, where he was submitted to the following interrogatory: 3. “Who is this new God of whom thou speaketh ? Dost thou not know, unhappy man that thou art, that Saint Zoroaster is the only just one admitted to the honor of receiving communications from the Supreme Being, 4. “Who has commanded the angels to draw up in writing the word of God, laws that were given to Zoroaster in paradise 5. “Who then art thou that darest to blaspheme our God and sow doubt in the hearts of believers ?” 6. And Issa replied: ” It is not of a new god that I speak, but of our heavenly Father, who existed before the beginning and will still be after the eternal end.” 7. “ It was of him I spoke to the people, who, even as an innocent child, can not yet understand God by the mere strength of their intelligence and penetrate his spiritual and divine sublimity.” 8. “But, as a new-born child recognizes the maternal breast even in obscurity, so your people, induced in error by your erroneous doctrines and religious ceremonies, have instinctively recognized their Father in the Father of whom I am the prophet.” 9. “The Eternal Being says to your people through the intermediary of my mouth : “You shall not adore the sun, for it is only a part of the world I have created for man.” 10. ” The sun rises that it may warm you during your labor; it sets that it may give you the hours of rest I have myself fixed. ” 11. ” It is to Me, and to Me only, that you owe all you possess, all that is around you, whether above or beneath you.” 12. “But,” interjected the priests, ” how could a nation live according to the laws of justice, if it possessed no preceptors ?” 13. Then Issa replied : “As long as the people had no priests, they were governed by the law of nature and retained their candor of soul.” 14. “Their souls were in God, and to communicate with the Father, they had recourse to the intermediary of no idol or animal, nor to fire, as you practice here.” 15. ” You claim that we must worship the sun, the genius of Good and that of Evil; well, yom doctrine is an abomination, I say to you, the sun acts not spontaneously, but by the will of the Invisible Creator who has given it existence, 16. “And who has willed that this orb should light the day and warm the labor and the crops of man.” 17. “The Eternal Spirit is the soul of all that is animated; you commit a grievous sin in dividing it into the spirit of Evil and the spirit of Good, for there is no God save that of good, 18. “Who, like the father of a family, does good only to his children, forgiving all their faults if they repent of them.” 19. “And the spirit of Evil dwells on this earth, in the heart of men who turn the children of God from the right path.” 20. “Therefore I say to you, beware of the day of judgment, for God will inflict a terrible punishment on all who have turned his children from the right path and filled them with superstitions and prejudices,” 21. “On them that have blinded the seeing, transmitted contagion to the sound of health, and taught the adoration of things which God has subjected to man for his own good and to aid him in his labor.” 22. “Your doctrine is therefore the fruit of your errors, for, in desiring to approach the God of Truth, you have created false gods.” 23. After listening to him, the wise men resolved to do him no harm. In the night, while the city was wrapped in slumber, they conducted him outside the walls and left him on the highway, hoping that he might soon become the prey bf wild beasts. 24. But, being protected by the Lord our God, Saint Issa continued his way unmolested.

Chapter Nine:

1. Issa, whom the Creator had chosen to recall the true God to the people that were plunged in depravities, was twenty-nine years of age when he arrived in the land of Israel. 2. Since the departure of Issa, the pagans had heaped still more atrocious sufferings on the Israelites, and the latter were a prey to the deepest gloom. 3. Many among them had already begun to desert the laws of their God and those of Mossa, in the hope of softening their harsh conquerors. 4. In the presence of this situation, Issa exhorted his compatriots not to despair, because the day of the redemption of sins was near, and he confirmed their belief in the God of their fathers. 5. ” Children, do not yield to despair,” said the Heavenly Father through the mouth of Issa, “for I have heard your voices, and your cries have ascended to me.” 6. “Weep not, O my beloved, for your sobs have touched the heart of your Father, and he has forgiven you as he forgave your ancestors.” 7. “ Do not abandon your families to plunge into debauchery, do not lose the nobility of your sentiments and worship idols that will remain deaf to your voices.” 8. “ Fill my temple with your hopes and your patience, and do not abjure the religion of your fathers, for I alone have guided them and heaped blessings upon them.” 9. ” Raise them that have fallen, feed them that are hungry, and help them that are sick, that you may all be pure and just on the day of the last judgment that I am preparing for you.” 10. The Israelites flocked to hear the words of Issa, asking him where they should thank the Heavenly Father, since their enemies had razed their temples and laid violent hands on their sacred vessels. 11. Issa replied to them that God did not speak of temples built by the hands of men, but that he meant thereby the human heart, which is the true temple of God. 12. “Enter into your temple, into your own heart, illuminate it with good thoughts, patience, and the unflinching confidence you should place in your Father.” 13. “ And your sacred vessels are your hands and your eyes; look and do what is agreeable to God, for, in doing good to your neighbor, you perform a rite that embellishes the temple in which dwells the One who has given you life.” 14. “For God has created you in his image; innocent, pure of soul, with a heart filled with kindness, and destined, not to the conception of evil projects, but to be the sanctuary of love and justice. 15. “Do not therefore sully your hearts, I say to you, for the Eternal Being dwells there always.” 16. “If you wish to accomplish works stamped with love and piety, do them with an open heart, and let not your actions be inspired by the hope of gain or by thought of profit.” 17. “For such deeds would not contribute to your salvation, and you would then fall into a state of moral degradation in which theft, falsehood, and murder, seem like generous actions.”

Chapter Ten:

1 . Saint Issa went from place to place strengthening, by the word of God, the courage of the Israelites, who were ready to succumb under the weight of their despair, and thousands followed him to hear his preaching. 2. But the rulers of the cities feared him, and word was sent to the Governor, who resided in Jerusalem, that a man named Issa had come into the country, that his sermons excited the people against the authorities, that the crowd listened to him assiduously and neglected their duties to the State, claiming that soon they would be rid of their intruding rulers. 3. Then Pilate, the Governor of Jerusalem, ordered that the preacher Issa be arrested, brought to the city and conducted before the judges; not to arouse the dissatisfaction of the people, however, Pilate commanded the priests and the learned men, old men of Hebrew origin, to judge him in the temple. 4. Meanwhile, Issa, still continuing to preach, arrived in Jerusalem; having heard of his coming all the inhabitants, who already knew him by reputation, came to meet him. 5. They greeted him respectfully and threw open the doors of their temple that they might hear from his lips what he had said in the other cities of Israel. 6. And Issa said to them : “ The human race is perishing because of its want of faith, for the gloom and the tempest have bewildered the human flock, and they have lost their shepherd.” 7. “ But tempests do not last forever, and the clouds will not hide the eternal light, the heavens shall soon be serene again, the celestial light shall spread throughout the world, and the strayed sheep shall gather around their shepherd. ” 8. “Do not strive to seek direct roads in the obscurity for fear of stumbling into the ditch, but gather your remaining strength, sustain one another, place your entire trust in God, and wait till a streak of light appears.” 9. ” He that upholds his neighbor upholds himself, and whosoever protects his family protects his race and his country.” 10. “For rest assured that the day of your deliverance from darkness is near; you shall gather together in one single family, and your enemy – he who knows nothing of the favor of the Great God – will tremble in fear.” 11. The priests and the old men that listened to him, full of admiration at this language, asked of him if it were true that he had attempted to arouse the people against the authorities of the country, as had been reported to the Governor, Pilate. 12. ” Is it possible to arise against misled men from whom the obscurity has hidden their path and their door?” returned Issa. “I have only warned these unfortunate people, as I warn them in this temple, that they may not advance further on their dark paths, for an abyss is yawning beneath their feet.” 13. “ Worldly power is not of long duration, and it is subject to innumerable changes. It would be of no use to a man to rebel against it, for one power always succeeds another power, and it shall be thus until the extinction of human existence.” 14. ” Do you not see, on the contrary, that the rich and the powerful are sowing among the children of Israel a spirit of rebellion against the eternal power of heaven?” 15. And the learned men then said: “Who art thou, and from what country hast thou come into our own? We had never heard of thee, and do not even know thy name.” 16. “I am an Israelite,” responded Issa, ” and, on the very day of my birth, I saw the walls of Jerusalem, and I heard tbe weeping of my brothers reduced to slavery, and the moans of my sisters carried away by pagans into captivity.” 17. ” And my soul was painfully grieved when 1 saw that my brothers had forgotten the true God; while yet a child, I left my father’ s house to go among other nations.” 18. “But hearing that my brothers were enduring still greater tortures, I returned to the land in which my parents dwelt, that I might recall to my brothers the faith of their ancestors, which teaches us patience in this world that we may obtain perfect and sublime happiness on High.” 19. And the learned old men asked him this question : ” It is claimed that you deny the laws of Mossa and teach the people to desert the tern pie of God?” 20. And Issa said: “We can not demolish what has been given by our Heavenly Father and what has been destroyed by sinners; but I have recommended the purification of all stain from the heart, for that is the veritable temple of God.” 21. ” As to the laws of Mossa, I have striven to re-establish them in the heart of men; and I say to you, that you are in ignorance of their true meaning, for it is not vengeance, but forgiveness that they teach; but the sense of these laws have been perverted.”

Chapter Eleven:

1. Having heard Issa, the priests and learned men decided among themselves that they would not judge him, for he was doing no one harm, and having presented themselves before Pilate, made Governor of Jerusalem by the pagan king of the land of Romeles, they spoke to him thus: 2. “We have seen the man whom thou accusest of inciting our people to rebellion, we have heard his preaching and know that he is of our people.” 3. “But the rulers of the towns have sent thee false reports, for he is a just man who teaches the people the word of God. After interrogating him, we dismissed him that he might go in peace.” 4. The Governor overcome with passion sent disguised servants to Issa, that they might watch all his actions and report to the authorities every word he addressed to the people. 5. Nevertheless Issa continued to visit the neighboring towns and preach the true ways of the Creator, exhorting the Hebrews to patience and promising them a speedy deliverance. 6. And during all this time, a multitude followed wherever he went, many never leaving him and acting as servants. 7. And Issa said to them: “Do not believe in miracles performed by the hands of man, for He who dominates nature is alone capable of doing supernatural things, while man is powerless to soften the violence of the wind and bestow rain.” 8. “Nevertheless, there is a miracle which it is possible for man to accomplish; it is when, full of a sincere faith, he resolves to tear from his heart all evil thought and, to attain his end, shuns the paths of iniquity.” 9. “And all things which are done without God are but gross errors, seductions, and illusions, which only demonstrate to what point the soul of the man who practices this art is filled with deceit, falsehood, and impurity.” 10. “Put no faith in oracles, God alone knows the future; he that has recourse to sorcerers defiles the temple within his heart and gives proof of distrust toward his Creator.” 11. “Faith in sorcerers and their oracles destroys the innate simplicity and child -like purity in man; a diabolical power takes possession of him and forces him to commit all sorts of crimes and to adore idols.” 12. “While the Lord our God, who has not his equal, is one, all-powerful, omniscient, and omnipresent; it is he who possesses all wisdom and all light.” 13. ” It is to him you must have recourse to be comforted in your sorrows, assisted in your toils, healed in your sickness; whosoever shall have recourse to him shall not be refused.” 14. “The secret of nature is in the hands of God; for the world before appearing, existed in the depth of the divine mind; it became material and visible by the will of the Most High.” 15. “ When you wish to address him, become as children once more, for you know neither the past, nor the present, nor the future, and God is the master of time.”

Chapter Twelve:

1. “O just man,” said the disguised servants of the Governor of Jerusalem, “ tell us should we do the will of our Caesar or await our near deliverance?” 2. And Issa, having recognized in his questioners the spies sent to watch him, said to them: “I have not said that you should be delivered from Caesar; it is the soul plunged in error which shall have its deliverance.” 3. ” There can be no family without a head, and there would be no order in a nation without a Caesar, who must be blindly obeyed, for he alone shall answer for his actions before the supreme tribunal.” 4. “Does Caesar possess a divine right,” again questioned the spies, and is he the best of mortals?” 5. ” There is no perfection among men, but there are also some that are sick whom the men elected and intrusted with this mission must care for, by using the means that are conferred upon them by the sacred law of our Heavenly Father.” 6. “ Clemency and justice, these are the highest gifts granted to Caesar; his name will be illustrious if he abides thereby.” 7. “But he who acts otherwise, who goes beyond the limit of his power over his subject, even to placing his life in danger, offends the great Judge and lowers his dignity in the sight of men.” 8. At this point, an aged woman, who had approached the group that she might better hear Issa, was pushed aside by one of the men in disguise who placed himself before her. 9. Issa then said : ” It is not meet that a son should push aside his mother to occupy the first place which should be hers. Whosoever respecteth not his mother, the most sacred being next to God, is unworthy the name of son.” 10. “Listen, therefore, to what I am about to say: ” Respect woman, for she is the mother of the universe and all the truth of divine creation dwells within her.” 11. “She is the basis of all that is good and beautiful, as she is also the germ of life and death. On her depends the entire existence of man, for she is his moral and natural support in all his works.” 12. “She gives you birth amid sufferings; by the sweat of her brow she watches over your growth, and until her death you cause her the most intense anguish. Bless her and adore her, for she is your only friend and support upon earth.” 13. ”Respect her, protect her; in doing this, you will win her love and her heart, and you will be pleasing to God; for this shall many of your sins be remitted.” 14. “Therefore, love your wives and respect them, for to-morrow they shall be mothers, and later grandmothers of a whole nation.” 15. “ Be submissive toward your wife; her love ennobles man, softens his hardened heart, tames the beast and makes of it a lamb. ” 16. “The wife and the mother, inestimable treasures bestowed on you by God; they are the most beautiful ornaments of the universe, and from them shall be born all that shall inhabit the world.” 17. ” Just as the God of armies separated day from night and the land from the waters, so woman possesses the divine talent of separating good intentions from evil thoughts in men.” 18. Therefore I say to you: “After God, your best thoughts should belong to women and to wives; woman being to you the divine temple wherein you shall most easily obtain perfect happiness.” 19. ” Draw your moral strength from this temple; there you will forget your sorrows and failures, you will recover the wasted forces necessary to help your neighbor.” 20. “Do not expose her to humiliation; you would thereby humiliate yourself and lose the sentiment of love, without which nothing exists here below.” 21. “Protect your wife, that she may protect you and all your family; all that you shall do for your mother, your wife, for a widow, or another woman in distress, you shall have done for God.”

Chapter Thirteen:

1. Saint Issa thus taught the people of Israel for three years in every city, in every village, on the roadways, and in the fields, and all that he had predicted came to pass. 2. During all this time, the disguised servants of the Governor Pilate observed him closely, but without hearing anything that resembled the reports hitherto sent by the rulers of the cities concerning Issa. 3. But the Governor Pilate, becoming alarmed at the too great popularity of Saint Issa, who, according to his enemies, wanted to incite the people and be made king, ordered one of his spies to accuse him. 4. Soldiers were then sent to arrest him, and lie was cast into a dungeon where he was made to suffer various tortures that he might be forced to accuse himself, which would permit them to put him to death. 5. Thinking of the perfect beatitude of his brothers only, the saint endured these sufferings in the name of his Creator. 6. The servants of Pilate continued to torture him and reduced him to a state of extreme weakness; but God was with him and did not suffer him to die. 7. Hearing of the sufferings and tortures inflicted on their saint, the principal priests and learned elders begged the Governor to liberate Issa on the occasion of an approaching great feast. 8. But the Governor met them with a decided refusal. They then begged him to bring Issa before the tribunal of the Ancients, that he might be condemned or acquitted before the feast, to which Pilate consented. 9. On the morrow the Governor called together the chief rulers, priests, elders, and law-givers, with the object of making them pass judgment on Issa. 10. The saint was brought from his prison, and he was seated before the Governor between two thieves that were to be tried with him, to show the people that he was not the only one to be condemned. 11. And Pilate, addressing Issa, said: ” O, man! is it true that thou hast incited the people to rebel against the authorities that thou mayest become king of Israel ? ” 12. “None can become king by his own will,” replied Issa, “and they that have said that I incited the people have spoken falsely. I have never spoken but of the King of Heaven, whom I taught the people to adore.” 13. “For the sons of Israel have lost their original purity, and if they have not recourse to the true God, they shall be sacrificed and their temple shall fall in ruins.” 14. “Temporal power maintains order in a country; I therefore taught them not to forget it; I said to them: ” ‘Live in conformity to your position and fortune, that you may not disturb public order;’ and I exhorted them also to remember that disorder reigned in their hearts and minds.” 15. “ Therefore the King of Heaven has punished them and suppressed their national kings; nevertheless, I said to them, if you resign yourself to your fate, the kingdom of heaven shall be reserved for you as a reward.” 16. At this moment, witnesses were introduced; one of them testified as follows: “Thou hast said to the people that temporal power was nothing to that of the King that shall free the Israelites from the pagan yoke.” 17. ” Blessed be thou,” said Issa, ” for having spoken the truth; the King of Heaven is more powerful and great than terrestrial laws, and his kingdom surpasses all the kingdoms here below.” 18. ” And the time is not far when, in conformity with the divine will, the people of Israel will purify themselves of their sins; for it is said that a precursor shall come to announce the deliverance of the nation and unite it in one family.” 19. And addressing himself to the judges, the Governor said: “Hear you this? The Israelite Issa admits the crime of which he is accused. Judge him according to your laws and sentence him to capital punishment. 20. “We can not condemn him,” replied the priests and the ancients; “ thou hast thyself heard that he made allusion to the King of Heaven, and that he has preached nothing to the people which constitutes insubordination against the law.'” 21. The Governor then summoned the witness who, at the instigation of his master, Pilate, had betrayed Issa; and when this man came he addressed Issa thus: “Didst thou not claim to be the king of Israel in saying that the Lord of heaven had sent thee to prepare his people?” 22. And Issa having blessed him, said: “Thou shalt be forgiven, for what thou sayest cometh not of thee ! ” Then turning to the Governor, he continued: “Why lower thy dignity and teach thy inferiors to live in falsehood, since, even without this, thou hast the power to condemn an innocent man?” 23. At these words, the Governor became violently enraged and ordered the death of Issa, while he discharged the two thieves. 24. The judges, having deliberated among themselves, said to Pilate: “We will not take upon our heads the great sin of condemning an innocent man and of acquitting two thieves, a thing contrary to our laws.” 25. “Do therefore as thou pleases.” Having thus spoken, the priests and wise men went out and washed their hands in a sacred vessel, saying: “ We are innocent of the death of a just man.”

Chapter Fourteen:

1. By order of the Governor, the soldiers seized upon Issa and the two thieves whom they conducted to the place of torture, where they nailed them to the crosses they had erected. 2. All that day, the bodies of Issa and of the two thieves remained suspended, dripping with blood, under the guard of soldiers; the people stood around about them, while the parents of the crucified men wept and prayed. 3. At sunset, the agony of Issa came to an end. He lost consciousness, and the soul of this just man detached itself from his body to become part of the Divinity. 4. Thus ended the terrestrial existence of the reflection of the Eternal Spirit, under the form of a man who had saved hardened sinners and endured so much suffering. 5. Pilate, however, becoming alarmed at his own actions, gave up the body of the holy man to his relations, who buried him near the place of his execution; the multitude then came to pray over his tomb and filled the air with weeping and wailing. 6. Three days later the Governor sent his soldiers to take up the body of Issa and bury it elsewhere, fearing a general uprising of the people. 7. The following day the sepulcher was found open and empty by the multitude; and the rumor immediately spread that the Supreme Judge had sent his angels to take away the mortal remains of the saint in whom dwelt on earth a part of the Divine Spirit. 8. When this report came to the ears of Pilate he fell into a rage and forbade everyone, under penalty of perpetual slavery, to ever utter the name of Issa and to pray to the Lord for him. 9. But the people continued to weep and praise their master aloud; therefore many were placed in captivity, subjected to torture, and put to death. 10. And the disciples of Saint Issa left the land of Israel and went in all directions among the pagans, telling them that they must abandon their gross errors, think of the salvation of their souls, and of the perfect felicity in store for men in the enlightened and immaterial world where, in repose and in all his purity, dwells the great Creator in perfect majesty. 11. The pagans, their kings and soldiers, listened to these preachers, abandoned their absurd beliefs, deserted their priests and their idols to sing the praises of the all-wise Creator of the universe, the King of kings, whose heart is filled with infinite mercy.

(Note: To make out a sequential sense, we are reproducing Chapter One after the end of Chapter Fourteen. The Leh Rolls make it explicit that the news of the death of Issa was brought to the Buddhist compilers of these Rolls by merchants. Chapter Two and Three also are given here as they relate to the history of Mossa, that is much before Issa)

Chapter One:

1. The earth has trembled and the heavens have wept, because of the great crime just committed in the land of Israel. 2. For they have put to torture and executed the great just Issa, in whom dwelt the spirit of the world. 3. Which was incarnated in a simple mortal, that men might be benefited and evil thoughts exterminated thereby. 4. And that it might bring back to a life of peace, of love, and happiness, man degraded by sin, and recall to him the only and indivisible Creator whose mercy is boundless and infinite. 5. This is what is related on this subject by the merchants who have come from Israel.

Chapter Two:

1. The people of Israel, who inhabited a most fertile land, yielding two crops a year, and who possessed immense flocks, excited the wrath of God through their sins. 2. And he inflicted upon them a terrible punishment by taking away their land, their flocks, and all they possessed; and Israel was reduced to slavery by the rich and powerful Pharaohs who then reigned in Egypt. 3. The latter treated the Israelites more cruelly than animals, loading them with chains and putting them to the roughest labor; they covered their bodies with bruises and wounds, and denied them food and shelter, 4. That they might be kept in a state of continual terror and robbed of all semblance of humanity; 5. And in their dire distress, the children of Israel, remembering their heavenly protector, addressed their prayers to him and implored his assistance and mercy. 6. An illustrious Pharaoh then reigned in Egypt, who had become celebrated for his numerous victories, the great riches he had amassed, and the vast palaces which his slaves had erected with their own hands. 7. This Pharaoh had two sons, the younger of whom was called Mossa; and the learned Israelites taught him divers sciences. 8. And Mossa was beloved throughout the land of Egypt for his goodness and the compassion he displayed for them that suffered. 9. Seeing that, notwithstanding the intolerable sufferings they endured, the Israelites refused to abandon their God to worship those created by the hands of man and which were the gods of the Egyptians. 10. Mossa believed in their indivisible God,who did not allow their nagging strength to falter. 11. And the Israelite preceptors encouraged Mossa’ s ardor and had recourse to him, begging him to intercede with Pharaoh, his father, in favor of his co-religionists. 12. Prince Mossa pleaded with his father to soften the lot of these unhappy people, but Pharaoh became angry with him and only imposed more hardships upon his slaves. 13. It came to pass, not long after, that a great calamity fell upon Egypt; the plague decimated the young and the old, the strong and the sick; and Pharaoh believed he had incurred the wrath of his own gods against him; 14. But the prince Mossa declared to his father, that it was the God of his slaves who was interfering in favor of his unhappy people and punishing the Egyptians; 15. Pharaoh commanded Mossa, his son, to gather all the slaves of Jewish race, to lead them away to a great distance from the capital and found another city, where he should remain with them. 16. Mossa announced to the Hebrew slaves that he had delivered them in the name of their God, the God of Israel; and he went with them out of the city and of the land of Egypt. 17. He therefore led them into the land they had lost through their many sins; he gave them laws and enjoined them to always pray to the invisible Creator whose goodness is infinite. 18. At the death of the prince Mossa, the Israelites rigorously observed his laws, and God recompensed them for the wrongs they had suffered in Egypt. 19. Their kingdom became the most powerful in all the world, their kings gained renown for their treasures, and a long period of peace prevailed among the children of Israel.

Chapter Three:

1. The fame of the riches of Israel spread over all the world, and the neighboring nations envied them. 2. But the victorious arms of the Hebrews were directed by the Most High himself, and the pagans dared not attack them. 3. Unhappily as man does not always obey even his own will, the fidelity of the Israelites to their God was not of long duration. 4. They began by forgetting all the favors he had showered upon them, invoked his name on rare occasions only, and begged protection of magicians and wizards; 5. The kings and rulers substituted their own laws for those that Mossa had prepared; the temple of God and the practice of religion were abandoned, the nation gave itself up to pleasures and lost its original purity. 6. Many centuries had elapsed since their departure from Egypt, when God again resolved to punish them. 7. Strangers began to invade the land of Israel, devastating the fields, destroying the villages, and taking the inhabitants into captivity. 8. A throng of pagans came from over the sea, from the country of Romeles; they subjected the Hebrews, and the commanders of the army governed them by authority of Caesar. 9. The temples were destroyed, the people were forced to abandon their worship of the invisible God and to sacrifice victims to pagan idols. 10. Warriors were made of the nobles; the women were ravished from their husbands; the lower classes, reduced to slavery, were sent by thousands beyond the seas. 11. As to the children, all were put to the sword; soon, through all the land of Israel, nothing was heard but weeping and wailing. 12. In this dire distress the people remembered their powerful God; they implored his mercy and besought him to forgive them; our Father, in his inexhaustible goodness, heeded their prayers.

Authentic Bible – Discovered in India by Nicolas Notovitch

By: Shreepal Singh

We live in the age of science. We live a life that is made comfortable by this science and we test every claim to truth on the anvil of science. We cherish the ideal of truth and in realizing this ideal we are dependant on reason. Anything, any claim to truth, that rebels with our reason is not acceptable to us. The edifice of science is built on the foundation of this reason.

In pursuit of this ideal of truth, we make inquiries and rely on the tool of science. In the process of making inquiries in a scientific manner, we collect data, analyse its contents, draw conclusions and make up our mind about the veracity of an alleged claim to truth.

And, in this regard, the claims made in Bible – and as a corollary, the claims ascribed to the words spoken by Jesus Christ as described in this holy book – are no exception.

The rational world realizes that a large part of the claims made in this book and ascribed to Jesus Christ are ex facie untrue since these claims contradict our sense of reason and elemantory knowledge of science.

The unfortunate result of this ‘reason’s rebellion against Bible’ is that a large number of educated and rational people in almost all the developed countries are deserting Christianity in droves.

However, the Evangelical Church and its theological institutions are highly organized, financially colossus and politically connected global forces. They find the worldly benefits in continuing with their Evangelical pursuit. Unconcerned with this unfortunate dichotomy between ‘Bible and Reason’, and the calamity that such dichotomy brings to their religion, they remain motivated with a zeal.

But all these advantages are rendered insignificant and unable to check the desertion of their flock. In the true sense of Biblical zeal, the Christian Fathers and Cardinals are leaving no stones unturned to keep their flock intact though without much success.

Therefore, to compensate the loss they look to the new pastures elsewhere and cultivate new grounds for recruitment. This is their strategy to check the tide against Jesus Christ.

All these petty maneuvers of the Evangelists to save the ‘Word of God’ from falling in the estimation of people in this 21st century compel one to raise many questions. When Bible is opened in the light of scientific scrutiny, do we find any part of it sustainable in our scrutiny? Is the entire Bible right? Is the entire Bible wrong? Is a part of Bible right and a part wrong? Is it possible to separate the wrong part from the right one, to salvage the right one? Was there ever a holy individual named Jesus Christ? If he was so, did he speak all the words ascribed to him in Bible? Or, could there be some words spoken by him and some other words – ascribed to him in Bible – not spoken by him? Is there any other source of information about the life and works of Jesus Christ?

These are some of the questions that confront and baffle the rational people who love and admire the holy personage of Christ.

Jesus Christ is a historical person and our current calender testifies to this truth. He was a holy person and this fact is also testified by the fact there is this book – Bible – extant for the last two thousand years, which speaks of God and Divine.

But if this person – Jesus Christ – was a holy and divine person and if there is truth – even on the scientific scrutiny – in the divinity of a holy person like Jesus Christ, then how come ‘some words of Bible’ ascribed to him be untrue on the anvil of science? But, surely, some words of Bible are untrue on the anvil of science. This circumstance opens the strong possibility that some words in Bible ascribed to Jesus Christ were interpolated by some vested interests at some time in the historical past.

We may contrast this situation with some other holy books of the similar ancient origin as Bible (like Dhammapada – words spoken by Gautama Buddha and Gita – words spoken by Sri Krishna, a Hindu avatar of God) and try to find out whether those books too stand in contradiction to science and reason. One does not find any statement in those similarly old holy book that contradicts reason or science, although many mysterious things are said in those books, just like Bible.

The well-known historian H. G. Wells has indicated towards the possibility of corruption by addition and / or editting of Bible at the first Christian ‘Council of Nicaea ‘ during the reign of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 274 to 337 AD – H.G. Wells,The Outline of History, Vol. I, pages 462-463, says: It (the Council of Nicaea) marks the definite entry upon the stage of human affairs of the Christian Church and of Christianity as it is generally understood in the world to-day. It marks the exact definition of Christian teaching by the Nicene Creed and then in the Nicene Council when the last version of Bible was accepted and all further amendment were closed by the Evangelical authorities. Another well-known historian Edward Gibbon in his work ‘Fall and Decline of Roman Empire’ (page 250 Wordsworth edition) has also indicated the turbulent circumstances after the death of Jesus Christ, which indicate that there were several versions of what Christ had said and that the adherents of these different versions disputed with each other. This dispute went on till Constantine the great ( 274 to 337 AD) vigorously intervened in this dispute, directed the then popular cardinal authorities to get together and agree in the intrestes  of consolidation of his rule on a single version of what Christ had said.

No priest or Cardinal can ever have the capacity to compile, edit and replace the words of a holy person like Jesus Christ; and it is not because of the lack of faith or honesty in the editor but his lack of spiritual power of the holy person.

Then, what is the way out?

Do we have an alternative source of information about the life and works of Jesus Christ other than the Biblical ecclestial editors or historians?

Yes, we do have such alternative source in the discovery of Nicolas Notovitch, which is available in his book ‘The Unknown Years of Jesus Christ’ published in 1887. In the preface of this work, the author thus writes:

“After the close of the Turko-Russian War (1877- 1878) I undertook a series of extended journeys through the Orient. Having visited all points of interest in the Balkan Peninsula, I crossed the Caucasian Mountains into Central Asia and Persia, and finally, in 1887, made an excursion into India, the most admired country of the dreams of my childhood. …… Wandering without any settled course from one locality to another, I at last came to mountainous Afghanistan, whence I reached India through the picturesque passes of Bolan and Guernai’. I then followed the Indus to Rawal-Pindi, traveled through the Punjab — the country of five rivers — visited the golden temple of Amritsir, the tomb of Randjid Singh, king of the Punjab, near Lahore, and proceeded toward Kashmir, the ” vale of eternal happiness.” There I began my peregrinations as fancy or curiosity guided or dictated, until I reached the Ladak, where I intended to make a somewhat lengthy stay before returning to Russia through Eastern Turkestan and Karakorum.

“In the course of one of my visits to a Buddhist convent, I learned from the chief Lama that there existed very ancient memoirs, treating of the life of Christ and of the nations of the Occident, in the archives of Lassa, and that a few of the larger monasteries possessed copies and translations of these precious chronicles. …….

“During my sojourn in Leh, the capital of Ladak, I visited Himis, a large convent in the outskirts of the city, where I was informed by the Lama that the monastic libraries contained a few copies of the manuscript in question. …….

“An unfortunate accident, whereby my leg was fractured, furnished me with a totally unexpected pretext to enter the monastery, where I received excellent care and nursing; and I took advantage of my short stay among these monks to obtain the privilege of seeing the manuscripts relating to Christ.

“With the aid of my interpreter, who translated from the Thibetan tongue, I carefully transcribed the verses as they were read by the Lama.

“Entertaining no doubt of the authenticity of this narrative, written with the utmost precision by Brahmin historians and Buddhists of India and Nepal, my intention was to publish the translation on my return to Europe.

“With this object in view, I addressed myself to several well-known ecclesiastics, requesting them to revise my notes and tell me what they thought of the matter.

“Monseigneur Platon, the celebrated archbishop of Kiew, believed my discovery to be of great importance; but he earnestly tried to dissuade me from giving the memoirs publicity, declaring it would be against my own interests to do so.

“Why? This the venerable prelate refused to explain………..

“A year later I chanced to be in Rome. Here I submitted the manuscript to a cardinal standing high in the estimation of the Holy Father. “Why should you print this?” he said, didactically; ‘ nobody will attach much importance to it, and you will create numberless enemies thereby. You are still young, however. If you need money, I can obtain some compensation for these notes, enough to remunerate you for your loss of time and expenditure.” Naturally enough, I refused the offer.

“In Paris I laid my project before Cardinal Rotelli, whom I had met in Constantinople. He also opposed the publication of my work, under pretext that it would be premature. ” The church,” he added, “suffers too deeply from this new current of atheistic ideas; and you would only furnish new food to the calumniators and detractors of the evangelical doctrine. I tell you this in the interest of all Christian churches.”

“I then called on M. Jules Simon, who found my communication most interesting, and advised me to consult M. Kenan in regard to the best means of publishing these memoirs. The very next day I found myself seated in the study of the great philosopher. At the end of the interview M. Renan proposed that I should intrust him with the memoirs in question, that he might make a report on them to the Academy.

“This proposition, as the reader will understand, was most seductive and nattering; yet I took away the work with me, saying I wished to revise it once more —the fact being that I feared if I accepted this association I would only receive the bare honor of discovering the chronicles, while the illustrious author of the ” Life of Jesus’ would reap the glory of the publication and of the commentaries. …..

“I therefore prepared my notes, and now publish them, reserving the right to attest the authenticity of these chronicles. In my commentaries I carefully develop the arguments which prove the good faith and sincerity of the Buddhist compilers.

“It only remains for me to add that before criticising my work scientific societies can, without much expense, organize an expedition whose mission it will be to study these manuscripts in the locality in which they are to be found, and thus verify their historical value. Nicolas Notovitch.”

In the last part of his narrative in “The Unknown Years of Jesus Christ “ Notovitch writes under the heading ‘Epitome’ thus:

“In reading the life of Issa (Jesus Christ), we are at first struck by the similarity between some of its principal passages and the biblical narrative; while, on the other hand, we also find equally remarkable contradictions, which constitute the difference between the Buddhist version and that found in the Old and New Testaments.

“To explain this singularity, we must take into account the periods in which the facts were recorded. In childhood, we were taught to believe that the Pentateuch was written by Moses himself; but the careful investigations of co-temporary savants have conclusively demonstrated, that in the days of Moses, and even long after him, there existed no writings in those countries bathed by the Mediterranean, save the Egyptian hieroglyphics and the cuneiform inscriptions still found in the excavations of Babylon.

“But we know, to the contrary, that the alphabet and parchment were known and used in China and India long before Moses.

“Of this we have ample proof.

“The sacred books of the ‘ ‘ religion of the wise men,” teaches us that the alphabet was invented in China, in 2800 B. C, by Fou-si, who was the first Chinese emperor to embrace that religion. It was he who also arranged the ritual and outward ceremonies. Yaou, the fourth Chinese emperor who adopted the same faith, published moral and civil laws, and, in the year 2228 B. C, prepared a penal code. On his accession to the throne, Soune, the fifth emperor, proclaimed the “religion of the wise men” as the religion of state; and in 2282, he enacted new penal laws. These laws, modified by the Emperor Woo-Wang, who was the founder of the Chow dynasty in 1122, are now known under the name of the “Changes.”

“Moreover, the doctrine of Buddha-Fo, whose real name was Cakya-Mouni, was written on parchment. Foism began to spread through China about the year 260 B. C; in 206, an emperor of the Tsine dynasty, who desired to study Buddhism, sent to India for the Buddhist Silifan; while the Emperor Ming-Ti, of the Han dynasty, one year before Christ, procured the sacred books written by Cakya-Mouni, the founder of Buddhism, who lived about the year 1200 before Christ.

“The doctrine of Buddha Gaouthama, or Gautama, who lived six hundred years before Christ, was written on parchment in the Pali language. At this epoch, there already existed in India about eighty-four thousand Buddhist manuscripts, the compiling of which must have required a considerable number of years.

“While the Chinese and Hindoos already possessed a rich collection of written literature, the less fortunate, or more ignorant nations, who had no alphabet, transmitted orally, from generation to generation, what came to pass.

“Owing to the unreliability of the human memory, and its relative incapacity, not to speak of oriental embellishments, historical facts soon degenerated into fabulous legends, which, later, were gathered by unknown compilers and given to the world under the title of the “Five Books of Moses.”

“The legend also attributes a truly extraordinary divine power to this Hebrew legislator, and credits him with a series of miracles performed in the presence of Pharaoh; might it not be equally mistaken in declaring that he was an Israelite by birth?

“The Hindoo chroniclers, on the contrary, thanks to the invention of the alphabet, were enabled to preserve, not fabulous legends, but a concise narrative of recent events accomplished in their midst, as well as of the reports received from the merchants who had just visited foreign lands.

“It is necessary to remark here that during this period of antiquity, as in our own days, oriental public life was concentrated in the bazaars, where the events of the day and the news from foreign nations were propagated by caravans of merchants, who were usually followed by a number of dervises who readily told all they had seen and heard on their journey, in exchange for food. In fact, this was their sole means of subsistence.

“The commerce of India with Egypt, and later with Europe, was carried on through Jerusalem, where, even as early as the reign of Solomon, Hindoo caravans brought precious metals and all that was necessary for the construction of the temple. From Europe, the merchandise came to Jerusalem bv sea, and was unloaded in the harbor where Jaffa now stands.

“The chronicles in question were written before, during, and after Christ; although no attention was paid to Jesus during his sojourn in India, where he came as a simple pilgrim to study the Brahman and Buddhist laws.

“But later, when the events which had aroused Israel were related in India, these chroniclers – after having committed to writing all they had just heard concerning the prophet Issa, whom an oppressed nation had followed and who had been executed by the order of Pilate – remembered that this same Issa had recently lived among them and studied in their midst, and that he had then returned to his own country.

“A deep interest was immediately aroused concerning this man who had so rapidly grown in importance in their eyes, and they at once began an investigation into his birth, his past, and every detail of his existence.

“The two manuscripts read to me by the lama of the Himis Convent, were compiled from divers copies written in the Thibetan tongue, translated from rolls belonging to the Lassa library and brought from India, Nepal, and Maghada two hundred years after Christ.

“These were placed in a convent standing on Mount Marbour, near Lassa, where the Dalai-Lama now resides.

“These rolls were written in the Pali tongue, which certain lamas study carefully that they may translate the sacred writings from that language into the Thibetan dialect. The chroniclers were Buddhists belonging to the sect of Buddha Gautama.

“The information contained about Christ is oddly mixed, without relation or coherence with other events of that period. Without preliminary details or explanation, the manuscript begins by announcing that, in the very year of the death of Christ, a few merchants just returned from Judea have brought back the information that a just man named Issa, an Israelite, after having been twice acquitted by his judges – as was the man of God – was finally put to death at the instigation of the Pagan Governor, Pilate, who feared that Jesus would take advantage of his popularity to re-establish the Kingdom of Israel and expel its conquerors from the land.

“Then comes the somewhat incoherent tale of Jesus preaching among the Guebers and other pagans, evidently written in the year following the death of Christ, in whom there is a growing interest.

“In one of these the merchants relate what is known of the origin of Jesus and of his family, while another gives the story of the expulsion of his partisans and the bitter persecutions they endured.

“It is not until the end of the second volume is reached, that we find the first categorical affirmation of the chronicler where he declares that Issa is blessed by God and the best of all men; that he is the chosen one of the great Brahma, the man in whom is incarnated the spirit detached from the Supreme Being at a period determined by fate.

“Having explained that Issa was the son of poor parents and of Israelite extraction, the chronicler makes a slight digression with the object of telling us who were the children of Israel.

“These fragments of the life of Issa, I have disposed of in chronological order, endeavoring to give them a character of unity totally wanting in the original form.

“I leave to savants, philosophers, and theologians, the task of searching the cause of contradictions that may be found between the “Unknown Life of Issa, ‘ which I make public, and the story told by the Evangelists.

“But I am inclined to believe that nobody will hesitate to acknowledge that this version, recorded within three or four years after the death of Christ from the testimonies of eye witnesses, is more likely to bear the stamp of truth than the narratives of the Evangelists, who wrote at divers epochs, and so long a time after these events took place, that we can not be astonished if the facts have been altered or distorted. ……”

The author throws an open challenge to go to Leh in Ladakh, which is not on some another planet, and to find out the Rolls about Issa or Christ, and replace them as the authentic Bible.

Do we need to salvage the holy words of Jesus Christ by replacing the words spoken by Christ as described in the Leh Rolls?

Or, are the vested petty worldly interests of the holy clergy too heavy to allow this salvage?

(Read New Bible – Leh Rolls)


In this Age of Science, Assessment of the Bible’s Worth

By: Robert L. Johnson

Many rank and file Christians sincerely believe the Bible is a direct communication from God to man. I know I used to believe it was when I was a Christian. And from recent conversations with many sincere Christians I know this is currently true for many believers. Once it is proven to our God-given reason that the Bible is strictly a man-made collection of mythology the mind loses yet another shackle of “revelation” and is soon on its way to full freedom and progress.

The Bible was not handed to mankind by God, nor was it dictated to human stenographers by God. It has nothing to do with God. In actuality, the Bible was VOTED to be the word of God by a group of men during the 4th century.

According to Professor John Crossan of Biblical Studies at DePaul University the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (274-337 CE), who was the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity, needed a single canon to be agreed upon by the Christian leaders to help him unify the remains of the Roman Empire. Until this time the various Christian leaders could not decide which books would be considered “holy” and thus “the word of God” and which ones would be excluded and not considered the word of God.

Emperor Constantine, who was Roman Emperor from 306 CE until his death in 337 CE, used what motivates many to action – MONEY! He offered the various Church leaders money to agree upon a single canon that would be used by all Christians as the word of God. The Church leaders gathered together at the Council of Nicaea and voted the “word of God” into existence. (I wish to thank Brian Show for pointing out in his rebuttal to this article that the final version of the Christian Bible was not voted on at the Council of Nicaea, per se. The Church leaders didn’t finish editing the “holy” scriptures until the Council of Trent when the Catholic Church pronounced the Canon closed. However, it seems the real approving editor of the Bible was not God but Constantine! This fact is revealed in the second counter-rebuttal to Brian Show’s first rebuttal to this article. This counter-rebuttal makes the following important statement and backs it up with FACTS – Therefore, one can easily argue that the first Christian Bible was commissioned, paid for, inspected and approved by a pagan emperor for church use.Of course, I’d like to express my deep appreciation to fellow Deist Peter Murphy for the great research work he did in order to write such a great counter-rebuttal!)

In the landmark work by H.G. Wells, The Outline of History, Vol. I, pages 462-463, we read,

It (the Council of Nicaea) marks the definite entry upon the stage of human affairs of the Christian Church and of Christianity as it is generally understood in the world to-day. It marks the exact definition of Christian teaching by the Nicene Creed.

Constantine ordered and financed 50 parchment copies of the new “holy scriptures.” It seems with the financial element added to the picture, the Church fathers were able to overcome their differences and finally agree which “holy” books would stay and which would go.

Compare the man-made origins of Christianity and its various dogmas to the simplicity of Deism. Deism is belief in God based only on reason and the creation itself. It makes no claim to false “revelations” as all of the “revealed” religions do. To Deists, proof of the Designer is in the design.

To quote Thomas Paine,

Were man impressed as fully and as strongly as he ought to be with the belief of a God, his moral life would be regulated by the force of that belief; he would stand in awe of God and of himself, and would not do the thing that could not be concealed from either. To give this belief the full opportunity of force, it is necessary that it acts alone. This is Deism. But when, according to the Christian Trinitarian scheme, one part of God is represented by a dying man, and another part, called the Holy Ghost, by a flying pigeon, it is impossible that belief can attach itself to such wild conceits. . . .

The study of theology, as it stands in the Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. Not anything can be studied as a science, without our being in possession of the principles upon which it is founded; and as this is not the case with Christian theology, it is therefore the study of nothing.

Instead then of studying theology, as is now done out of the Bible and Testament, the meanings of which books are always controverted and the authenticity of which is disproved, it is necessary that we refer to the Bible of the Creation. The principles we discover there are eternal and of divine origin; they are the foundation of all the science that exists in the world, and must be the foundation of theology.

We can know God only through His works. We cannot have a conception of any one attribute but by following some principle that leads to it. We have only a confused idea of His power, if we have not the means of comprehending something of its immensity. We can have no idea of His wisdom, but by knowing the order and manner in which it acts. The principles of science lead to this knowledge; for the Creator of man is the Creator of science, and it is through that medium that man can see God, as it were, face to face.

James Tissot (French, 1836-1902). Jesus Goes Up Alone onto a Mountain to Pray, 1886−94.

On May 12, 1797 while living in Paris, France Tom Paine wrote the following letter to a Christian friend who was trying to convert Paine to Christianity. Paine’s response fits perfectly with this page regarding the origins of the Bible.

In your letter of the twentieth of March, you give me several quotations from the Bible, which you call the Word of God, to show me that my opinions on religion are wrong, and I could give you as many, from the same book to show that yours are not right; consequently, then, the Bible decides nothing, because it decides any way, and every way, one chooses to make it.

But by what authority do you call the Bible the Word of God? for this is the first point to be settled. It is not your calling it so that makes it so, any more than the Mahometans calling the Koran the Word of God makes the Koran to be so. The Popish Councils of Nice and Laodicea, about 350 years after the time the person called Jesus Christ is said to have lived, voted the books that now compose what is called the New Testament to be the Word of God. This was done by yeas and nays, as we now vote a law.

The Pharisees of the second temple, after the Jews returned from captivity in Babylon, did the same by the books that now compose the Old Testament, and this is all the authority there is, which to me is no authority at all. I am as capable of judging for myself as they were, and I think more so, because, as they made a living by their religion, they had a self-interest in the vote they gave.

You may have an opinion that a man is inspired, but you cannot prove it, nor can you have any proof of it yourself, because you cannot see into his mind in order to know how he comes by his thoughts; and the same is the case with the word revelation. There can be no evidence of such a thing, for you can no more prove revelation than you can prove what another man dreams of, neither can he prove it himself.

It is often said in the Bible that God spake unto Moses, but how do you know that God spake unto Moses? Because, you will say, the Bible says so. The Koran says, that God spake unto Mahomet, do you believe that too? No.

Why not? Because, you will say, you do not believe it; and so because you do, and because you don’t is all the reason you can give for believing or disbelieving except that you will say that Mahomet was an impostor. And how do you know Moses was not an impostor?

For my own part, I believe that all are impostors who pretend to hold verbal communication with the Deity. It is the way by which the world has been imposed upon; but if you think otherwise you have the same right to your opinion that I have to mine, and must answer for it in the same manner. But all this does not settle the point, whether the Bible be the Word of God, or not. It is therefore necessary to go a step further. The case then is: –

You form your opinion of God from the account given of Him in the Bible; and I form my opinion of the Bible from the wisdom and goodness of God manifested in the structure of the universe, and in all works of creation. The result in these two cases will be, that you, by taking the Bible for your standard, will have a bad opinion of God; and I, by taking God for my standard, shall have a bad opinion of the Bible.

The Bible represents God to be a changeable, passionate, vindictive being; making a world and then drowning it, afterwards repenting of what he had done, and promising not to do so again. Setting one nation to cut the throats of another, and stopping the course of the sun till the butchery should be done. But the works of God in the creation preach to us another doctrine. In that vast volume we see nothing to give us the idea of a changeable, passionate, vindictive God; everything we there behold impresses us with a contrary idea – that of unchangeableness and of eternal order, harmony, and goodness.

The sun and the seasons return at their appointed time, and everything in the creation claims that God is unchangeable. Now, which am I to believe, a book that any impostor might make and call the Word of God, or the creation itself which none but an Almighty Power could make? For the Bible says one thing, and the creation says the contrary. The Bible represents God with all the passions of a mortal, and the creation proclaims him with all the attributes of a God.

It is from the Bible that man has learned cruelty, rapine, and murder; for the belief of a cruel God makes a cruel man. That bloodthirsty man, called the prophet Samuel, makes God to say, (I Sam. xv. 3) ‘Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not, but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.’

That Samuel or some other impostor might say this, is what, at this distance of time, can neither be proved nor disproved, but in my opinion it is blasphemy to say, or to believe, that God said it. All our ideas of the justice and goodness of God revolt at the impious cruelty of the Bible. It is not a God, just and good, but a devil, under the name of God, that the Bible describes.

What makes this pretended order to destroy the Amalekites appear the worse, is the reason given for it. The Amalekites, four hundred years before, according to the account in Exodus xvii. (but which has the appearance of fable from the magical account it gives of Moses holding up his hands), had opposed the Israelites coming into their country, and this the Amalekites had a right to do, because the Israelites were the invaders, as the Spaniards were the invaders of Mexico. This opposition by the Amalekites, at that time, is given as a reason, that the men, women, infants and sucklings, sheep and oxen, camels and asses, that were born four hundred years afterward, should be put to death; and to complete the horror, Samuel hewed Agag, the chief of the Amalekites, in pieces, as you would hew a stick of wood. I will bestow a few observations on this case.

In the first place, nobody knows who the author, or writer, of the book of Samuel was, and, therefore, the fact itself has no other proof than anonymous or hearsay evidence, which is no evidence at all. In the second place, this anonymous book says, that this slaughter was done by the express command of God: but all our ideas of the justice and goodness of God give the lie to the book, and as I never will believe any book that ascribes cruelty and injustice to God, I therefore reject the Bible as unworthy of credit.

As I have now given you my reasons for believing that the Bible is not the Word of God, that it is a falsehood, I have a right to ask you your reasons for believing the contrary; but I know you can give me none, except that you were educated to believe the Bible; and as the Turks give the same reason for believing the Koran, it is evident that education makes all the difference, and that reason and truth have nothing to do in the case.

You believe in the Bible from the accident of birth, and the Turks believe in the Koran from the same accident, and each calls the other infidel. But leaving the prejudice of education out of the case, the unprejudiced truth is, that all are infidels who believe falsely of God, whether they draw their creed from the Bible, or from the Koran, from the Old Testament, or from the New.

When you have examined the Bible with the attention that I have done (for I do not think you know much about it), and permit yourself to have just ideas of God, you will most probably believe as I do. But I wish you to know that this answer to your letter is not written for the purpose of changing your opinion. It is written to satisfy you, and some other friends whom I esteem, that my disbelief of the Bible is founded on a pure and religious belief in God; for in my opinion the Bible is a gross libel against the justice and goodness of God, in almost every part of it.

(Note: This article is publishe HERE and was originally appeared at World Union of Deists. We have added red color to certain portions to emphasize them.)

‘Intolerance and Dalit – Hate’ – The Other Way Round

‘Breaking India’ forces are active not only in JNU in India but also at a Canadian University. A so-called ‘Dalit Studies’ Prof. (named Chinnaiah Jangam) in Carleton University in Canada has made such a demeaning ruckus on 3rd May, 2017 over a scheduled public talk there by a visiting Indian academician on “Indian Drishti: Is there an Indian Way of Seeing”, which was organized by Overseas Friends of India, that he managed to see that the talk is cancelled.

It was meant to be a public talk – a talk by the speaker and followed by questions, if any, raised by the audience and answers by the speaker. It was an innocuous program with all the freedom to expression by anybody involved in the event. But this ‘Dalit Studies’ professor did not relish such a freedom to be accorded to an alternative view, which could have been contrary to views held by him. These breaking India forces, in India and elsewhere, pose themselves as the greatest champion of freedom of expression but are so hateful of others that they deny this right to them, whom they think of their rivals.

First the facts of event gathered from the press release of the victim JNU Professor and then the introduction of this hateful Prof. Chinnaiah Jangam working at this Canadian University. The press release said:

On May 3rd, 2017, Dr. Makarand R. Paranjape, poet, philosopher, author and Professor of English Literature at Jawaharlal Nehru University, was blocked from recording a conversation on “Drishti: Is there an Indian Way of Seeing?” with Adjunct Professor Dr. Harsha Dehejia at Carleton University.  This was done at the behest of a faculty member of Indian origin, Assistant Professor Chinnaiah Jangam, Department of History, who managed to browbeat his employer viz. Carleton University to cancel a video recording that expressed Indic Civilizational viewpoint. The subject matter was purely academic-philosophical and aesthetic, in nature, and quite unrelated to Asst. Prof. Jangam’s area of expertise, Dalit Studies, but Dr. Jangam chose to fling absurd abuses at Prof. Paranjape, alleging “hate speech”, right outside the recording studio. So intense was the ruckus created by Asst. Prof. Jangam that the studio administrator was intimidated into canceling the scheduled recording. Dr. Harsha Dehejia, the host, was forced to walk back along his guest, shaken and indignant.

Dr. Paranjape’s colleagues and fellow academicians were shocked to hear such vitriol against India by a fellow academician of Indian origin. Ideological reasoning of “Dalit activism” was employed to justify the intellectual venom against the Indian state and civilization. When contacted, Dr. Paranjape said that he “has never supported discrimination on the basis of caste, ethnicity, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual preference. It is indeed sad and disturbing,” he added, “when ideological masks are used to advance India-hating or India-bashing by intolerant groups who call themselves progressive or ‘Leftist,’ but end up suppressing freedom of expression and debate on campuses all over the world.” When Dr. Gautam Sen, economist and former professor at London School of Economics, heard about this incident, he said, “A few days earlier, I attended an illuminating talk by Dr. Paranjape on identity politics at Queen Mary, University of London, which was well-received by an appreciative audience. His patience and courtesy dealing with hostile and hard Leftists in the audience, who apparently attended to disrupt, was exemplary. I can scarcely believe him capable of discourtesy, let alone hate speech.”

Following this incident of suppressing free speech, a determined group of Indo-Canadian concerned citizens, most of them highly qualified professionals, civil servants, and friends of India, rose up to challenge the forces of intimidation and “intellectual terrorism.” Overseas Friends of India (OFI) decided to arrange a meeting for Dr. Paranjape to speak, albeit at short notice. The very next evening on May 4th Dr. Paranjape addressed a sizable audience of Indo-Canadians, touching a number of issues, including the topic for which he had come to visit Carleton University. A fitting reply was thus offered to Asst. Prof. Jangam’s machinations to shut down academic freedom of expression at Carleton.

Mr. Shiv Bhasker, the leader of the OFI in Ottawa, and the principal organizer of the resistance expressed satisfaction at the turn of events. He said, “OFI is resolved to meet the challenge of intellectual terrorism; debate, free speech, and academic freedom should not be stifled on Canadian campuses by ideological crusaders, regardless of their persuasion.”

The organization is contemplating taking the issue further with the administration of Carleton University.

Who is this Prof. Chinnaiah Jangam?

He is an Assistant Professor, Department of History, Carleton University, pursuing a project titled “Bearing the Stigma: Being a Dalit (Untouchable) in India”. His profile HERE says:

“This project, inspired by the African American scholars like Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Cornel West and their critical dissection of race and racial prejudices in the United States, delves into the history of caste prejudice in modern India. As one of the most extreme expressions of social stigma in human history, caste remains an insidious component of the mental frame of every caste Hindu in India. This study probes into the subjective experiences of the educated Dalit middle class whose educational and employment achievements often get overpowered by the prejudice of caste even in the urban sphere. Using historical and anthropological tools, the project aims to narrate the everyday life experiences of Dalits as an account of the history of caste prejudice in modern India. Studies on Dalits in India have been flourishing in the last ten years primarily because of their emergence as a decisive political community in changing the equations of electoral politics.

By using their numerical strength and voting rights as political weapons, Dalits are redefining the contours and meaning of democracy in India. Therefore understandably most of the studies on Dalits in India are centered on the roots of their political assertion and organized political protests against injustice, caste inequality and the practice of untouchability (Saurabh Dube, Ramnarayan Singh Rawat, Anupama Rao), but none of these works focus on the lived experience of being a Dalit.  Unlike the African Americans whose experiences of racism and their testimonies against the institution of slavery through autobiographies and biographies (W.E.B. DuBois, Fredric Douglass, Harriet Jacob, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr.) shook the foundations of academic fields across the disciplines, there is unfortunately a dearth of studies on Dalit experience in South Asian Studies. Dalit experiences have never formed a part of an academic debate. Neither have they been theorized, which is why the prominent Dalit theoretician in India, Gopal Guru, has rightly asserted that for ‘Dalits theory is a social necessity’ (Gopal Guru and Sundar Sarukkai, 2012). Therefore the empirical studies on Dalits that have populated the social sciences and humanities have done so without paying any attention to their lived experience.  Thus this highly original study makes a fundamental departure from the empirical studies and foregrounds itself on the inescapable experience of being Dalit – an untouched theme –  to firmly entrench new theoretical furrows in the field of social sciences.

This project contributes in expanding the intellectual horizon of Modern South Asia by bringing Dalit life narratives into conversation with other forms of stigmas in society such as race, gender, sexuality, ability/disability, privilege/disprivilege inheritance/disinheritance, dignity/humiliation, claims/denials, and social dignity/social death. It also aims to document narratives of Dalit experiences in the form of a digital library: an interactive platform for Dalits living in India and abroad to share their personal stories, agonies of bearing the burden of debilitating humiliations as an endeavor to end the prejudice of caste. More traditional academic outcomes of this project will be publications in refereed academic journals and a monograph. Most importantly it will also be presented in seminars and workshops to generate new debates around the theme of genre of Dalit life narratives in Modern South Asia. The digital component is envisioned as a means to continue the dialogue beyond the academia and establish a meaningful conduit into the larger global community.”

Indeed the ‘Breaking India’ forces are leaving no stone unturned – by foul or fair means – to ensure that India is not allowed to make a respectable place in the global community.


Caste and Caste-discrimination in India

The word ‘Caste’ evokes immediate mental impression of the ‘discriminatory treatment’ of certain people based on their castes, a social practice that has been prevalent in India for thousands of years. It is particularly so with the Western people, who are not much aware of the ancient history of India wherein lie the original roots and rationale of this socially acceptable behavior. We are not concerned here with those who find in this discriminatory social behavior a suitable political opportunity to exploit the situation.  Discrimination on the basis of caste is prohibited by the Indian Constitution and many legal provisions have been made therein to undo the injustice that has been inflicted on certain people as a ‘class by Caste’ in the past. This subject is very relevant to modern India and it is always advantageous to learn more on this subject. Here we are giving a dialog on this subject between Sri Rajiv Malhotra, a well-known Indologist, and Prof. R. Vaidyanathan, a well-known academician.

Rajiv : I wanted to start by asking you about the Jati system. A very controversial topic, the moment you say Jati, people immediately jump on you and say oppression, ‘it’s very bad’, ‘Hindus are to be blamed’. Then Hindus get defensive and say no! But you have a very different view. You are saying that actually Jati structure is very good for the economy and it is not oppressive, it is actually protecting people. So can you elaborate on that?

Prof Vaidya: You brought up this interesting issue of the Jati system. I’ve always maintained two or three important things in this.

First thing is, when we talk about Jati, it doesn’t mean we talk about Caste discrimination. These two are totally different things. People immediately jump and then, second is I think you’ve been writing also, you know quite well that this whole idea of Caste is taken from Portuguese language, prior to this we were not having it. It was not hierarchical, it was made hierarchical with the British in order to suit their own idea of how Bharat should be viewed, because they have this in the Government service in Britain, the A, B, C, D classification, so which is one. If I recall correctly, in 1881, the first to Census, brought in this whole idea of Caste enumeration and hierarchically bringing it. If my numbers are right, some 1300 and odd castes were listed at that time. In 1881, first Census of Bharat, prior to this there was no regular census.

Rajiv: But Jati was different.

Prof Vaidya: But they…

Rajiv: …they turned into castes. So how is Jati economics?

Prof Vaidya: So that’s what they did and you know that is very interesting, In 1881 census, there were quite a number, nearly 100 plus were one-member castes. Only one member claimed under. And then they decided, based upon their own idea, how to make it hierarchical. Till then there was no idea of hierarchical because there is a huge churning that is always taking place. What we consider today as so called lower-groupings in the communities, they came in the higher-grouping in the communities and vice versa. If you for instance, talk to lower-grouping, they will never recognize themselves as lower-castes. They will say we were Kings.

Rajiv: But still I am trying to get what is the economic purpose of the Jati?

Prof Vaidya: Actually what has happened is, we have an uncanny ability to deride anything on which we can leverage. If you look at it, I use the word caste itself, significant amount of economic progress in various clusters, there are some 870-900 defined clusters of economic activity in the country. Not Bombay, Delhi type of thing, there is Tirupur, there is Sivkashi, there is Morbi, there is Punjab. So like that various places. All of these clusters have thriving economic activity,are boom centres and almost all of them are caste based structures.

Rajiv: Not the upper castes?

Prof Vaidya: No! Not at all.

Rajiv: Okay! That’s important.

Prof Vaidya: Including the schedule castes. I have seen in Agra and other places. It facilitates in several ways. One is, risk mitigation for instance.

Rajiv: Ok, so now we have started the real point. First benefit of caste is risk mitigation.

Prof Vaidya: If suppose somebody fails, other don’t look down upon him as a failure or anything. They go and help him.

Rajiv: Do they support each other?

Prof Vaidya: Yes. They support each other.

Rajiv: So it is an economic club.

Prof Vaidya: Yes. Credit is made available without much security or paperwork because they know that there is a caste pressure on him to repay. It’s more a question of honour, not rule. It is more relationship based. We are a relationship based society, not rule based society. Relationship based society has got ideas of concern about fear of God, more than fear of love. The urban people in Bharat, the middle class and merchant banking groups, they don’t have a fear of God.

Rajiv: So is it like a chamber of commerce?

Prof Vaidya: Sort of. You can call it.

Rajiv: There is a chamber of commerce of people who are in one industry or another industry.

Prof Vaidya: Yeah, I accept this chamber of commerce what we loosely call, ‘suited-booted-tied’ people. These people don’t have any of those type of things. They are mostly dhoti-clad, pan chewing and they do not even speak English.

Rajiv: But what is the secret to that they say we’ll be a club, we are all fisherman or we are all growing the same thing, we are not competing against each other, so what is the secret to cooperation not competition.

Prof Vaidya: Secret to cooperation is because their view of the world in terms of business is, the opportunities are so large. So there’s no need for cut throat competition. The other thing is also very interesting, that is an opportunity to take over the activities of another caste person from the same location in Tirupur. I was talking to him why he did not grab it? He said no sir, that is not normally done.

Rajiv: So they will not do hostile takeover? They will not try to wipe out the competitor.

Prof Vaidya: No. He says it’s not required.

Rajiv: It’s not within the honour?

Prof Vaidya: It’s not within the honour. It’s much larger opportunities and other thing is they don’t operate on ‘greed is good’. No! They don’t operate on that. They accumulate wealth and then they share it. Very important. Many of them have told me, the greatest of characters in Mahabharata is Karna. Not Arjuna, not Krishna. For the simple reason, he shared. So, that is what we should do. Our life is short. I think we have to understand this whole groups’ approach toward the business and activity is totally different.

So, risk mitigation, credit, market access – these are the benefits of Jati.  

This system also encourages youngsters. For instance, the Patels who started the Motels in the western coast of US. Practically, they have captured the entire motel business. They have encouraged large number of people of their own community.

Rajiv: Yeah. If you are a Patel, they’ll set you up. They’ll get you a motel. You are in business.

Prof: Correct. Or you go to this Antwerp, a small group of people, Jains actually, they are called Malankar Jains, they are a very small group but they have captured the diamond business in Antwerp. When I was visiting Brussels, some hotel had this Jain food counters. So I was puzzled. Why Jain food? Vegetarian food is okay but Jain food. Since the customer base is like that. To an extent, Wall Street Journal wrote an interesting article because the Jews had 70 percent of the diamond business in around 1970’s-1980’s. Today, these people (Jains) have 75 percent of the business. So, Wall Street Journal wrote a very interesting article, first time, the Jews have been defeated without violence. That’s the most important part of the story. Again they have operated as a very small cluster or a group. Very important is, Caste is a good cluster to leverage on it.

(Note: This article was originally published HERE)

Miseries inflicted on human-sea: by Religious-bigots and Imperialist-greed!

Year: 1947. Place: called India. Personae Dramatics: Humans similar in all respects, having common roots and common aspirations. Event: Partition of India. Result: Untold Human Miseries. Cause: The British imperialists who allowed people to indulge in religious bigotry and kill each other so that they may take advantage of the resulting enmity between people and people after they depart from India; and the political greed of Nehru and Jinnah who were consumed by their desire to rule their respective fiefdom. Only they know the pains of this man-made tragedy who – whether Hindus, Sikhs or Muslim – have participated in this event and lost their loved-ones and everything else! O, Indians and Pakistanis, Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, watch this video, weep on your folly and learn to live like loving brothers!

Globalism versus Localism: Indian View

By: Shatavardhani Dr. R. Ganesh

If we look into the past of human history, the big problem with the system of republics is the constant infighting. Since their vision is so narrow, when there is an attack from an external enemy, these republics don’t unite and offer resistance. It is for this reason an empire is necessary. But the problem with a kingdom or an empire is that the local and regional identities don’t survive. An ideal kingdom should lay stress on the local as well as the pan national aspects. But how can this be achieved? This had been the recurring problem of the great empires in the past.

This is indeed a big problem even in modern times. Today, everything is becoming globalized leaving us writhing in confusion. It’s difficult to know what to embrace. A big question is how to remain ‘local.’ The problem of “How do we retain our-ness?” is haunting everyone. This is the basic self-esteem and pride required to retain myself for me. Without that, I cannot stand. But in the mad flood of globalization, there seems to be a danger of being washed away. At the moment, it is not possible to solve the problem; and neither can we ignore it. So what’s the solution?

In Sanatana Dharma, we have the best of the answers available.

We get an idea of this when we cast a glance at the daily sankalpas that we take [as part of the sandhya ritual]. Along with recognizing the current day, we also recognize the universal time; along with recognizing the place where we are, we also recognize the universal space. We say, “ममोपात्त समस्तदुरितक्षयद्वारा” and then say, “शुभे शोभने मुहूर्ते आद्य ब्रह्मणः द्वितीयपरार्धे” all the way up to the particular (current) day of performing the ritual. Similarly, starting from the cosmos, we come to “सप्तद्वीपवसुन्धरायाः मध्ये जम्बूद्वीपे नवखण्डात्मके देशे भारतवर्षे भरतखण्डे मेरोः दक्षिणे पार्श्वे गोदावर्याः दक्षिणे तीरे” in the sankalpa mantra. It is local to the extent of the individual situated in a specific time and at a specific place; but it also connects with the eternal time of the universe and eternal space of the cosmos.* These connections are made effortlessly, easily.

Apart from adhering to such wisdom, we have no other options.

We have to connect the finite and the infinite as easily and as naturally as we breathe; we must enshrine in our hearts the idea of local and global.

This is something that Chanakya had observed. Therefore, without destroying the local and the regional, he retained the national and the centralized.

The question then arises as to when to value the local. It is possible only if we respect the established of the region and the clan — aspects like varna, shreni, jati, nigama, and puga. If we want to discard all this, we will have nothing that holds the society together. In this sense, everyone needs a symbol, a marker. In this context, neither jati nor varna is wrong. Those who blindly advocate the purging of these concepts have purged their own wisdom within.

I am an advocate of the Advaita school of Vedanta. This is not merely a blind belief, but an adherence that has resulted from my learning and contemplation. I adhere to it and follow it. But in the material world, without Dvaita, Advaita is impossible; and without Advaita, Dvaita is incomplete. Till the time I have my reservations and biases or attachment to my body or a sense of ego, I have to respect and honour Dvaita. I have to recognize my identity as a person belonging to my family, my street, my locality, my town, my country, and so on.

Even if we take the example of a sport like cricket, what does it mean to support a team in the Ranji Trophy or in the IPL? All these are ways in which we express our identity. Every individual strives to identify himself or herself in some manner, using a certain marker. But if we want this process of seeking identity not to be at the cost of losing our connection with infiniteness and eternity, then we must have a foot here and a foot there.

kshaatra The Tradition of Kshaatra in India – Harmony between Region and State indian-martial-arts-245x300

 This is not a state of dilemma or fluctuation but rather a state of dynamic equilibrium. This is possible in Sanatana Dharma. This is the reason why a center of worship and meditation has around it a prosperous world of activity and dynamism.

A wonderful example for this is Mahadeva as well as Mahavishnu. In the form of Dakshinarmurthy, Shiva is static; he sits under a Banyan tree and speaks not a word; he is absolutely silent. But in the form of Nataraja, Shiva is the embodiment of dynamism; dancing the seven tandavas, he pervades all directions and the Banyan tree grows everywhere; touching the ground in one instant and in the air at another, he inspires multiple identities. It’s the same with Vishnu; lying on Adishesha, he is ever in yoga-nidra. Taking on several avataras, he comes into the world as if it were a sport (leela), and rides in a great procession among men. Of their two forms, one is static and the other is dynamic.

We can apply this even to the wave-particle paradox in Quantum Mechanics.

This balance is essential for the kshaatra tradition. Kautilya had a vision of this. This concept is found in the Vedas themselves. It is because Chanakya firmly grasped this fundamental principle that he made provisions for all kinds of social and governance aspects in his Arthashastra.

As we have mentioned earlier, the Vedas call a kshatriya as ‘gopa.’ Starting from a village headman called ‘gopa,’ for every village, Kautilya has clearly chalked out the roles and responsibilities of a leader, all the way up to the emperor, the king, and the supreme ruler.

We also see this in our Dharmashastra literature. All the local customs and traditions must be respected and should not be violated. In the modern context, if people blindly harp on the tune of multiculturalism without paying heed to tradition, then just like the ancient republics, our country too will be destroyed. And this didn’t happen just with the ancient republics in India; ancient Greece met with a similar fate.

* Typically, wherever we travel, our sankalpa mantras as part of our daily worship remain the same. But now, with many Hindus settled in different parts of the world like the US, Europe, or Australia, people have modified the sankalpa mantra as ‘kraunchadvipe,’ ‘shakadvipe,’ etc. There’s nothing wrong with it. At the same time, retaining our own sankalpa mantras are also fine, since in the realm of feeling, we are in our homeland — jambudvipe, bharatavarshe. Like the Kannada poet Kuvempu famously said, “Wherever you may be, however you may be, always be a Kannadiga.”

(Note: The introduction of the author of this article reads thus: Dr. Ganesh is a ‘shatavadhani’ and one of India’s foremost Sanskrit poets and scholars. He writes and lectures extensively on various subjects pertaining to India and Indian cultural heritage. He is a master of the ancient art of avadhana and is credited with reviving the art in Kannada. He is a recipient of the Badarayana-Vyasa Puraskar from the President of India for his contribution to the Sanskrit language. This article is translated from the original Kannada by Hari Ravikumar and was originally published HERE)

Status of Women in Indian Civilization

By: Hari Ravikumar

The history of the world has been biased towards men but there is ample evidence of the immense contribution of women in various disciplines. Starting from the earliest scriptures of India all through our classical and pre-colonial history, we see how women have played a vital role in shaping our civilization and our country.

Compared to the rest of the world, historically India seems to have been far more open-minded and compassionate towards women and their status in society.

The legacy of women

A favourite platitude of our times is: “Look at how women are advancing in today’s world! They are excelling in all fields and standing equal with men.” While there is much truth in this declaration, it suggests that for the past several thousand years, women have done nothing worthwhile and have suddenly come out of hibernation in the 20th century.

This, as we know, is wholly untrue.

In the Rigveda Samhita, the oldest treatise known to us, we find many hymns composed by rishikas (women poet-sages). In fact, the mantras that are chanted at every Hindu wedding (from Rigveda Samhita 10.85) were composed by Suryaa Savitri. Here are a couple of sparkling verses from that poem:

When Suryaa went to her husband,
Thought was her pillow
Sight was the kohl in her eyes
Earth and Sky became her bridal box
(RVS 10.85.7)

When Suryaa went to her husband’s home,
Mind became her chariot
the Sky became her shawl
Sun and Moon became the oxen
(RVS 10.85.10)

In the Upanishads, we find philosophers like Maitreyi and Gargi engaging in discussions and public debates (for example, see Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.4). In the Puranas, Itihasas, Smritis, and later texts, there are several references to the brilliance, fortitude, eloquence, and resourcefulness of women. In the classical and pre-colonial eras, we find women rulers, ministers, saints, poets, bodyguards, dancers, mathematicians, teachers, spies, philosophers, and musicians.

Not only do we find examples of women contributing to every field, but we also know that they enjoyed much freedom. There is a conversation between Pandu and Kunti in the Sambhava Parva of the Mahabharata (in Book 1 / Adi Parva). Pandu was cursed to die the moment he had sex. But he wanted to have children to take the lineage forward. So he tries to convince Kunti to seek another source to beget a child. (Remember, Pandu himself was not born to his legal father, but to the sage Vyasa). When Kunti protests, Pandu recalls the ancient period where men and women had equal sexual freedom and their having sex outside of marriage was not considered to be outside the purview of dharma. He even mentions that such practices were prevalent among the Kurus in the North at that time. While this is merely a stray example, we find that even our so-called radical ideas of modern times have had some place in ancient stories.

Complement vs. Compete

From the earliest days, women and men worked together to procure food. They also worked together in their chosen profession. If they were farmers, the woman might sow the seeds while the man might plough. If the woman harvested, the man would clean the grains. If the man did the packing, the woman sold it in the market. (For example, see Rigveda Samhita 8.31 which describes a couple working together, procuring materials for ritual and doing household chores).

The ancient people seem to have understood without exception that men and women are complementary to each other. It is pointless trying to figure out if the lyric is more essential than the melody; what we do know is that a song is incomplete without the words and the tune.

In the guise of ‘men and women are equal,’ an unhealthy competition has crept into our psyche today.

While men and women indeed have most things in common, we are also different – physically, emotionally, and mentally. Why has this become such a big problem? In fact, it is our differences that make us valuable to each other. We should recognize and embrace these differences.

If men and women were equal, the distinction becomes superfluous and diversity goes out of the window.

That said we must never lose sight of what we have in common. In 1832, Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote, “A great mind must be androgynous.” Commenting on this, Virginia Woolf said, “Perhaps a mind that is purely masculine cannot create, any more than a mind that is purely feminine… the androgynous mind is resonant and porous… it transmits emotion without impediment… it is naturally creative, incandescent and undivided.”

The concept of the androgynous mind is similar to the concept of ardhanarishvara described in our Puranas – Shiva and Parvati come together to become one, showing their inseparability. This idea itself seems to be inspired by the story of Yama and Yami, the primordial twins (Rigveda Samhita 10.10) as well as the primeval androgynous cow-bull (Rigveda Samhita 3.38).

Another concept in the Vedas, purusha, shows the transcendence of gender (for example, see Rigveda Samhita 10.90). While the word purusha means ‘man’ or ‘male’ in common parlance, the etymology of the word (puri shete iti purusha) shows clearly that it refers to ‘one who dwells in the body,’ i.e. human consciousness. This consciousness transcends the distinctions of gender and brings us to a realm of our true nature, which is beyond form and attributes.

The sad reality today is that many women are subject to untold miseries in India (and the world over). One form of empowerment is for them to realize the grand heritage they inherit and the complementary role they play along with men.

Needless to say, men too will be empowered by this awareness.

(This article was originally published HERE)

Will Reopening Ayodhya Issue Bring Forth Justice?

By: Parman Pandey, Advocate Supreme Court

Supreme Court is supreme not because it is infallible but because it is final, has been said number without times. The recent judgment of the Supreme Court in the ‘State (through) Central Bureau of Investigation Versus Shri Kalyan Singh (former CM of UP) & Ors.’ proves the rule. The disputed structure in Ayodhya was razed on 6th December 1992 in the presence of top leadership of the Bhartiya Janta Party (Party), which included L.K. Advani, Murali Manohar Joshi, Uma Bharti and Vijay Katiyar etc. The present Governor of Rajasthan Kalyan Singh was the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, who was later jailed for a day under the Contempt of Court because he had given undertaking in the Supreme Court that he would ensure that the law and order would be fully maintained but the multitude of the crowd got uncontrolled and the dilapidated building was pulled down.

Skipping details about the dispute and the events that followed the important point is that two FIR’s were lodged. The first was against lakhs of kar sewaks alleging the offences of dacoity, robbery, causing of hurt, injuring/defiling places of public worship, promoting enmity between two groups on grounds of religion, etc. and the second was lodged against eight persons named therein – L.K. Advani, Ashok Singhal, Vinay Katiar, Uma Bharati, Sadhvi Ritambara, Murli Manohar Joshi, Giriraj Kishore and Vishnu Hari Dalmia, two of whom are now dead. The CBI filed charge sheet in both FIRs but the case of conspiracy under section 120-B was struck down by the Court.

The Court said conspiracy is hatched in secrecy and its knowledge comes slowly but in the Ayodhya dispute case, there was no secrecy.

In ‘Kehar Singh vs. State of Delhi’, the Supreme Court said ‘whatever works are of conspiracy is entrusted to a person he does not and a person does not have the knowledge of the work done by another person till that work is not completed’ but in the present case, the conspiracy theory is completely failed. Supreme Court has held that ‘if in one course of occurrence different offences are committed by different accused then their examination can be done conjointly.

In the present case keeping in mind the criminal conspiracy which was in regard in the felling of Ram Janm Bhumi/Babri Masjid structure and in that context whatever acts have been done shall be deemed to have been in the course of one occurrence.’ Even then the Court concluded that in the present case the criminal conspiracy of felling down of the disputed structure was commenced by the accused from 1990 and it was completed on 6thDecember 1992. Leaders like; Lal Krishan Advani and others at different times and at different places made schemes of criminal conspiracy of demolishing the above disputed structure.

Criminal Revision Petitions were filed against the order on 9th September, 1997. By a Judgment dated 12th February, 2001, the High Court of Allahabad, Lucknow Bench held that, ‘No illegality was committed by the Court below while taking cognizance of a joint charge sheet on the ground that all the offences were committed in the course of the same transaction and to accomplish a criminal conspiracy. The evidence for all the offences is almost the same and, therefore, these cannot be separated from each other irrespective of the fact that different FIRs were lodged.

The offences regarding criminal conspiracy and common object of an unlawful assembly are prima facie made out and since these offences are alleged to have been committed in the course of the same transaction, the Special Court rightly took cognizance of the same and committed the same to the Court of Session.’ The CBI accepted the aforesaid Judgment and requested the Chief Secretary, Government of UP to rectify the defect in the notification dated 8th October, 1993 on 16th June, 2001. The State Government rejected the said request for curing the defect on 28th September, 2002.

This rejection was not challenged by the C.B.I.

Meanwhile, an SLP was filed by one Mohd. Aslam alias Bhure, a public interest petitioner, challenging the order dated 12th February, 2001. This was dismissed by this Court on 29th November, 2002.

A review against this order was dismissed by a speaking Order dated 22nd March, 2007. A curative petition was also dismissed thereafter on 12th February, 2008.

From this it can be seen that the order dated 12th February, 2001 is final and can be regarded as res judicata. Given that the State Government rejected the request for curing the defect in the notification dated 8th October, 1993, the CBI, instead of challenging the rejection, filed a supplementary charge sheet against the eight accused persons for offences under Sections 153A, 153B, 505 read with Sections 147 and 149 IPC before the Judicial Magistrate at Raebareli. Charges were framed under these Sections against the said accused persons. Insofar as the other group of 13 persons is involved, again, for reasons best known to the CBI, the CBI did not proceed against them at all.  It was further held that if the CBI had any evidence of conspiracy it can file a supplementary charge sheet before the Court at Raebareli, which was seized of Crime No. 198 of 1992.

Holding that from the very beginning two separate FIRs were filed because of two different places of occurrence and different nature of accusations, the judgment then went on to impugn the CBI’s preparing a joint charge-sheet for all and ultimately found that there is no illegality or impropriety in the impugned order dated 4th May, 2001. The High Court, therefore, by the impugned order, dismissed the revision filed against the said order.

The Supreme Court said ‘we have heard the learned counsel for the parties. We are of the view that the judgment dated 12th February, 2001, clearly and unequivocally holds that a joint charge sheet had been filed by the CBI on the ground that all the offences were committed in the course of the same transaction to accomplish the conspiracy alleged. The evidence for all these offences is almost the same and these offences, therefore, cannot be separated from each other, irrespective of the fact that 49 different FIRs were lodged. It is clear that in holding to the contrary, the impugned judgment, which upheld the judgment dated 4th May, 2001, is clearly erroneous.’

Using the extra-ordinary, powers which are vested in the Supreme Court of India by virtue of Article 142 of the Constitution for doing complete justice it said ‘In the present case, the power of transfer is being exercised to transfer a case from one Special Judge to another Special Judge, and not to the High Court. The fact that one Special Judge happens to be a Magistrate, whereas the other Special Judge has committed the case to a Court of Sessions would not make any difference as, as has been stated hereinabove, even a right of appeal from a Magistrate to the Sessions Court, and from the Sessions Court to the High Court could be taken away under the procedure established by law, i.e., by virtue of Section 407 (1) and (8) if the case is required to be transferred from the Magistrate at Raebareli to the High Court itself. Hence, under Section 407, even if 2 tiers of appeal are done away with, there is no infraction of Article 21 as such taking away of the right of appeal is expressly contemplated by Section 407(1)(iv) read with Section 407(8). In the circumstances, Antulay’s judgment which dealt with the right of a substantive appeal from a Special Judge to the High Court being taken away by an order of transfer contrary to the non obstante clause in Section 7(1) of the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952 would not apply in the facts and circumstances before us.’

The Supreme Court further said that the Court of Sessions will, after transfer of the proceedings from Raebareli to Lucknow and framing of additional charges, within four weeks, take up all the matters on a day-to-day basis from the stage at which the trial proceedings, both at Raebareli and at Lucknow, are continuing, until conclusion of the trial. There shall be no de novo trial. There shall be no transfer of the Judge conducting the trial until the entire trial concludes. The case shall not be adjourned on any ground except when the Sessions Court finds it impossible to carry on the trial for that particular date. In such an event, on grant of adjournment to the next day or a closely proximate date, reasons for the same shall be recorded in writing. Fiat Justicia is the cardinal principle of law but it should never be extended to make a trial an absurdity.

Let us hope that trial brings forth justice to parties and it will not be used as a handle to harass anyone.

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