New York Times Spews Venom against India, Again – A Sample !


By: Shreepal Singh

Best of brains have been flocking to the U.S. for decades running into a couple of centuries now and the U. S. people by and large are the best of human beings in the world. Temperamentally, the U. S. citizens are objective in their outlook, honest in assessment of things around them and bold in making their judgments of the situations they care to look at.  It is not amazing that their country’s well known newspaper “New York Times” does regularly propagate anti-India stories, which are out of sync with reality, biased in nature and obsessive in habit. The amazing thing is how these sober people of the U. S. silently suffer such misdeeds of this newspaper. This newspaper is a giant of media and holds colossal amount of money at its disposal but still these advantages are not enough to make it withstand people’s censure. We wish to examine how this newspaper is committed to twist the objective reality and serve an agenda, which is not only against the people of India but also against the people of the U. S.

The ordinary people around the world – including the people of the U. S. and the people of India – are suffering twin pains: unbearable pressure of economic circumstances on their peaceful life; and, threat to the physical security of their life. This newspaper has no space or time for these common concerns of the ordinary people. What interests it more is to obstructs those – either in the U. S. or outside of the U. S. – who seek to address these concerns and seek an international collaboration in that work. The U. S. has seen 9/11 at World Trade Center and India has seen 11/9 at Bombay and they both – and many more around the world – know this lurking danger of terrorism to their people. But the New York Times would feel no concern on this count; it has some other priorities. While the U. S. is doing what it can do to address this concern in its own way, India too is trying its best to save its own people; but this newspaper is more interested in defaming India and India’s efforts in this direction.

New York Times is so partitioned in its biased mission that it would find no time to check with the objective data on the subject of its writings and rush to blame its target. In the case of India, this newspaper was scornful of this country before the present Prime Minister of India – Mr. Modi – assumed power in this country and prefixed its name with a wretched third world country. And, now when India is making its efforts under Modi to change things for the better for its people, this newspaper has become full of hatred and disdain for India. The editor of this newspaper – Mr. Joseph Hope – has got together a host of paid writers, who are expert in writing against India. Here we are analyzing a sample of its work – an article written by Robert F. Worth and published by it on July, 26, 2018. This article looks like it is against Swami Ramdev (a Hindu Yoga-guru) but in fact it is against the Indian State, its political leaders and the Indian people who elected these leaders. Here in this response to this article we are not concerned with nations or nationalism – either of the U. S. or India – but only with the truth.

The editorial team of this newspaper in propagating such material on the sheer strength of its money is not only unwise in its tracks but also arrogant. Such acts on its part, destroy the goodwill between the two peoples and ruffle the sentiments of the affected people pushing them to form mutually antagonistic blocks at the international level. Perhaps, the arrogance knows no limits! This newspaper, under the mistaken idea of it being the crusader of democracy in other countries, is doing a great disservice to the global peace, established international order and goodwill among the comity of nations.

The link to this article is given at the end of our response.

Robert F. Worth says:

“But the B.J.P.’s ambitions go well beyond 2019. Unlike the Congress party, the B.J.P. doesn’t just want to govern; it wants to transform the country, politically and culturally. The Indian state and its business allies have become increasingly enmeshed in Hindu religious education and promotion, funding ashrams, gurukuls  (where students apprentice themselves to a guru and study Sanskrit) and priest education. Modi’s government has also helped empower figures like Yogi Adityanath, a right-wing Hindu firebrand who has said he wants to install statues of Hindu gods in every mosque, and who last year became chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state.”

Dear Worth, we challenge you – if you are of any worth to justify your name – to quote with the appropriate proof where Yogi Adityanath has said – before or after he became the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh – that “he wants to install statutes of Hindu gods in every mosque.” Even if you quote one instance of his saying so, we would admit all what you are saying here in this article; else, we would request you stop spreading canard against India and its democratically elected political figures. This is our first request to you, if you have any sense of self esteem and public responsibility.

Secondly, you say, “Unlike the Congress party, the B. J. P. doesn’t just want to govern; it wants to transform the country, politically and culturally.” You very well know, “the Congress party just governed” this country (for 70 long years) and, we dare say, you also know where this country has stood so far: a wretched third world economy, earning your scorn and disdain! Do you not want this country to transform itself, politically (dynastic rule) and culturally (corrupt)? Surely, you should! This is your hate for India, that speaks so badly against India, its people and their political representatives. Indian people are good to the core of their heart, please do not hate them; it does no good to any person of conscience.

Thirdly, you say, “The Indian state and its business allies have become increasingly enmeshed in Hindu religious education and promotion, funding ashrams, gurukuls  (where students apprentice themselves to a guru and study Sanskrit) and priest education.” This is our second challenge to you, to respect your name and worth, please cite one example – just one example – where the “Indian state” has funded an “Ashram or gurukul”. If you are able to provide such information, it would be an addition to our knowledge – and to the knowledge of the whole world; else, we again request you not to spread canard and hate against India and its people.

Fourthly, your grievance is that the Indian state’s “business allies have become increasingly enmeshed in Hindu religious education and promotion, funding ashrams, gurukuls (where students apprentice themselves to a guru and study Sanskrit) and priest education.” Dear Robert, are you so simpleton not to be aware of the fact that in the U. S. there are countless business houses who fund Christian colleges, universities, research facilities and public educational institutions? It can’t be the case with you, we hope! So, according to you, it is not bad if it is done in the U. S. by its businessmen  in the service of Christianity but it is really objectionable if the same is done by Indian businessmen in India in the service of Hinduism!

Please educate yourself: Hindus are not bad people; Hinduism is not bad in its attitude towards others; Hinduism seeks no conversion of the whole world to its own side, just as Christianity (and the other branch of Abrahamic faith) is hell-bent upon with its world-wide programs, mission and targets. And, also it may not be wrong to say that the learning and promotion of Greek and Latin languages is a commendable thing, and that likewise the learning and promotion of Sanskrit language is a good thing too. Like these two languages are ancient ones, Sanskrit too is an ancient language; and, in addition Sanskrit is the mother of the family of all Indo-European languages. You possibly cannot have any objection if these young students in this North East part of India are encouraged under Gurus to learn Sanskrit as aprentice.

You have many grievances against India and its people. You say in your article:

“Hindu nationalism rarely made headlines in the West until the 1990s, when images of communal riots and chanting B.J.P. supporters introduced many Americans to the idea that there was another, different kind of fundamentalism to worry about in South Asia. But as a political force, Hindu nationalism predates India’s independence in 1947 and reflects centuries of resentment among the subcontinent’s Hindu majority. Hindus submitted reluctantly to waves of Muslim conquest from the north starting almost a thousand years ago, and then to almost 300 years of British domination. After World War I, when the British Empire started to crack, some Hindu ideologues saw an opportunity to regain the upper hand. They began calling for an explicitly Hindu state and society, in which Muslims (and other minorities) would be tolerated only if they respected the majority culture. In one respect, it was an effort to counter political Islam, which was already gaining adherents in India and elsewhere in the early 1920s. But building a cohesive movement was not easy. Classical Hinduism is more a conglomeration of sects than a single religion; it has many ancient scriptures but no single, foundational text, like the Bible or the Quran. Its ancient caste hierarchy perpetuated divisions and did not translate easily into the unifying slogans of modern mass politics.”

Dear Robert your grievance is, “After World War I, when the British Empire started to crack, some Hindu ideologues saw an opportunity to regain the upper hand. ….. But building a cohesive (Hindu) movement was not easy. Classical Hinduism is more a conglomeration of sects than a single religion; it has many ancient scriptures but no single, foundational text, like the Bible or the Quran. Its ancient caste hierarchy perpetuated divisions and did not translate easily into the unifying slogans of modern mass politics.” You are parroting the Sheldon Pollock’s “thesis” when you say, “Classical Hinduism is more a conglomeration of sects than a single religion”, which thesis is being used as a tool for the “Break India” project. We dare say, by subscribing to this imaginative “Pollock Thesis” you definitely place yourself as the part of this “Break-India” project.

You parrot these words – without knowing their meaning. What is your knowledge of Hinduism? Is Hinduism a religion? What is a religion? How many sects are there among Hindus and what do they teach? Is there a common connecting thread in all these sects? It is a serious matter and you need a life-time to learn it. It is very easy to say that since Hinduism does not have a single book like the Bible or the Koran, it is not a religion or it is a conglomeration of sects. What is the definition of ‘religion’? With common sense, one may say it a matter of the relation of humans with God. How does the possession of a single holy book, like Bible or Koran, become the testing anvil for being declared a religion? Are you aware that the Bible and Koran have their own and exclusive God / Allah? Which one of the two is correct? Will it be decided by swords, or inquisitions, or strength of number of people converted to one’s side? Will it not be more correct to say that these two peoples possessing two books are sects, which are different from one another, while these “Hindu conglomeration of sects” do not contradict each other or fight with each other?

In case you have wish and will, you can discover for yourself that all the sects among Hindus are one on the central connecting point. Please, do not be hateful to Hindus.

You continue in your supposedly intellectual tirade against India. You said:

“In an effort to overcome these internal fissures, the early Hindu nationalists built a regimented anticolonial social movement in the 1920s, which later formed links with Italian and German fascism; the main branch was known as the RSS, from the Hindu words for “national organization of volunteers.” In place of black shirts and armbands, they wore khaki shorts and carried bamboo sticks. This association tainted them in the decades that followed, especially after so many British and Indian soldiers died fighting the Axis powers in World War II. Another serious blow came in 1948, when a Hindu nationalist zealot assassinated Mohandas Gandhi, modern India’s saintly father figure. Afterward, Nehru, Gandhi’s political heir, suppressed Hindu nationalist organizations and fostered his own countervailing conception of India as a pluralist, secular state. Although he was a Brahmin, Nehru was a passionate cosmopolitan who saw Hindu identity as narrow and tribal. He wanted India to be defined by its diversity, not by any one faith. It was an idea shaped in part by his British education at Harrow, Cambridge and the Inns of Court in London, and one shared by many of his peers. For decades after independence, India’s ruling class was mostly a “thin layer of brown Englishmen,” in the phrase of an Indian friend of mine who heard it from his grandfather, a friend of Nehru’s. They were patrician figures who rebelled successfully against the British but absorbed many of their ideas about how the country should be governed.

By the 1990s, Nehru’s Congress party had become almost synonymous with the Indian state, but his tolerant, worldly vision was starting to fray. The Hindu nationalist movement anointed the B.J.P. as its political vehicle, and the party slowly gained strength, fueled by perceptions of corruption and entitlement in the secular political elite.”

So, dear one, here comes your master stroke. You open your heart that is full of hate for Hindus. You say:

Early Hindu nationalists “later formed links with Italian and German fascism; the main branch was known as the RSS, from the Hindu words for ‘national organization of volunteers.’ In place of black shirts and armbands, they wore khaki shorts and carried bamboo sticks. This association tainted them in the decades that followed, especially after so many British and Indian soldiers died fighting the Axis powers in World War II” and if we make no mistake you mean here Subhash Chandra Bose, an iconic leader of Indian people then, both Hindus and Muslims. So, the RSS is no less in its design and mission than the Italian and German Fascism, except that the Indian variety wears khaki shorts and carried bamboo sticks in place of the Germanic ‘black shirts and armbands’!

Dear Robert, you are not naive not to know that Subhash Candra Bose was never a part of RSS (he was a Congress party member – and once its president) and that German fascism asserted Aryan supremacy by the strength of arms, war on other ‘inferior’ peoples and their subjugation to the ‘pure and Aryan’ Germans. Hitler had his ‘Mein Kampf” to guide him. Do you need to be told by us that the RSS has Gita in its hand, and not ‘Mein Kampf ‘ of Hitler? It (RSS) believes, as taught by Gita, that in every living being – including human beings – there is an ‘Atma’ (not ‘soul’, that goes to sleep after death), which has its right to do its ‘karma’ as it wills and nobody has any right to kill any person (the body that this ‘Atma’ wears like we wear cloths). This is the difference between the RSS of India and Fascism of Italy and Germany. This difference – the difference between Gita and ‘Mein Kampf’ – makes them pole apart. Surely, you could not have missed this difference. We request you not to spread canard against Hindus.

You seem to be not content with this much reviling of Indians, their faith and their state. Enough is not enough for you. You nurse a grudge against Hinduism, which you cannot resist. Your tirade continues:

“This narrative about yoga’s ancient roots has become a sacrament for Hindu nationalists, and it is echoed in the West. But it is mostly myth, an idealized origin story of the kind so many would-be nation-builders, from ancient Rome to the Zionists, have fostered about themselves. The oldest Hindu scriptures contain almost no mention of physical postures. Even the Yoga Sutras, the so-called bible of yoga, include only a few short verses suggesting comfortable postures for sitting. Many of the postures practiced in yoga today appear to have emerged in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dozens of modern ashtanga yoga postures are similar or identical to those found in a gymnastic routine introduced to India by the British in the first decades of the 20th century and originally developed by a Danish fitness instructor named Niels Bukh, who later became notorious for his pro-Nazi sympathies. Bukh, needless to say, has been conveniently forgotten by both Indians and the yoga-loving celebrities of Hollywood.”

Your grudge is that the narrative of “yoga’s ancient roots” has become a sacrament for Hindus and even in the West. You proclaim that it is a “myth”; that the “oldest Hindu scriptures” make no mention of physical postures of yoga; that the Yoga Sutras include “only a few short verses” suggesting comfortable postures for sitting. And, then in your zeal to demolish this narrative of the olden roots of yoga, you declare, “Dozens of modern ashtanga yoga postures are similar or identical to those found in a gymnastic routine introduced to India by the British in the first decades of the 20th century and originally developed by a Danish fitness instructor Niels Bukh, who later became notorious for his pro-Nazi sympathies.” Thus, according to you the ashtanga yoga is recently sourced out of the Danish fitness instructor Niels Bukh!

When was ‘Yoga Sutra’ written? In this Sanskrit treatise, in the very first opening verse the definition of Yoga is given: Yoga is the disciplining of one’s psychological proclivities. But why discipline them? There is a purpose for that. Physical postures are the ‘means’ and not the ‘end’ in themselves; these have nothing to do with physical fitness – as you dear Robert or Niels Bukha might have thought. Physical postures are not the substance of Yoga. Yoga is something else, far removed from your imagination of physical fitness. And, it is a very old discipline; tons of old Sanskrit sacred books deal with this subject.

Robert F. Worth, as an admirer of Christian Missionaries work of conversion in India, has a great resentment against those Indians who try to re-convert the “converted Christians” to their thousands of years old faith. He says:

“The RSS has become more visible since Modi’s 2014 victory. The group and its affiliates have built hundreds of schools and job-training centers in Assam and other northeastern states in recent years. I visited several and saw unmistakable signs of the RSS ideological program. At one school, young children — some of whom had been raised Christian — recited Hindu prayers and sang songs to Lord Ram before starting their lessons, which include Sanskrit instruction.”

If children have been raised as Christians by handing them over Bible and praying to God, what is the objection of Robert F. Worth if those children are handed over a Ramayana in their other hand and compare the two to chose from? We suppose that the author knows that in this part of India in 1901, the Christian population was 00.50 % and now in 2001 it became 90%. Wow, dear Robert for you, who has objection to children praying to Rama, an incarnation of Divine, instead of God, the father of His only son Jesus Christ of Bible. If he does not know this conversion “achievement” of Christian Missiontaries in this part of India, let him visit this link and educate himself.

https://indianpeoplescongress.wordpress.com/2018/05/02/how-nehru-helped-convert-ne-to-christianity/

What is that which makes the likes of Robert F. Worth and the New York Times fear the new dispensation in India? It is not the alleged Hindu nationalism but something else. This fear of the types of Robert F. Worth and his New York Times is exposed by an American accounts professor at a seminar sponsored by CFA (Chartered Financial Accounts Association of America). The American accounts professor is talking  in this video about Modi’s clean governance and says that his commerce and diplomatic policies are superior to those of USA and that USA must fear him.

Watch the video:

 

This offending article may be read at this link:

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/26/magazine/the-billionaire-yogi-behind-modis-rise.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news

Robots, Economics and Politics


                  By: Shreepal Singh
Nobody wants to work; it needs compulsion to make – to force – him or her to work. Work here means a productive activity that consumes one’s physical or mental energy. Nobody wants to work but he or she needs a multitude of items of basic necessities, and extended necessities. But all of these items need the work of humans (and now-a-days robots) to be produced. Nothing is free in this world and there is no item that does not cost something – an amount of work. Then, everybody has to be somehow compelled to work. Which way can one be compelled to work? There are many ways to do this and there are as many economic theories and political ideologies.

Work consumes energy, which energy is available in human’s biological body in a limited quantity and needs replenishment again and again on daily basis. It requires food and other items to replenish this energy and keep this physical human body healthy and its reservoir of energy inexhaustible, which food and items are not available for free. It is a cycle of give and take and one has to pay (in the form of work) for what one gets for replenishing one’s reservoir of energy. Human biology forces him to conserve his energy by avoiding work or at least by minimizing this work.

If you allow a person the right to take work from others, and the right to fire if these others do not work, then it is capitalism – an economic theory – of democracy, a political ideology.

If you allow the state – as against an individual – the right to take work from its citizens, and the right to physically coerce these citizens in case they do not work, then it is collective commune – an economic theory – of socialism or communism, a political ideology.

If you allow the king – and lords or zamindars under him – the right to take work from his subjects, and the right to confiscate land, houses, household items if these subjects do not work, then it is feudalism – an economic theory – of monarchy, a political ideology.

If you allow the tribe – as against an individual, state or king – the right to take work from the members of its community, and the right to deny a share in the common produce of the tribe, then it is primitive economy of the tribal society.

We do not want to work but we need to work. This has been our story so far – from the cave dwelling days to the days of modern technology. But now robots have come on the scene to take over this need to work. It is an entry of a new factor in human society. Humanity has to reconcile itself with the new situation. The story that has been so far has to change in some way. It is a turning point in our story. Which way we need to change the direction, is the matter of great importance that we will have to consider very soon.

Imran Khan, a Don Juan, Will Dance to the Tune of Rogue Pakistani Army


Parmanand Pandey, Secretary General: IPC

     Mr Imran Khan, a Don Juan, is now set to become the new Prime Minister of Pakistan as his Pakistan Tahrik-e- Insaf (PTI) has emerged the largest party in the National Assembly. He is famous in the entire cricketing world, particularly in Pakistan, India and England. His image of a philanthropist and a corruption-free politician has also helped his Party to win the largest number of seats. However, what has helped him most in coming to power is Pakistani Army. The Army will now rule with a remote control having a civilian face as the Prime Minister, who is more a Casanova than a politician. He will be nothing more than the puppet of the Pakistani Army.

       He made his foray into politics some two decades ago and now he has achieved his ambition to head a state which is a known rouge state all over the world. What has disappointed most the people all over the world was his address to the nation the day it became clear that he was sure to become the Prime Minister. His address to the nation made it crystal clear he would be a handmaiden Prime Minister of the all-powerful army of Pakistan, which is known for its phenomenal notoriety for providing safe haven to terrorists in Pakistan.

    The debonair politician has not spoken a word against the terrorists like Hafiz Saeed or even against the fugitive and a bully like Parvez Musharraf, who still continues to enjoy the support of the Army. As everybody in India knows that it was the late General Zia-ul-Haque and Parvez Musharraf, who throttled the democracy. In fact, democracy has never been able to take roots in Pakistan right from its inception. There is no doubt that Nawaz Sharif was a corrupt Prime Minister but so have been all politicians and other establishments of Pakistan without exception. Almost all Army Officers of any significance in Pakistan live like feudal Lords because they have amassed the enormous amount of wealth through corrupt means. A novice like Mr Imran Khan is, therefore, the most suitable and pliant person for the Army to be the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

     With the amount of popularity that he enjoys in India, it was expected that this man would work for the normalisation of relations between India and Pakistan, but his speech dashed all hopes as it was so disappointing that nothing can be hoped from him. Now it is clear that he will play and dance only to the tune of the Army. In his speech, he spoke like a parrot on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir as was dictated by the Army. He has not spoken a word against the Jaish-e-Mohammad, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Al Qaeda and other terrorist organisations which export terror to other countries, particularly to India. Obviously, because these terror outfits are nurtured by the vagrant and in-disciplined Army. It is hoped that he will avoid adopting the misadventures of the Army, which resulted in the vivisection of Pakistan in 1971 and crushing defeat during the Kargil war.

    However, it will be too much to expect anything innovative from this womaniser Prime Minister. It is an open secret that the Pakistani Army rigged the elections in favour of Imran Khan. His address on television was shocking as he relegated India to the last step of the ladder of his priorities. Even Afghanistan and Iran were kept above India. China was eulogized by him as his Army masters wanted him to do.

    Sometimes it is seen that even newcomers in the power politics do wonderful works but that is when they have an independent mind. Here, in this case, Imran Khan’s mind has already been toxified against India by the corrupt Army.

    Let us see what is in store for Pakistan under his premiership. As they say that ‘coming events cast their shadows before’, therefore, we in India cannot expect much from Imran Khan. India will have to be vigilant as the notorious may again create mischiefs behind the veneer of this seducer of women, Imran Khan.

Economic History of India: 1 AD to 2017


By: K.I.P.

The Economic history of India is one that evokes strong reactions. It is a topic on which the reactions of both the Right and Left are at odds with the mainstream view of economists. Let’s study the principal reactions, and in the process survey the Economic history of India! There are 3 views of reflecting different reactions:

  1. Mainstream view : India was a subsistence economy for much of its history until it started growing in the past 3-4 decades
  2. Nationalist view (Right): Ancient India was a Sone ki Chidiya (Golden Bird) which was impoverished by Muslim and later British rule

  3. Nationalist view (Left): Mughal India was a Sone ki Chidiya (Golden Bird) which was badly impoverished by colonial era free trade, and has recovered since independence.

All these three views have their merit, in parts, though I am most critical of the third view reflecting the Indian Left’s reaction. Before we get into the details, let’s get a macro-view of the Indian economy over the past 2000 years, as per Angus Maddison – a mainstream British economist.

This chart is based on Maddison’s famous paper in 2001 titled “The World Economy – A Millennial Perspective”. The chart comes from this link –

And the paper can be accessed here –

http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/oriindex.htm

Here’s a chart that sums up Maddison’s PPP-adjusted PCI estimates for India in 1990 international $

Here’s an examination of Maddison’s chart in more concrete terms using precise numbers, in a table (which I have updated till 2017). It is one little excel table that is more provocative than most tables on India. Let’s study it closely.

So we know that Maddison’s view corresponds to the “Mainstream” view we have outlined at the start – India was not much richer than a subsistence economy from 1 AD right up to 1973. Its share of world GDP was merely a reflection of its population share.

But Maddison is not stating this about India per se. His view that right up to the Industrial Revolution, GDP shares merely reflected the Population share, is held across all geographies.

It is in line with the orthodox Malthusian perspective. Let’s examine more.

Here’s Maddison on the Per-capita GDPs across many parts of the world in 1 AD and 1000 AD.

It is a problematic chart – as we will discuss soon.

What is remarkable about the above chart is that Maddison doesn’t explicitly discuss (at least in the paper) on why he places India or the current “US” at $450 in 1AD.

There appears to be an implicit Malthusian assumption.

But these numbers contradict our historical understanding. We all know that back in the year 1 AD, North America was a wilderness, and a hunter gatherer society. India was a society with large empires, considerable urbanization, copious literature, among other things. Western Europe was a part of the massive Roman Empire!

Yet as per Maddison, Western Europe, India and China (three very advanced societies in many ways) were only marginally richer than the hunter gatherers in North America!

It seems incredible, yet nobody has challenged Maddison sufficiently on this yet. Will a society close to subsistence have the surpluses necessary to produce  Mahabharata, Ramayana, Manu Smriti, Arthashastra, Aeneid, Homeric epics, Bible and numerous other Latin / Greek works?

Question worth asking is: Back in 200CE, the population of the city of Rome was estimated to be 1MM inhabitants. The population of Pataliputra at the height of the Gupta period in circa 400 CE is also estimated to be several hundred thousands. These were extremely large cities. Yet Maddison regards India, China and Western Europe to be not much richer than the hunter-gatherers of America 2000 years ago!

This suggests a somewhat slavish adherence to the Malthusian maxim, that appears to be in defiance of historical records and memory.

As per Broadberry / Bishnupriya, there was quite a significant decline in Per-capita GDP between 1600 and 1800. And this was the period of Mughal zenith! So clearly the numbers here don’t speak too well for Mughal India.

1600 PCI : $682 (this was when Akbar ruled over North India, but not the South)
1700 PCI : $622 (clearly a decline….a period when Mughal empire covered all of India)
1800 PCI : $569 (after a century of anarchy and Mughal decline, but still preceding pan Indian British rule)

So clearly the decline of the Indian economy started long before the establishment of British Raj, and coincides with the heyday of the Mughal Empire.

In fact it is striking that PCI in India in 1600 (at the start of the decline) at $682 was higher than the PCI in 1950 of $619!

Now let’s look at the last 500 years. Let’s compare the estimates of Braoadberry, Bishnupriya and Custodis (2014) with those of Maddison. Their paper can be accessed here –

https://t.co/J0vk1nmLDM?amp=1

Also when we discuss India as a whole, the regional variation is something that has to be borne in mind.

Circa 1800 while Indian PCI is estimated to be close to $500, the PCI of Mysore was estimated to be well in excess of $1500 and close to $2000 (by Sashi Sivaramakrishna)

But what’s undeniable however is that all data points to a decline starting 1600 and continuing unabated till 1870s. And we must be careful to note that the first part of this long period of decline actually corresponds to Mughal heyday and precedes the Empire’s decline!

And now coming to the absolutely best part: Economic history post 1870.

As you can see growth resumes circa 1870. But then this is also the period of the Industrial Revolution, when the gap between the West and the rest massively widened because of industrial revolution & subsequent colonization.

Conclusion:

1) India was on average a developed society till Islamic invasions started.

2) Mughal empire did not generate wealth as is commonly claimed by leftist historians but collapsed it.

3) Socialist policies pursued by India post independence period lead to a worse gap in income between west and India than it was during the hay days of colonial loot.

So what had happened to India after  the period of colonization was over? One would expect the growth of India to be faster than  it was during the colonization period! Correct? No!

Socialist policies pursued by the first PM  of India made gap between India and west wider than what it was during hey days of  the British Raj!

In fact the gap between India and the West was way bigger circa 1998 and even marginally bigger in 2017 than in 1870, that is, during the heyday of the British Raj.

In fact the gap between US and Indian per-capita incomes was much wider in 1998 than in 1950! And it is almost twice as wide in 2017 as it was in 1870!

This helps us understand why there is so much rage against the era of Nehru-Gandhi rule from 1950 till 1990.

Sure, the “Nehruvian” growth rates were higher than growth rates at any point in Indian history. Yet they were awfully low relative to the growth rates in the rest of the world.

So while India did start growing post 1870, we have only regressed in a relative sense, because we have been totally out of step with the pace being set in much of the developed world.

सनातन धर्म मे नारी का बहुत ऊँचा स्थान है !


वेद नारी को अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण, गरिमामय, उच्च स्थान प्रदान करते हैं| वेदों में स्त्रियों की शिक्षा- दीक्षा, शील, गुण, कर्तव्य, अधिकार और सामाजिक भूमिका का जो सुन्दर वर्णन पाया जाता है, वैसा संसार के अन्य किसी धर्मग्रंथ में नहीं है| वेदों में नारी को दिए गए इस ऊँचे स्थान के महत्त्व को हम तभी समझ सकते हैं जब हम इसकी तुलना अन्य उन सभी धर्म ग्रंथों से करते हैं जहाँ नारी को “पुरुष के आधे के बराबर”, “पर्दे  के भीतर बंद रखने की चीज”, “अकेले ही अपने मर्द के बिना घूमने पर पाबन्दी”, “अनजान मर्दों से मिलने और बात करने की मनाही” या “पाप की जड़” आदि बताया गया है।

वेद उन्हें घर की सम्राज्ञी कहते हैं और देश की शासक, पृथ्वी की सम्राज्ञी तक बनने का अधिकार देते हैं। वेदों में स्त्री यज्ञीय है अर्थात् यज्ञ समान पूजनीय। वेदों में नारी को ज्ञान देने वाली, सुख – समृद्धि लाने वाली, विशेष तेज वाली, देवी, विदुषी, सरस्वती, इन्द्राणी, उषा- जो सबको जगाती है इत्यादि अनेक आदर सूचक नाम दिए गए हैं।

वेदों में स्त्रियों पर किसी प्रकार का प्रतिबन्ध नहीं है – उसे सदा विजयिनी कहा गया है और उन के हर काम में सहयोग और प्रोत्साहन की बात कही गई है। वैदिक काल में नारी अध्यन- अध्यापन से लेकर रणक्षेत्र में भी जाती थी। जैसे कैकयी महाराज दशरथ के साथ युद्ध में गई थी।

कन्या को अपना पति स्वयं चुनने का अधिकार देकर वेद पुरुष से एक कदम आगे ही रखते हैं। अनेक ऋषिकाएं वेद मंत्रों की द्रष्टा हैं – अपाला, घोषा, सरस्वती, सर्पराज्ञी, सूर्या, सावित्री, अदिति- दाक्षायनी, लोपामुद्रा, विश्ववारा, आत्रेयी आदि।

तथापि, जिन्होनें वेदों के दर्शन भी नहीं किए, ऐसे कुछ रीढ़ की हड्डी विहीन बुद्धिवादियों ने इस देश की सभ्यता, संस्कृति को नष्ट – भ्रष्ट करने का जो अभियान चला रखा है – उसके तहत वेदों में नारी की अवमानना का ढ़ोल पीटते रहते हैं। आइए, वेदों में नारी के स्वरुप की झलक इन मंत्रों में देखें –

यजुर्वेद २०.९
स्त्री और पुरुष दोनों को शासक चुने जाने का समान अधिकार है।

यजुर्वेद १७.४५
स्त्रियों की भी सेना हो | स्त्रियों को युद्ध में भाग लेने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करें।

यजुर्वेद १०.२६
शासकों की स्त्रियां अन्यों को राजनीति की शिक्षा दें | जैसे राजा, लोगों का न्याय करते हैं वैसे ही रानी भी न्याय करने वाली हों।

अथर्ववेद ११.५.१८
ब्रह्मचर्य सूक्त के इस मंत्र में कन्याओं के लिए भी ब्रह्मचर्य और विद्या ग्रहण करने के बाद ही विवाह करने के लिए कहा गया है | यह सूक्त लड़कों के समान ही कन्याओं की शिक्षा को भी विशेष महत्त्व देता है।

कन्याएं ब्रह्मचर्य के सेवन से पूर्ण विदुषी और युवती होकर ही विवाह करें।

अथर्ववेद १४.१.६
माता- पिता अपनी कन्या को पति के घर जाते समय बुद्धीमत्ता और विद्याबल का उपहार दें | वे उसे ज्ञान का दहेज़ दें।

जब कन्याएं बाहरी उपकरणों को छोड़ कर, भीतरी विद्या बल से चैतन्य स्वभाव और पदार्थों को दिव्य दृष्टि से देखने वाली और आकाश और भूमि से सुवर्ण आदि प्राप्त करने – कराने वाली हो तब सुयोग्य पति से विवाह करे।

अथर्ववेद १४.१.२०
हे पत्नी ! हमें ज्ञान का उपदेश कर। वधू अपनी विद्वत्ता और शुभ गुणों से पति के घर में सब को प्रसन्न कर दे।

अथर्ववेद ७.४६.३
पति को संपत्ति कमाने के तरीके बता। संतानों को पालने वाली, निश्चित ज्ञान वाली, सह्त्रों स्तुति वाली और चारों ओर प्रभाव डालने वाली स्त्री, तुम ऐश्वर्य पाती हो। हे सुयोग्य पति की पत्नी, अपने पति को संपत्ति के लिए आगे बढ़ाओ।

अथर्ववेद ७.४७.१
हे स्त्री ! तुम सभी कर्मों को जानती हो। हे स्त्री ! तुम हमें ऐश्वर्य और समृद्धि दो।

अथर्ववेद ७.४७.२

तुम सब कुछ जानने वाली हमें धन – धान्य से समर्थ कर दो। हे स्त्री ! तुम हमारे धन और समृद्धि को बढ़ाओ।

अथर्ववेद ७.४८.२

तुम हमें बुद्धि से धन दो। विदुषी, सम्माननीय, विचारशील, प्रसन्नचित्त पत्नी संपत्ति की रक्षा और वृद्धि करती है और घर में सुख़ लाती है।

अथर्ववेद १४.१.६४

हे स्त्री ! तुम हमारे घर की प्रत्येक दिशा में ब्रह्म अर्थात् वैदिक ज्ञान का प्रयोग करो। हे वधू ! विद्वानों के घर में पहुंच कर कल्याणकारिणी और सुखदायिनी होकर तुम विराजमान हो।

अथर्ववेद २.३६.५

हे वधू ! तुम ऐश्वर्य की नौका पर चढ़ो और अपने पति को जो कि तुमने स्वयं पसंद किया है, संसार – सागर के पार पहुंचा दो। हे वधू ! ऐश्वर्य कि अटूट नाव पर चढ़ और अपने पति को सफ़लता के तट पर ले चल।

अथर्ववेद १.१४.३

हे वर ! यह वधू तुम्हारे कुल की रक्षा करने वाली है। हे वर ! यह कन्या तुम्हारे कुल की रक्षा करने वाली है। यह बहुत काल तक तुम्हारे घर में निवास करे और बुद्धिमत्ता के बीज बोये।

अथर्ववेद २.३६.३

यह वधू पति के घर जा कर रानी बने और वहां प्रकाशित हो।

अथर्ववेद ११.१.१७

ये स्त्रियां शुद्ध, पवित्र और यज्ञीय ( यज्ञ समान पूजनीय ) हैं, ये प्रजा, पशु और अन्न देतीं हैं। यह स्त्रियां शुद्ध स्वभाव वाली, पवित्र आचरण वाली, पूजनीय, सेवा योग्य, शुभ चरित्र वाली और विद्वत्तापूर्ण हैं। यह समाज को प्रजा, पशु और सुख़ पहुँचाती हैं।

अथर्ववेद १२.१.२५

हे मातृभूमि ! कन्याओं में जो तेज होता है, वह हमें दो। स्त्रियों में जो सेवनीय ऐश्वर्य और कांति है, हे भूमि ! उस के साथ हमें भी मिला।

अथर्ववेद १२.२.३१

स्त्रियां कभी दुख से रोयें नहीं, इन्हें निरोग रखा जाए और रत्न, आभूषण इत्यादि पहनने को दिए जाएं।

अथर्ववेद १४.१.२०

हे वधू ! तुम पति के घर में जा कर गृहपत्नी और सब को वश में रखने वाली बनों।

अथर्ववेद १४.१.५०

हे पत्नी ! अपने सौभाग्य के लिए मैं तेरा हाथ पकड़ता हूं।

अथर्ववेद १४.२ .२६

हे वधू ! तुम कल्याण करने वाली हो और घरों को उद्देश्य तक पहुंचाने वाली हो।

अथर्ववेद १४.२.७१

हे पत्नी ! मैं ज्ञानवान हूं तू भी ज्ञानवती है, मैं सामवेद हूं तो तू ऋग्वेद है।

अथर्ववेद १४.२.७४

यह वधू विराट अर्थात् चमकने वाली है, इस ने सब को जीत लिया है।

यह वधू बड़े ऐश्वर्य वाली और पुरुषार्थिनी हो।

अथर्ववेद ७.३८.४ और १२.३.५२

सभा और समिति में जा कर स्त्रियां भाग लें और अपने विचार प्रकट करें।

ऋग्वेद १०.८५.७

माता- पिता अपनी कन्या को पति के घर जाते समय बुद्धिमत्ता और विद्याबल उपहार में दें। माता- पिता को चाहिए कि वे अपनी कन्या को दहेज़ भी दें तो वह ज्ञान का दहेज़ हो।

ऋग्वेद ३.३१.१

पुत्रों की ही भांति पुत्री भी अपने पिता की संपत्ति में समान रूप से उत्तराधिकारी है।

ऋग्वेद १० .१ .५९

एक गृहपत्नी प्रात : काल उठते ही अपने उद् गार कहती है ” यह सूर्य उदय हुआ है, इस के साथ ही मेरा सौभाग्य भी ऊँचा चढ़ निकला है। मैं अपने घर और समाज की ध्वजा हूं , उस की मस्तक हूं । मैं भारी व्यख्यात्री हूं। मेरे पुत्र शत्रु -विजयी हैं। मेरी पुत्री संसार में चमकती है। मैं स्वयं दुश्मनों को जीतने वाली हूं। मेरे पति का असीम यश है। मैंने वह त्याग किया है जिससे इन्द्र (सम्राट ) विजय पता है। मुझेभी विजय मिली है। मैंने अपने शत्रु नि:शेष कर दिए हैं।

वह सूर्य ऊपर आ गया है और मेरा सौभाग्य भी ऊँचा हो गया है। मैं जानती हूं , अपने प्रतिस्पर्धियों को जीतकर मैंने पति के प्रेम को फ़िर से पा लिया है।

मैं प्रतीक हूं , मैं शिर हूं , मैं सबसे प्रमुख हूं और अब मैं कहती हूं कि मेरी इच्छा के अनुसार ही मेरा पति आचरण करे। प्रतिस्पर्धी मेरा कोई नहीं है।

मेरे पुत्र मेरे शत्रुओं को नष्ट करने वाले हैं , मेरी पुत्री रानी है , मैं विजयशील हूं। मेरे और मेरे पति के प्रेम की व्यापक प्रसिद्धि है।

ओ प्रबुद्ध ! मैंने उस अर्ध्य को अर्पण किया है , जो सबसे अधिक उदाहरणीय है और इस तरह मैं सबसे अधिक प्रसिद्ध और सामर्थ्यवान हो गई हूं। मैंने स्वयं को अपने प्रतिस्पर्धियों से मुक्त कर लिया है।

मैं प्रतिस्पर्धियों से मुक्त हो कर, अब प्रतिस्पर्धियों की विध्वंसक हूं और विजेता हूं। मैंने दूसरों का वैभव ऐसे हर लिया है जैसे की वह न टिक पाने वाले कमजोर बांध हों ।मैंने मेरे प्रतिस्पर्धियों पर विजय प्राप्त कर ली है। जिससे मैं इस नायक और उस की प्रजा पर यथेष्ट शासन चला सकती हूं।”

इस मंत्र की ऋषिका और देवता दोनों हो शची हैं। शची इन्द्राणी है, शची स्वयं में राज्य की सम्राज्ञी है ( जैसे कि कोई महिला प्रधानमंत्री या राष्ट्राध्यक्ष हो )। उस के पुत्र – पुत्री भी राज्य के लिए समर्पित हैं।

ऋग्वेद १.१६४.४१

ऐसे निर्मल मन वाली स्त्री जिसका मन एक पारदर्शी स्फटिक जैसे परिशुद्ध जल की तरह हो वह एक वेद, दो वेद या चार वेद , आयुर्वेद, धनुर्वेद, गांधर्ववेद , अर्थवेद इत्यादि के साथ ही छ : वेदांगों – शिक्षा, कल्प, व्याकरण, निरुक्त, ज्योतिष और छंद : को प्राप्त करे और इस वैविध्यपूर्ण ज्ञान को अन्यों को भी दे।

हे स्त्री पुरुषों ! जो एक वेद का अभ्यास करने वाली वा दो वेद जिसने अभ्यास किए वा चार वेदों की पढ़ने वाली वा चार वेद और चार उपवेदों की शिक्षा से युक्त वा चार वेद, चार उपवेद और व्याकरण आदि शिक्षा युक्त, अतिशय कर के विद्याओं में प्रसिद्ध होती और असंख्यात अक्षरों वाली होती हुई सब से उत्तम, आकाश के समान व्याप्त निश्चल परमात्मा के निमित्त प्रयत्न करती है और गौ स्वर्ण युक्त विदुषी स्त्रियों को शब्द कराती अर्थात् जल के समान निर्मल वचनों को छांटती अर्थात् अविद्यादी दोषों को अलग करती हुई वह संसार के लिए अत्यंत सुख करने वाली होती है।

ऋग्वेद १०.८५.४६

स्त्री को परिवार और पत्नी की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका में चित्रित किया गया है | इसी तरह, वेद स्त्री की सामाजिक, प्रशासकीय और राष्ट्र की सम्राज्ञी के रूप का वर्णन भी करते हैं।

ऋग्वेद के कई सूक्त उषा का देवता के रूप में वर्णन करते हैं और इस उषा को एक आदर्श स्त्री के रूप में माना गया है।

कृपया पं श्रीपाद दामोदर सातवलेकर द्वारा लिखित ” उषा देवता “, ऋग्वेद का सुबोध भाष्य देखें |

सारांश (पृ १२१ – १४७ ) –

१. स्त्रियां वीर हों | ( पृ १२२, १२८)

२. स्त्रियां सुविज्ञ हों | ( पृ १२२)

३. स्त्रियां यशस्वी हों | (पृ १२३)

४. स्त्रियां रथ पर सवारी करें | ( पृ १२३)

५. स्त्रियां विदुषी हों | ( पृ १२३)

६. स्त्रियां संपदा शाली और धनाढ्य हों | ( पृ १२५)

७.स्त्रियां बुद्धिमती और ज्ञानवती हों | ( पृ १२६)

८. स्त्रियां परिवार ,समाज की रक्षक हों और सेना में जाएं | (पृ १३४, १३६ )

९. स्त्रियां तेजोमयी हों | ( पृ १३७)

१०.स्त्रियां धन-धान्य और वैभव देने वाली हों | ( पृ १४१-१४६)

Rahul’s Ridiculous Conduct Lowered the Dignity of Lok Sabha


Parmanand Pandey, Secretary-General : IPC
The puerile behaviour of Shri Rahul Gandhi on the floor of the Lok Sabha has become a butt of joke across the Country. Immediately after finishing his speech Shri Gandhi left his seat, crossed the aisle to reach the Prime Minister and forcibly hugged him. The Prime Minister was startled, and the entire Country was stunned over this dramatics of Shri Gandhi.
His ridiculous behaviour and acting became an instant delight for the cartoonists and meme generators. Millions of others are angry over it for belittling the seriousness of debate in the Lok Sabha by a person who himself is aspiring to become the Prime Minister of the country.
The Prime minister’s position is highly exalted one in the parliamentary democracy and, that too, of the Prime Minister of India who is the leader of more than 13 hundred million people.
Rahul Gandhi wanted the Prime Minister to get up and hug him, but the Prime Minister maintained the dignity, sobriety and equanimity and did not do what Mr Gandhi wanted him to do, albeit, he patted him like an avuncular statesman.
Low and behold! After coming to his seat Mr Gandhi made another spectacle of himself by winking and suggesting to one of his party members that how he has made a joke of the Prime Minister by hugging him after delivering his speech. This exposed him further that how idiotically (not in a derogatory sense but in the sense, it is used under section 84 of the Indian Penal Code) he can behave in the public life.
The Prime Minister in his speech made a big fun of the childish behaviour of Mr Gandhi, thanks to his exceptional oratorical skill.
Rahul Gandhi, although a Parliamentarian of many terms, must learn to behave in a manner befitting of a leader of a national party. There is no need to go into the speeches of politicians because there was hardly any substance and the issues highlighted by them could not appeal to anybody. Most of them spoke the clichés and the Prime Minister debunked them. In fact, this no-confidence motion came as a blessing in disguise to the Prime Minister, who used the opportunity to the hilt in exposing the shallowness of the opposition and in enumerating the achievements of his government.
This was, therefore, like a windfall for Shri Narendra Modi who addressed the country and successfully reached in millions of houses without any efforts.

भारतीय संसद में गरीमा और हिमाकत का मिलन !


संजय कुमावत

भारत की संसद मे कल 19 जुलाई   2018 को एक अजीब सीन देखने को मिला । यह भारत और उसके प्रधानमंत्री की गरीमा का एक औछे संसद-सदस्य राहुल गांधी की दिखावटी सदाशयता के मुखोटे के पीछे छुपी हिमाकत का मिलन था।

लोकसभा में अविश्वास प्रस्ताव पर राहुल गांधी के नुक्कड़छाप भाषण के बाद जो हुआ, वह लोकतंत्र को कलंकित करने वाला है! यह तो हमें प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी का आभार व्यक्त करना चाहिए कि उन्होंने प्रधानमंत्री पद के रुतबे को झुकने नहीं दिया, अन्यथा कांग्रेस अध्यक्ष राहुल गांधी ने तो पूरी कोशिश की थी कि उन्हें अपने इशारे पर सीट से उठाकर देश को यह संदेश दे कि प्रधानमंत्री कोई भी बन जाए, आदेश तो गांधी परिवार का ही चलेगा! लोकतंत्र के चुने हुए प्रधानमंत्री ने राजतंत्र के अहंकारी युवराज को झुका दिया!

झूठ के आधार पर गढ़े हुए अपने भाषण के बाद राहुल गांधी प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी की ओर बढ़े, इसे सभी ने लोकसभा चैनल पर देखा। लेकिन जनता और तथाकथित मीडिया बुद्धिजीवियों ने एक बार नोट नहीं किया, या फिर जानबूझ कर उसकी उपेक्षा की। वह एक क्षण था, जिसने साफ-साफ लोकतंत्र और राजतंत्र की मानसिकता के बीच के अंतर को स्पष्ट कर दिया।

प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी के पास पहुंच कर राहुल गांधी ने हाथ से बार-बार इशारा कर उन्हें अपनी सीट से उठने को कहा। एक नहीं, दो नहीं, तीन बार उन्होंने हाथ दिखाकर प्रधानमंत्री को अपनी सीट से उठने को कहा ! आश्चर्य है कि किसी ने भी इस ओर ध्यान क्यों नहीं दिया? प्रधानमंत्री का पद इस लोकतंत्र का सबसे बड़ा पद है। राजसत्ता की मानसिकता वाला कोई गांधी इसका अपमान नहीं कर सकता है। पूर्व प्रधानमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह को जिस तरह से सोनिया-राहुल उठ-बैठ कराते थे, वही कोशिश राहुल गांधी ने नरेंद्र मोदी से कराना चाहा, लेकिन यह मोदी हैं, जिन्होंने सदन में प्रवेश करने के बाद उसे लोकतंत्र का मंदिर कहा था, उसकी चौखट को चूमा था।

प्रधानमंत्री मोदी ने भी इशारा किया कि किसलिए उठूं? और क्यों उठूं? मोदी के चेहरे पर उस वक्त की कठोरता नोट करने लायक थी और वह कठोरता प्रधानमंत्री पद की गरिमा को बनाए रखने के कारण उत्पन्न हुई थी। राहुल को समझ में आ गया कि यह व्यक्ति मनमोहन सिंह नहीं है जो उसके कहने पर किसी ‘नट’ की तरह नाचे। थक-हार कर राहुल गांधी झुका और जबरदस्ती पीएम मोदी के गले पड़ गया। इसके बाद फिर वह अहंकारी पीछे मुड़ कर चलने लगा। गले मिलना उसे कहते हैं, जिसमें सदाशयता हो, उसे नहीं, जिसमें अहंकार हो। अहंकार से गले मिलने को गले पड़ना कहते हैं। राहुल गांधी पीएम से गले नहीं मिला, बल्कि उनक गले पड़ा !

पीएम के गले पड़कर वह मुड़ा और जाने लगा। पीएम मोदी ने उसे आवाज देकर बुलाया और सीट पर बैठे-बैठे ही उससे हाथ मिलाया, मुस्कुराए, उसकी पीठ ठोंकी, उसे शाबासी दी! बिल्कुल एक अभिभावक की तरह !
राहुल गांधी पीएम मोदी से गले मिलने नहीं, बल्कि वह गले पड़ने गया था। उन्हें आदेश देकर अपनी सीट से उठने के लिए कहने गया था।

मेरा मानना है कि नरेंद्र मोदी के अलावा खुद भाजपा का भी कोई दूसरा नेता होता तो गांधी परिवार के इस अहंकारी उद्दंड राजनेता के कहने पर उठ कर खड़ा हो गया होता! देखा नहीं आपने, जब राहुल गांधी पीएम मोदी के पास आए तो पिछली सीट पर बैठे कितने ही सारे भाजपाई नेता उठ कर खड़े हो गये थे, ताली बजा रहे थे! दरअसल यह सब पीएम नरेंद्र मोदी के नाम पर जीत कर आए हैं, लेकिन बीमारी तो वही कांग्रेस वाली लगी है, किसी वंश या परिवार की चाकरी करने की!

इस मामले को लोकसभा अध्यक्ष सुमित्रा महाजन ने भी नोट किया कि राहुल गांधी ने सदन और प्रधानमंत्री पद की गरिमा का हनन करने का प्रयास किया है। सुमित्रा महाजन ने बाद में सदन में कहा, “जिस तरह राहुल गांधी प्रधानमंत्री के पास पहुंचे, उन्हें उठने को कहा, वह अशोभनीय था। प्रधानमंत्री अपनी सीट पर बैठे थे। वह कोई नरेंद्र मोदी नहीं हैं, बल्कि देश के प्रधानमंत्री हैं। उस पद की अपनी गरिमा है। इसके बाद राहुल उनके पास से जाकर अपनी सीट पर फिर से भाषण देने लगे और आंख मारा, यह पूरे सदन की गरिमा के खिलाफ था।”

अपने अध्यक्ष की अशोभनीय आचरण को ढंकने के लिए एक गुलाम की भांति कांग्रेस के नेता मल्लिकार्जुन खड़गे ने लोकसभा अध्यक्ष के कहे पर आपत्ति दर्ज कराना चाहा। इस पर लोकसभा अध्यक्ष सुमित्रा महाजन ने कहा, “मैं किसी को गले मिलने से थोड़े न रोक रहीं हूं। मैं भी एक मां हूं। मेरे लिए तो राहुल एक बेटे के समान ही हैं। लेकिन एक मां के नाते उसकी कमजोरियों को ठीक करना भी मेरा दायित्व है। सदन की गरिमा को हम सबको ही बनाए रखनी है।”

इसके उपरांत गृहमंत्री राजनाथ सिंह ने थोड़ा दार्शनिक अंदाज में राहुल की हरकतों पर कटाक्ष कहते हुए कहा, “जिसकी आत्मा संशय में घिर जाती है, उसके अंदर अहंकार पैदा हो जाता है। यही आज सदन में देखने को मिला है।”

प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी, यह लोकतंत्र आपका आभारी है कि आप अपनी सीट पर बैठे रहे। यह हमारे वोट का सम्मान है। हमने लोकतंत्र के लिए अपना प्रधानमंत्री चुना है, कोई कठपुतली नहीं। कोई प्रधानमंत्री यदि राजशाही के अहंकार वाले किसी व्यक्ति के लिए अपनी सीट से उठ जाए तो यह न केवल प्रधानमंत्री पद के सम्मान का और सदन की गरिमा का अपमान होगा, बल्कि देश की उन सभी जनता का अपमान होगा, जिसे लोकतंत्र में आस्था है और जिसने अपने प्रधानमंत्री के लिए मतदान किया है। धन्यवाद प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी जी, एक अहंकारी उद्दंड को उसकी औकात दिखाने के लिए !

अनन्त-ब्रहमांड व हम


(नोट : यह इस वेब साइट पर मौजूद “विज़न डॉक्यूमेंट” के चैप्टर १ का हिंदी अनुवाद है। बाकी दस्तावेज के अनुवाद का इन्तजार करें।    )

आओ हम एक महत्वपूर्ण खोज करने के लिए एक बोद्धिक यात्रा पर चलें। यह खोज यात्रा इस बात को जानने के लिए है कि आखिर जीवन की उत्पत्ति क्यों और कैसे हुई, इसका इतिहास क्या है और इस पृथ्वी पर हमारा – मानव जाति का – भविष्य क्या है। यह खोज यात्रा हमारे सामने इस ब्रह्मांड के विकास की एक ऐसी अनूठी कहानी को रखती है जहां पर हमारी बुद्धि को यह समझ में आ जाता है कि यह वर्तमान विश्व ऐसा क्यों है। ब्रह्मांड की इस गुत्थी को समझ लेने पर हमें एक कर्तव्य बोध होता है कि वर्तमान मे हमें किस तरह का अपना आचरण रखना चाहिए और भविष्य मे होने वाली घटनाओं के बारे में एक अंतर्दृष्टि प्राप्त होती है। जो लोग अपनी बुद्धि का इस्तेमाल करना चाहते हैं और जिन लोगों को खोज में रुचि है उन सभी लोगों के लिए यह खोज यात्रा बहुत शांति प्रदान करने वाली, अंतरमन को एक सुखद आश्वासन देने वाली और ह्रदय को आनंदित करने वाली है। आओ इस भूमिका के साथ हम अपनी खोज यात्रा पर निकलें।

बहुत समय पहले – ईसा मसीह से लगभग 470 साल पहले – एक समझदार आदमी ने जिसका नाम सुकरात था कहा कि मुझे छोड़कर बाकी सभी लोग मूर्ख हैं। मैं अकेला आदमी ही समझदार हूं। और मैं समझदार इसलिये हूं क्योंकि मैं जानता हूं कि मैं मूखॆ हूं। आज हम 21वीं शताब्दी में रह रहे हैं और इन शब्दों को कहे हुए लगभग 2500 साल बीत गए हैं। क्या आज भी हम यह कह सकते हैं कि हम समझदार हैं क्योंकि हम जानते हैं कि हम मूर्ख हैं? आओ, हम यह जानने की कोशिश करें कि हम वाक्ई मे ही मूर्ख हैं और समझदार बनें।

उसी समझदार आदमी ने एक बात और कही थी। उसने कहा कि आदमी का आनंद एक जानवर के आनंद से कहीं बेहतर होता है। आदमी का आनंद एक जानवर के आनंद से बेहतर इसलिये होता है क्योंकि आदमी अपने वर्तमान से कभी भी संतुष्ट नहीं रहता और वह उस सब को जानने की कोशिश करता रहता है जो उसे मालूम नहीं है। जबकि जानवर अपने में मस्त रहता है और वतॆमान के अपने अस्तित्व से संतुष्ट रहता है।

आदमी का अंतर्मन हमेशा इस बात का प्यासा रहता है कि उसे वह सब पता चल जाए जो उसे अभी मालूम नहीं है। आदमी के अंदर बहुत गहरे छुपा हुआ है उसका असली वजूद जो उसे लगातार उकसाता रहता है कि वह उस चीज की खोज में और आगे बढ़ें जो उसे मालूम नहीं है। आदमी अनजानी चीजों को जानने की लाखों वषॆ की इसी कोशिश में इस काबिल बन गया है कि वह अपने से सीधे और सपाट सवाल कर सकता है और उनके उत्तर ढूंढ सकता है।

इससे भी ज्यादा महतवपूणे बात यह है कि वह प्रकृति की इस रचना को देखकर उस पर आश्चर्य कर सकता है। इंसान की इस अनोखी काबिलीयत ने ही मानव जाति की सभ्यता को हमेशा ऊंचे से और अधिक ऊंचाई की ओर बढाया है और उसे चकाचोंध पैदा करने वाली उस उँचाई पर पहुंचा दिया है जहां पर यह सभ्यता आज खडी है।

इस दुनिया का वजूद ही बहुत आश्चर्य करने वाला है। इस दुनिया में हर चीज आश्चर्य करने वाली है और इन आश्चर्यों में भी सबसे बड़ा आश्चर्य है: जीवन । और धरती पर जीवन का सिरमौर बने “मानव जीवन” के आश्चर्य का तो ठिकाना ही क्या है!

जब आदमी इन सब चीजों पर गौर करता है तो उनके बारे में गंभीर सवाल उठ खड़े होते हैं। जैसे-जैसे आदमी और समझदार होता जाता है और अधिक सवाल उसके सामने उठ खड़े होते हैं। पृथ्वी पर विभिन्न प्रकार के जीवन के कारवां को नेतृत्व देने का स्थान उसने क्यों और कैसे हड़प लिया है? जहां तक उसे मालूम है, इस असीम ब्रह्मांड में जीवन का यह कारवां अकेले पृथ्वी पर ही क्यों है? पृथ्वी पर जीवन के विकास का यह कारवां किधर जा रहा है? आखिर जीवन का यह कारवाँ कहां पहुंच कर रुकेगा?

ये सब सवाल हमारे सामने उत्तर के लिए उठ खड़े होते हैं। हालांकि ये सब सवाल हमारे सामने मुंह बाए खड़े हैं लेकिन आम तौर पर हम सभी और सारी जिंदगी भर हम खाना कपड़ा जुटाने, आनंद मनाने और छोटी मोटी जरूरतों को पूरा करने में ही लगे रहते हैं। हमारे सारे विचार और कायॆकलाप इन्हीं चीजों पर केंद्रित रहते हैं और हम जीवन भर इन्हीं चीजों की मांग से निर्देशित होते रहते हैं। मानव जाति का अधिकांश भाग इनहीं चीजों मे लगे रह कर लगभग बेहोशी की सी हालत मे अपना जीवन बिता देता है।

इस रहस्यमय विश्व के दरवाजे की एकमात्र गुप्त चाबी है: सवाल करना ! हर सवाल चाहे वह कितना भी मामूली क्यों ना हो यदि ईमानदारी से पूछा जाए और पूरी निशठा से उसका जवाब ढूंढा जाए तो एक खोज बन जाता है। उदाहरण के लिए यदि हम यह पूछे कि यह सूरज ऐसा क्यों है जैसा कि यह है – सदा चमकता रहने वाला और चारों ओर रोशनी बिखेरते रहने वाला – और इस सवाल का जवाब ढूंढे तो हम नाभीकीय फ्यूजन की खोज कर लेंगे। यदि हम यह पूछे कि सेव पेड़ से टूट कर नीचे जमीन की ओर ही क्यों गिरते हैं और ऊपर को क्यों नहीं जाते तो हम गुरुत्वाकर्षण की खोज कर लेते हैं।

इंसान के दिमाग की सबसे बड़ी खूबी यह है कि यह आश्चर्य कर सकता है – आश्चर्य इस बात पर कि यह दुनिया क्यों है और इस तरह की क्यों है जिस तरह कि यह है; आश्चर्य इस बात का कि इन सब चीजों के पीछे क्या रहस्य है; और आश्चर्य इस बात का कि आखिर इस सब रचना के पीछे रहस्य क्या है! इंसान का दिमाग ही अकेला वह पावर-हाउस है जो उसकी तरक्की, सभ्यता और विकास को आगे बढ़ाता है।

धरती पर जीवन के विकास की चोटी पर इंसान बैठा है। मानव खुद अपने से लगातार संघर्ष करके ही पशुओं की दुनिया से और उस दुनिया को बांधने वाले नियमों से ऊपर उठा है। वह अपने अस्तित्व को बचाये रखने की लडाई में ही लगे रहने वाले पशु जगत से आगे अपने दिमाग का विकास करके ही और अपने से सवाल पूछ कर और उनका जवाब ढूंड कर ही पशु जगत से बाहर आया है। उसके पास एक ऐसा दिमाग है जो सवाल कर सकता है, खोजबीन कर सकता है और रहस्यमयी चीजों पर आश्चर्य कर सकता है। इंसान को यही शोभा देता है कि वह जानवर की तरह संतुष्ट न रहे और सवाल करे, आश्चर्य करे और उनके जवाब ढूंढे। एक ऐसी सभ्यता जो इंसान को मजा लूटने को प्रेरित करती हो, जो इंसान को स्वयं में ही संतुष्ट रहने को प्रेरित करती हो, जो इंसान को अपनी इच्छाओं की पूर्ति को ही सर्वोत्तम मानती हो, वह सभ्यता उस मानव जाति की गरिमा और सम्मान से नीचे की चीज है जो (मानव) जाति इस पृथ्वी पर सब तरह के जीवन का नेतृत्व कर रही हो। इंसान को यही शोभा देता है कि वह जानवर की तरह संतुष्ट न रहें और सवाल करें, आश्चर्य करें और उनके जवाब ढूंढे। उसे विकास के पथ पर आगे ही बढना है पीछे नहीं जाना है।

यह मानव गरिमा के अनुरूप ही है कि सवाल करने वाला और जवाब ढूंढने वाला इंसान अपनी जरुरत पूरी करने में ही मस्त रहने से ऊपर उठे और अपने दिमाग को उसी मे लगे रहने की गुलामी से मुक्त करें। उसे मतलबखोर सभ्यता के स्थान पर लक्ष्य को ध्यान में रखने वाली सभ्यता का निर्माण करना चाहिए।

यह मानव के अपने हित में ही है कि वह एक ऐसी सभ्यता का निर्माण करें जो लोगों को फुर्सत का समय उपलब्ध कराये और उन्हें इस बात का बढ़ावा दे कि वे बिना किसी के निजी और स्वार्थी हितों की सेवा किये निष्पक्ष होकर खोजबीन करें।  यह भी मानव जाति के हित में ही हैं कि वह नयी सभ्यता ऐसे लोगों की मेहनत को रोजी रोटी की सुरक्षा, सामाजिक मान्यता और सम्मान दिलाए जो खोजबीन करते हों। ऐसी लोगों द्वारा खोज किया गया ज्ञान किसी की निजी सम्पति नहीं होनी चाहिए, बल्कि वह ज्ञान उस सारे समाज और उस समाज की नयी सभ्यता की सार्वजानिक सम्पति होनी चाहिए। आज इंसान विज्ञानं और टेक्नोलॉजी में इतनी तरक्की कर चुका है कि वह सभी को खोजबीन करने के लिए पर्याप्त फुर्सत का समय उपलब्ध आसानी से करा सकता है।

सवाल करने और उनके उत्तर खोजने के लिए दिमाग की मजबूती और दिल की ईमानदारी की जरूरत होती है क्योंकि सवाल करने पर आदमी को केवल अपना ही फायदा सोचने वाली घटिया संस्कृति से ऊपर उठना होता है। आओ, हम खुल कर सवाल करें, मौलिक सवाल करें, खूब सवाल करें और उनके उत्तर खोजें। हमारे चारों तरफ आश्चर्यचकित कर देने वाली बहुत सी चीजें हैं और खोज करने के लिए बहुत से सवाल हैं।

इन सब चीजों के बीच, एक तरफ तो यह विश्व है जो अनंत और रहस्यपूर्ण और एक पहेली की तरह हैं; और इसके दूसरी तरफ एक इंसान है – जो इस विश्व के रहस्य से भी ज्यादा रहस्यपूर्ण है – जोकि इस विश्व के रहस्य को सुलझाने में लगा हुआ है। हम इस भौतिक विश्व को जानने की कोशिश करते हैं और खोज कर लेते हैं आकाश गंगाओं और उनमे स्तिथ सूर्य मंडलों की; ब्लैक होल और बिग बंग के द्वारा इस ब्रह्माण्ड की उत्पत्ति की; स्पेस और टाइम की डाइमेंशन्स की। दूसरे किनारे पर , हम जीवन को जानने की कोशिश करते हैं और खोज कर लेते हैं जीवन के ब्लू प्रिंट – जेनेटिक कोड की;  हम इंसान के ‘मस्तिष्क ” को जानने की कोशिश करते हैं और खोज लेते हैं उसके “चेतन”, “अवचेतन ” और “अचेतन ” भागों को; हम जानने की कोशिश करते हैं कि इंसान के “मस्तिष्क ” से परे क्या है और खोज कर लेते हैं “ई एस पी” (एक्स्ट्रा सेंसरी परसेप्शन), “एन डी ई” (नियर डेथ एक्सपीरियंस), “मृत्यु के बाद जीवन”, “चेतना के स्तर” जोकि इंसान के मस्तिष्क से परे हैं , ईसा मसीह के “गॉड” को , बुद्धा के “निर्वाण” को , स्वामी महावीर के “कैवल्य” को, श्री अरविंद के “दिव्य सत्ता” को, आदि आदि।

उन अनगनित सवालों में, जोकि हम पूछ सकते हैं और जिनका हम उत्तर ढून्ढ सकते हैं, सबसे नैषरगिक और सबसे ज्यादा महत्वपूर्ण सवाल है : आखिर मैं हूँ कौन ? आज जबकि हमारे पास चकित कर देने वाला विज्ञान है और हम विकास के इतने ऊँचे स्तर पर पहुँच गए हैं , तो हमारे में यह क्षमता होनी ही चाहिए कि हम इस सर्वोत्तम सवाल को पूछें और इसका उत्तर ढूंढें।

लेकिन हम अपनी रोजमर्रा की जिंदगी जीने में ही लगे रहते हैं, इस बात को बिलकुल भी जाने बिना कि यह हमारे चारों तरफ फैली यह दुनिया आखिर है क्या ! हमारे दिमाग में इस विचार के लिये कोई स्थान नहीं होता कि वह क्या मशीन है जो “प्रकाश” को पैदा करती है और जिस से जीवन संभव होता है ; यह “गुरुत्वाकर्षण” क्या है जोकि हमें धरती से चिपकाये रखता है और जिसके बिना हम एक कदम रखते ही अंतरिक्ष में फेंक दिए गए होते; या, ये “परमाणु ” क्या हैं जिस से हम बने हैं और जिस पर हमारा स्थाईत्व – टिका रहना – संभव हुआ है !

हम में से – हमारी जाति, मानवजाति जिसे हम विचारशील प्राणी कहते हैं उस में से – केवल बहुत थोड़े से लोग ही  ऐसे  हैं जो इस सवाल पर अपना कुछ समय देते हों कि यह प्रकृति इस तरह की – जैसी वह है – क्यों है और इस पर आश्चर्य करते हों। या, कि यह ब्रह्मांड आया कहाँ से? क्या यह सदा से ही यहाँ और ऐसा रहा है? क्या कभी समय उलटी दिशा में बहाने लगेगा और कारण से पहले कार्य होने लगेंगे ? क्या मनुष्यों की कोई एक ऐसी अंतिम सीमा है जिस से परे वे नहीं जान सकते ? इस मामले में, बच्चे हम बड़ों से कहीं अधिक कल्पनाशील और सवालों करने और उनके उत्तर ढूंढ ने वाले होते हैं, लेकिन इसी कारण से हम उनको यह कह कर दरकिनार कर देते हैं कि वे तो बच्चे हैं और उनके सवाल हमारे गौर करने वाले नहीं हैं !

यह इंसानों की गरिमा के अनुरूप ही है कि वे सवाल करें; हमें इंसान ही बनना चाहिए, पशु सरीखे नहीं; हमें अपने से सवाल करने चाहिए और पशुओं की तरह अपनी छोटी छोटी जरूरतों की पूर्ती करने में ही नहीं लगे रहना चाहिए।

किसी समझदार आदमी ने बड़ा ही सटीक कहा: “मैं सोचता हूँ कि … इसलिए मैं हूँ” ! हम एक कदम और आगे बढ़ सकते हैं और इसमें जोड़ सकते हैं: “क्योंकि मैं हूँ, इसलिये यह दुनिया भी है “. हाँ, यह दुनिया है जिसे हम सभी देख रहे हैं, इसमें रह रहे हैं और तौल रहे हैं।  लेकिन यह विश्व अपने प्रारंभिक विन्दु से कैसे शुरू हुआ ? और, या, यह कभी शुरू हुआ भी था ?

इन सवालों की गहराई को प्रख्यात ब्रिटिश वैज्ञानिक स्टेफेन डब्लू हॉकिंस ने अपनी विख्यात पुस्तक “समय का संक्षिप्त इतिहास ” में बखूबी दर्शाते हैं, जब वह कहते हैं : “इस चीज को सही तरह बताने के लिए कि यह विश्व प्रारम्भ में किस तरह शुरू हुआ होगा, उन नियमों को जानना होगा जोकि समय की शुरुआत पर लागू होते हों। यदि जनरल रिलेटिविटी की क्लासिकल थ्योरी सही है, तो जो सिंगुलरिटी की थेओरम रॉजर और पैनरोज और मैंने साबित की है, उसके मुताबिक शुरुआती समय एक ऐसा विन्दु रहा होगा जहाँ घनत्व (डेंसिटी) अनंत होगा और स्पेस – टाइम का करवेचर (स्थान और समय का झुकाव) अनंत रहा होगा ! ऐसे विन्दु पर हमारे विज्ञानं के वे सभी नियम जो हम जानते हैं टूट जायेंगे। हम यह सोचते होंगे कि उस सिंगुलरिटी के विन्दु पर कुछ नए नियम लागू होते होंगे ,पर ऐसे बदमिजाज विन्दु पर लागू होने वाले नियमों को निर्धारित कर पाना भर ही बहुत कठिन है और हमारे पास निरीक्षण के द्वारा निर्धारण करने का कोई साधन नहीं है जोकि बता सके कि वे नियम कैसे होंगे …. हमारे पास अभी तक भी कोई ऐसी पूर्ण और समरस थ्योरी नहीं है जोकि क्वांटम मेकेनिक्स और ग्रेविटी को मिला कर समझाती हो।

“फिर भी हम इस बारे में काफी हद तक निश्चित हैं कि इस तरह की कंबाइंड थ्योरी (क्वांटम मैकेनिक्स और ग्रेविटी को मिला कर बनी थ्योरी) में कुछ खास बातें होंगी।  ….. फेनमैन की “sum over histories” की टेक्निकल दिक्कतों से बचने के लिए, हमें काल्पनिक (imaginary) समय को इस्तेमाल करना होगा। यानि, हमें समय की गणना करने के लिए वास्तविक संख्याओं के स्थान पर काल्पनिक संख्याओं का उपयोग करना होगा। इस तरह की गणना करने से “स्पेस-समय” पर एक दिलचस्प असर होगा : तब, “स्पेस” और “समय” का भेद पूरी तरह से समाप्त हो जायेगा (स्पेस और समय एक ही चीज होगी !!) …. यदि यह विश्व वास्तव में ही इस तरह की क्वांटम (Quantum) स्तिथी में है तो (उपयोग किये गए ) काल्पनिक समय में इस विश्व के इतिहास में कभी भी “सिंगुलरिटी (Singularity) ” नहीं हो सकती !!! ….

“इसका यह अर्थ होगा कि तथाकथित “काल्पनिक” समय ही वास्तव में “असली” समय है, और जिस समय को हम “वास्तविक” समय कहते हैं वह हमारी कोरी कल्पना ही है।  “वास्तविक” समय में इस विश्व का “सिंगुलरिटी” पर एक आरंभिक विन्दु होगा और अंत का विन्दु होगा जो स्पेस और समय की सीमा बनाता है और जिस विन्दु पर विज्ञान के नियम टूट जाते हैं। लेकिन “काल्पनिक” समय में सिंगुलरिटी होती ही नहीं (जहाँ स्पेस और समय की सीमा मिलती हो); इसलिए यह हो सकता है कि जिसे हम “काल्पनिक” समय कहते हैं वह ही मौलिक समय हो, और वह जिसे हम “वास्तविक” समय कहते हैं केवल हमारा एक विचार मात्र ही हो जो हमने इस लिए गढ़ लिया है ताकि हम इस विश्व का अपने विचार के अनुसार वर्णन कर सके कि यह ऐसा है !!

“लेकिन इस दृष्टिकोण से जैसा मैंने चैप्टर 1 में बताया है, वैज्ञानिल थ्योरी केवल गणित द्वारा तैयार किया गया एक मॉडल मात्र होता है जो हमारे द्वारा देखी गई चीजों को समझाता है : यह केवल हमारे दिमाग में होता है। इसलिए यह सवाल करना बेमायना है कि: “असली कौन सा है – “असली समय” या “काल्पनिक समय”? इस मामले में केवल यह देखना है कि वर्णन करने में कौन सा अधिक फायदा वाला है।”

हमारे सामने यहां सवाल इस बात का नहीं है कि खरबों पहले हुए बिग बंग के साथ “हमारे समय” की शुरुआत कैसे हुई, बल्कि सवाल इस बात का है कि प्रथम बार कि जब स्पेस और टाइम की सिंगुलरिटी का करवेचर – या घुमाव – अनंत था तो वहां से “समय ” की शुरुआत” क्यों हुई और कैसे हुई।

स्टेफेन हॉकिंस केवल इस समस्या से जूझ रहे हैं – और उसका समाधान भी नहीं पा रहे – कि उस अवस्था से समय की शुरुआत “कैसे” हुई, लेकिन हमारी समस्या यह जानने की है कि प्रथम बार वहां से समय की शुरुआत “क्यों” हुई।

हम बिग बंग से साथ शरू हुए इस “अपने समय” में रह रहे हैं और यदि हम समय में पीछे की तरफ जाएँ तो हम अपने इस समय के शुरुआती विन्दु पर पहुँच जायेंगे। लेकिन यदि हमारे “इस समय” का कोई एक शुरुआती विन्दु था तो क्या इस हमारे इस समय से पहले भी “कोई और समय” का दौर भी रहा था ?

और समय के इस चक्र में ऐसे दौर कितनी बार हुए ? आखिर सबसे पहला दौर शुरू “क्यों” हुआ ? समय के इस चक्र के नियम क्या हैं ? ये सवाल मानव की बुद्धि के लिये सबसे ऊँचे स्तर के हैं। दुर्भाग्य से हम “अपने” इस समय में रह रहे हैं और हम केवल इसी समय के बारे में ही कोई सार्थक चर्चा कर सकते हैं, समय के मूल के बारे मे नही !! लेकिन वह सवाल बरकरार बना रहता है।

ये वैज्ञानिक हमें बताते हैं कि समय के शुरुआती विन्दु पर – स्पेस और टाइम के सिंगुलरिटी विन्दु पर – पदार्थ का घनत्व अनंत होगा और समय का घुमाव (करवेचर) भी अनंत होग ! पदार्थ के अनंत घनत्व से हम क्या समझते हैं ? समय के अनंत घुमाव या करवेचर से हम क्या समझते हैं ? यानि, स्थान (स्पेस ) और समय (टाइम ) के अनंत घुमाव से हम क्या समझते हैं ? हमारा यह विश्व स्पेस – टाइम के चार आयाम (डायमेंशन ) में मौजूद है; यदि हमारे लिए यह संभव हो कि हम इस विश्व के वजन (सहंति या मास !) को दबाते जाएँ और काम से कमतर स्थान में सिकोड़ते जाएँ तो इसका घनत्व बढ़ता जायेगा। यदि हम ऐसा करें तो हम इसको कितना दबा पाएंगे ?

यदि हम इस विश्व की सहंति को स्थान (स्पेस ) के एक विन्दु पर सिकोड़ सकें तो यह अवस्था सबसे अधिक घनत्व की होगी; पर फिर भी यह अनंत नहीं होगी !! हमें अभी भी अनंत पर पहुंचना है !

यह हाल तो पदार्थ के स्पेस और घनत्व का है ! आओ इसी को समय पर भी लागू करें। यदि हम समय को दबा या सिकोड़ सकें तो एक क्षण ऐसा आएगा जहाँ समस्त समय एक विन्दु में समा जायेगा ; फिर भी यह विन्दु अनंत नहीं है !! हमे अभी भी अनंत विन्दु पर पहुँचना है !

इस तरह,यदि स्पेस और टाइम के चार आयाम (डायमेंशन) वाले इस विश्व को अनंत के विन्दु तक सिकोड़ा जाये तो यह विश्व चारो तरफ से बंद एक विन्दु में समा जायेगा, यदि इसका घुमाव (करवेचर ) पॉजिटिव होगा ; और यह विश्व चारो तरफ से खुला होगा, यदि इसका घुमाव (करवेचर ) नेगेटिव होगा ! क्या हम ऐसे विश्व की कल्पना कर सकते हैं जो बिना स्थान (स्पेस ) और बिना समय (टाइम ) के स्तिथ हो ? ऐसा विश्व अपने आप में एक विरोधाभासी शब्द है ! लेकिन इस ब्रह्माण्ड में विरोधाभाषी चीजें मौजूद हैं।

हमारा विश्व पदार्थ (मैटर ) का बना है। पदार्थ क्या है ? वह सब जो इस विश्व में मौजूद है, मूल रूप में “पदार्थ” ही है और हम कोई भी ऐसी चीज नहीं जानते जो मौजूद तो हो पर “पदार्थ” न हो। आखिर वह क्या चीज है जिसे हम “पदार्थ” (या मैटर) कहते हैं ? हम सब “स्पेस” में रहते हैं और रोज हमारा वास्ता इस “स्पेस” से पड़ता है, और हम ऐसा दिखाते हैं जैसे कि हम “स्पेस” को बखूबी जानते हों। क्या हम वास्तव में जानते हैं कि “स्पेस” क्या है ? इसी तरह, हमारी विकसित सभ्यता पूरी तरह से “समय” के उपयोग और उसके लेखे-जोखे पर निर्भर है। क्या “समय” वास्तव में कोई चीज है भी – क्या यह मौजूद भी है ? “पदार्थ” , “स्पेस” और “समय” का अस्तित्व सनातन – अजर अमर – है और हम इंसानों की मौजूदगी का उनके अस्तित्व के रहस्य पर कोई असर नहीं पड़ता।

लेकिन अब इंसान ब्रह्माण्ड के इस रहस्यपूर्ण रंग मंच पर आ खड़ा हुआ है ताकि वह इस पर आश्चर्य कर सके और उस रहस्य की गहराइयाँ नाप सके।

तब फिर, क्या इंसान इन त्रिमूर्ति “पदार्थ, स्पेस और समय” की ही पैदावार नहीं है ? तब फिर, क्या इंसान का मायना – अर्थ – यह नहीं है कि यह त्रिमूर्ति अपने आप पर ही आश्चर्य कर रही है और इसके गुप्त रहस्य की गहराइयों को नाप रही है ? ये रहस्य सबसे ऊँचे दर्जे के रहस्य हैं।

हम इंसानों को अपने आधुनिक वैज्ञानिक ज्ञान की तुलना उस सबसे करनी चाहिए जो हमे अभी भी जानना बाकी है और अपने उस अहंकारपूर्ण रवैये के औचित्य पर हमें अपने से सवाल करना चाहिए जो महात्मा बुद्ध, जीसस क्राइस्ट , बाबा फरीद , गुरु नानक , विवेकानंद, श्री अरविन्द आदि के द्वारा कहे गए सत्य पर सवाल उठाता  हो। इंसान अभी भी उस दूधमुहे बच्चे की तरह ही है जो अपने आस पास की दुनिया को समझने की कोशिश कर रहा होता है।

विनम्रता के अलावा,  इंसान को इस बात की भी जरुरत है कि वह धैर्य – सब्र – रखे।  “पदार्थ” , “स्पेस” और “समय” के पीछे छुपे रहस्य को उजागर करना विज्ञान का काम है और इंसान की बुद्धि, जो इस वैज्ञानिक ढूंढ का पावरहाउस – ऊर्जा स्त्रोत – है, इस काम को आश्चर्य जनक ढंग से कर रही है। हालाँकि मनुष्य की बुद्धि – इसकी चीजों को समझने के लिए विश्लेषण की पद्धति अपनाने के कारण – इस बात की कम ही क्षमता रखती है कि वह इस विश्व के सत्य के सम्पूर्ण आयाम को समझ सके , फिर भी इस बुद्धि की ढूंढ ही हम इंसानों को बुद्धि की अपनी अन्तर्निहित सीमाओं का अहसास कराती है और हमें इस बात के लिए तैयार करती है कि हम बुद्धि से परे जा सकें।

विज्ञान न केवल इस विश्व के पीछे छुपे सत्य को एक एक कदम करके उद्घाटित कर रहा है बल्कि धीरे धीरे मनुष्य की बुद्धि को भी इस बात के लिए भी तैयार कर रहा है कि वह स्वीकार कर ले कि ऐसे भी सत्य हैं जोकि मानव की चेतना की क्षमता के बाहर हैं और यह स्वीकार कर ले कि इस विश्व के रहस्य को जानने के बुद्धि के अलावा और बुद्धि से बेहतर दूसरे मार्ग भी हो सकते हैं। हमारी कठिनाई यह है कि यह विश्व और यहाँ की चीजें केवल अपनी बनावट में ही जटिल नहीं हैं बल्कि आयामों में भी बहुत विशाल हैं।

Live-streaming of Court Proceedings is a Welcome Step


Parmanand Pandey, Secretary-General:  IPC

Live-streaming of court proceedings is a momentous and laudable decision of the Supreme Court of India. This will, without doubt, bring about transparency in the courts. Incidentally, the first step in this direction was taken in November 2017, when the bench headed by the CJI Dipak Misra directed that the proceedings of two courts in every district of the country would be video recorded.

Now in the first week of July this year a bench consisting of the CJI, Dipak Misra, Justice A.M. Khanwilkar and Justice D.Y. Chandrachud handed down an earth-shattering decision for the live telecasting of the court proceedings and the beginning will be made from the court of the Chief Justice itself.

There are many democratic countries where video recording is allowed. In some countries like; the United States of America live telecast of some selected cases is also permitted. Thus the Supreme Court of India will be the first in the world to have allowed for the live streaming of the proceedings.

As far as the Supreme Court is concerned all judges sit in the courtrooms exactly at 10:30 am, without being late even for one minute. However, in most of the High Courts, the condition is not so good. The judges often come late in the courts. Sometimes they come late from half an hour to one hour and they retire to their chambers as per their sweet wills.

The condition of the lower courts across the country is in the total mess. The Judges come and go as and when they desire. It is an open secret that the corruption in the lower judiciary is stinking to the high heaven. A reader/peshkar takes money for the filing of the documents, giving of the dates or providing information about the next date of hearings or for the changing the dates. These employees take bribes from Advocates and their clients in the full glare of the judges.

These peshkars/ ahlmads supply milk, bread, butter, vegetables and groceries to the houses of presiding deities. The situation is not so bad in Delhi and many other cosmopolitan towns but in districts it is rampant. The judges have become so  insensitive to the law – to uphold which law they are responsible – that they do not feel anything bad in it. Many times even if the bail has been granted, the papers will not be prepared till the palms of the concerned Ahlmad are not greased. Peons and employees openly demand money as if it is their right.

The live telecasts of the Court proceedings will certainly help curb the corruption to a large extent. This will make lethargic and incompetent judges more alert and at the same time save the clients from extortion by the non-judicial employees.

Sunlight, as they say, is the best disinfectant.

This will largely cure the infection of corruption and help the ordinary people in getting the justice relatively fast and affordable because the conduct of the judges, advocates, court employees and others will always be under the public scanner. This will also ensure the judges and the advocates to remain prepared during the hearings of the cases because their conducts will be in the surveillance of thousands of people.

No doubt, what has not been achieved by the strictness of the administration will be achieved by the modern technology. Almost everybody knows that there are many advocates, who only seek adjournments to delay the cases. Clients also indulge in highly unethical practices to get the justice delayed. The live-streaming will also go a long way in controlling the witnesses to behave properly because it has been found that they often turn hostile for some considerations.

However, the presiding Judges will be required to ensure that the courts’ rooms are not converted into the places of theatrics. There are no dearth of such advocates who may adopt the recourse of dramatics to get the cheap popularity.

We see that even the live telecasting of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha has not been able to inject a sense of responsibility among the members of parliament. Therefore, the judges will have to take extra care to ensure that some advocates do not hijack the court discipline for cheap publicity.

The technology has come as a boon for the eradication of corruption and we must salute and welcome it with open arms to make the country a better place to live in. This move will also instil a new faith in the judiciary.

Unmasking Mother Teresa !


By: Sanjay Vaidya

Mother Teresa: Where Are Her Millions?
This article is the second bomb about the activities of Missionaries of Charity, after Sister Susan Shields dropped the 1st bomb, creating jaw-dropping shock-waves. More bombs are in the pipeline, as our inquiry continues. This article first appeared in Stern.

The Angel of the poor died some years ago. Donations still flow in to her Missionaries of Charity like to no other cause. But the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize vowed to live in poverty. What then, happened to so much money?

If there is a heaven, then she – Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu from Skopje in Macedonia, better known as Mother Teresa – is surely there !!

She came to Calcutta on the 6th of Januray 1929 as an 18 year old sister of the Order of Loreto. 68 years later luminaries from all over the world assembled in Calcutta in order to honour her with a state funeral. In these 68 years she had founded the most successful order in the history of the Catholic church, received the Nobel Peace Prize and became the most famous Catholic of our time.

Are doubts permitted, regarding this “monument”?

In Calcutta, one meets many doubters.
For example, Samity, a man of around 30 with no teeth, who lives in the slums. He is one of the “poorest of the poor” to whom Mother Teresa was supposed to have dedicated her life. With a plastic bag in hand, he stands in a kilometre long queue in Calcutta’s Park Street. The poor wait patiently, until the helpers shovel some rice and lentils into their bags. But Samity does not get his grub from Mother Teresa’s institution, but instead from the Assembly of God, an American charity, that serves 18000 meals here daily.

“Mother Teresa?”says Samity, “We have not received anything from her here. Ask in the slums — who has received anything from the sisters here — you will find hardly anybody.”

Pannalal Manik also has doubts. “I don’t understand why you educated people in the West have made this woman into such a goddess!”

Manik was born some 56 years ago in the Rambagan slum, which at about 300 years of age, is Calcutta’s oldest. What Manik has achieved, can well be called a “miracle”. He has built 16 apartment buildings in the midst of the slum — living space for 4000 people. Money for the building materials — equivalent to DM 10000 per apartment building — was begged for by Manik from the Ramakrishna Mission [a Indian/Hindu charity], the largest assistance-organisation in India. The slum-dwellers built the buildings themselves. It has become a model for the whole of India.

But what about Mother Teresa? “I went to her place 3 times,” said Manik. “She did not even listen to what I had to say. Everyone on earth knows that the sisters have a lot of money. But no one knows what they do with it!”

In Calcutta there are about 200 charitable organisations helping the poor. Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity are not amongst the biggest helpers: that contradicts the image of the organisation. The name “Mother Teresa” was and is tied to the city of Calcutta. All over the world admirers and supporters of the Nobel Prize winner believe that it must be there that her organisation is particularly active in the fight against poverty.

“All lies,” says Aroup Chatterjee ( truthweb@writeme.com ). The doctor who lives in London was born and brought up in Calcutta. Chatterjee who has been working for years on a book on the myth of Mother Teresa, speaks to the poor in the slums of Calcutta, or combs through the speeches of the Nobel Prize winner. “No matter where I search, I only find lies. For example the lies about schools. Mother T has often stated that she runs a school in Calcutta for more than 5000 children. 5000 children! — that would have to be a huge school, one of the biggest in all of India. But where is this school? I have never found it, nor do I know anybody who has seen it!” says Chatterjee.

Compared to other charitable organisations in Calcutta, the nuns with the 3 blue stripes are ahead in two respects: they are world famous, and, they have the most money. But how much exactly, has always been a closely guarded secret of the organisation.

Indian law requires charitable organisations to publish their accounts. Mother Teresa’s organisation ignores this prescription! It is not known if the Finance Ministry in Delhi who would be responsible for charities’ accounts, have the actual figures.

Upon STERN’s inquiry, the Ministry informed us that this particular query was listed as “classified information”.

The organisation has 6 branches in Germany. Here too financial matters are a strict secret. “It’s nobody’s business how much money we have, I mean to say how little we have,” says Sr Pauline, head of the German operations.

Maria Tingelhoff had had handled the organisation’s book-keeping on a voluntary basis until 1981. “We did see 3 million a year,” she remembers.

But Mother Teresa never quite trusted the worldly helpers completely.

So the sisters took over the financial management themselves in 1981. “Of course I don’t know how much money went in, in the years after that, but it must be many multiples of 3 million,” estimates Mrs Tingelhoff. “Mother was always very pleased with the Germans.”

Perhaps the most lucrative branch of the organisation is the “Holy Ghost” House in New York’s Bronx. Susan Shields served the order there for a total of nine and a half years as Sister Virgin. “We spent a large part of each day writing thank you letters and processing cheques,” she says. “Every night around 25 sisters had to spend many hours preparing receipts for donations. It was a conveyor belt process: some sisters typed, others made lists of the amounts, stuffed letters into envelopes, or sorted the cheques. Values were between $5 and $100.000. Donors often dropped their envelopes filled with money at the door. Before Christmas the flow of donations was often totally out of control. The postman brought sackfuls of letters — cheques for $50000 were no rarity.” Sister Virgin remebers that one year there was about $50 million in a New York bank account. $50 million in one year! — in a predominantly non-Catholic country.

How much then, were they collecting in Europe or the world? It is estimated that worldwide they collected at least $100 million per year — and that has been going on for many many years.

While the income is utter secret, the expenditures are equally mysterious. The order is hardly able to spend large amounts. The establishments supported by the nuns are so tiny (inconspicuous) that even the locals have difficulty tracing them. Often “Mother Teresa’s Home” means just a living accomodation for the sisters, with no charitable function. Conspicuous or useful assistance cannot be provided there.

The order often receives huge donations in kind, in addition to the monetary munificence. Boxes of medicines land at Indian airports. Donated foograins and powdered milk arrive in containers at Calcutta port. Clothing donations from Europe and the US arrive in unimaginable quantities. On Calcutta’s pavement stalls, traders can be seen sellin used western labels for 25 rupees (DM1) apiece. Numerous traders call out, “Shirts from Mother, trousers from Mother.”

Unlike with other charities, the Missionaries of Charity spend very little on their own management, since the organisation is run at practically no cost. The approximately 4000 sisters in 150 countries form the most treasured workforce of all global multi-million dollar operations. Having taken vows of poverty and obedience, they work for no pay, supported by 300,000 good citizen helpers.

By their own admission, Mother Teresa’s organisation has about 500 locations worldwide. But for purchase or rent of property, the sisters do not need to touch their bank accounts. “Mother always said, we don’t spend for that,” remembers Sunita Kumar, one the richest women in Calcutta and supposedly Mother T’s closest associate outside the order. “If Mother needed a house, she went straight to the owner, whether it was the State or a private person, and worked on him for so long that she eventually got it free.”

Her method was also successful in Germany.In March the “Bethlehem House” was dedicated in Hamburg, a shelter for homeless women. Four sisters work there. The architecturally conspicuous building cost DM2.5 million. The fortunes of the order have not spent a penny toward the amount. The money was collected by a Christian association in Hamburg.

With Mother T as figure head it was naturally short work to collect the millions. Mother Teresa saw it as as her God given right never to have to pay anyone for anything. Once she bought food for her nuns in London for GB£500. When she was told she’d have to pay at the till, the diminutive seemingly harmless nun showed her Balkan temper and shouted, “This is for the work of God!” She raged so loud and so long that eventually a businessman waiting in the queue paid up on her behalf.

England is one of the few countries where the sisters allow the authorities at least a quick glance at their accounts. Here the order took in DM5.3 million in 1991. And expenses (including charitable expenses?) — around DM360,000 or less than 7%.

Whatever happened to the rest of the money? Sister Teresina, the head for England, defensively states, “Sorry we can’t tell you that.” Every year, according to the returns filed with the British authorities, a portion of the fortune is sent to accounts of the order in other countries. How much to which countries is not declared. One of the recipients is however, always Rome. The fortune of this famous charitable organistaion is controlled from Rome, — from an account at the Vatican bank.

And what happens with monies at the Vatican Bank is so secret that even God is not allowed to know about it.

One thing is sure however — Mother’s outlets in poor countries do not benefit from largesse of the rich countries. The official biographer of Mother Teresa, Kathryn Spink, writes, “As soon as the sisters became established in a certain country, Mother normally withdrew all financial support.” Branches in very needy countries therefore only receive start-up assistance. Most of the money remains in the Vatican Bank.

STERN asked the Missionaries of Charity numerous times for information about location of the donations, both in writing as well in person during a visit to Mother Teresa’s house in Calcutta.

The order has never answered. “You should visit the House in New York, then you’ll understand what happens to donations,” says Eva Kolodziej. The Polish lady was a Missionary of Charity for 5 years. “In the cellar of the homeless shelter there are valuable books, jewellery and gold. What happens to them? — The sisters receive them with smiles, and keep them. Most of these lie around uselessly forever.”

The millions that are donated to the order have a similar fate. Susan Shields (formerly Sr Virgin) says, “The money was not misused, but the largest part of it wasn’t used at all. When there was a famine in Ethiopia, many cheques arrived marked ‘for the hungry in Ethiopia’. Once I asked the sister who was in charge of accounts if I should add up all those very many cheques and send the total to Ethiopia. The sister answered, ‘No, we don’t send money to Africa.’ But I continued to make receipts to the donors, ‘For Ethiopia’.”

By the accounts of former sisters, the finances are a one way street. “We were always told, the fact that we receive more than other orders, shows that God loves Mother Teresa more ,” says Susan Shields. Donations and hefty bank balances are a measure of God’s love. Taking is holier than giving.

The sufferers are the ones for whom the donations were originally intended. The nuns run a soup kitchen in New York’s Bronx. Or, to put in straight, they have it run for them, since volunteer helpers organise everything, including food. The sisters might distribute it. Once, Shields remembers, the helpers made an organisational mistake, so they could not deliver bread with their meals. The sisters asked their superior if they could buy the bread. “Out of the question — we are a poor organisation.” came the reply. “In the end, the poor did not get their bread,” says Shields.

Shields has experienced countless such incidents.

One girl from communion class did not appear for her first communion because her mothet could not buy her a white communion dress. So she had to wait another year; but as that particular Sunday approached, she had the same problem again. Shields (Sr Virgin) asked the superior if the order could buy the girl a white dress. Again, she was turned down — gruffly. The girl never had her first communion.

Because of the tightfistedness of the rich order, the “poorest of the poor” — orphans in India — suffer the most. The nuns run a home in Delhi, in which the orphans wait to be adopted by, in many cases, by foreigners. As usual, the costs of running the home are borne not by the order, but by the future adoptive parents. In Germany the organisation called Pro Infante has the monopoly of mediation role for these children. The head, Carla Wiedeking, a personal friend of Mother Teresa’s, wrote a letter to Donors, Supporters and Friends which ran:

“On my September vist I had to witness 2 or 3 children lying in the same cot, in totally overcrowded rooms with not a square inch of playing space. The behavioural problems arising as a result cannot be overlooked.” Mrs Wiedeking appeals to the generosity of supporters in view of her powerlessness in the face of the children’s great needs.

Powerlessness?! In an organisation with a billion-fortune, which has 3 times as much money available to it as UNICEF is able to spend in all of India? The Missionaries of Charity have the means to buy cots and build orphanages, — with playgrounds. And they have enoungh money not only for a handful orphans in Delhi but for many thousand orphans who struggle for survival in the streets of Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta.

Saving, in Mother Teresa’s philosophy, was a central value in itself. All very well, but as her poor organisation quickly grew into a rich one, what did she do with her pictures, jewels, inherited houses, cheques or suitcases full of money? If she wished to she could now cater to people not by obsessively indulging in saving, but instead through well thought-out spending.

But the Nobel Prize winner did not want an efficient organisation that helped people efficiently. Full of pride, she called the Missionaries of Charity the “most disorganised organisation in the world”. Computers, typewriters, photocopiers are not allowed. Even when they are donated, they are not allowed to be installed. For book-keeping the sisters use school notebooks, in which they write in cramped pencilled figures. Until they are full. Then everything is erased and the notebook used again. All in order to save.

For a sustainable charitable system, it would have been sensible to train the nuns to become nurses, teachers or managers. But a Missionary of Charity nun is never trained for anything further.

Fuelled by her desire for un-professionalism, Mother Teresa decisions from year to year became even more bizarre. Once, says Susan Shields, the order bought am empty building from the City of New York in order to look after AIDS patients. Purchase price: 1 dollar. But since handicapped people would also be using the house, NY City management insisted on the installation of a lift (elevator). The offer of the lift was declined: to Mother they were a sign of wealth. Finally the nuns gave the building back to the City of New York.

While the Missionaries of Charity have already witheld help from the starving in Ethiopia or the orphans in India — despite having received donations in their names — there are others who are being actively harmed by the organisation’s ideology of disorganisation.

In 1994, Robin Fox, editor of the prestigious medical journal Lancet, in a commentary on the catastrophic conditions prevailing in Mother Teresa’s homes, shocked the professional world by saying that any systematic operation was foreign to the running of the homes in India: TB patients were not isolated, and syringes were washed in lukewarm water before being used again. Even patients in unbearable pain were refused strong painkillers, not because the order did not have them, but on principle. “The most beautiful gift for a person is that he can participate in the suffering of Christ,” said Mother Teresa. Once she had tried to comfort a screaming sufferer, “You are suffering, that means Jesus is kissing you.” The sufferer screamed back, furious, “Then tell your Jesus to stop kissing me.”

The English doctor Jack Preger once worked in the home for the dying. He says, “If one wants to give love, understanding and care, one uses sterile needles. This is probably the richest order in the world. Many of the dying there do not have to be dying in a strictly medical sense.” The British newspaper Guardian described the hospice as an “organised form of neglectful assistance”.

It seems that the medical care of the orphans is hardly any better. In 1991 the head of Pro Infante in Germany sent a newsletter to adoptive parents: ”Please check the validity of the vaccinations of your children. We assume that in some case they have been vaccinated with expired vaccines, or with vaccines that had been rendered useless by improper strotage conditions.” All this points to one thing, something that Mother Teresa reiterated very frequently in her speeches and addresses — that she far more concerened with life after death than the mortal life.

Mother Teresa’s business was : Money for a good conscience. The donors benefitted the most from this. The poor hardly. Whosoever believed that Mother Teresa wanted to change the world, eliminate suffering or fight poverty, simply wanted to believe it for their own sakes. Such people did not listen to her. To be poor, to suffer was a goal, almost an ambition or an achievement for her and she imposed this goal upon those under her wings; her actual ordained goal was the hereafter.

With growing fame, the founder of the order became somewhat conscious of the misconceptioons on which the Mother Teresa phenomenon was based. She wrote a few words and hung them outside Mother House:

“Tell them we are not here for work, we are here for Jesus. We are religious above all else. We are not social workers, not teachers, not doctors. We are nuns.”

One question then remains: For what, in that case, do nuns need so much money?

भारत और मोदी के खिलाफ ज़हर उगलता “न्यूयॉर्क टाइम्स” !


अमेरिका का एक प्रसिद्ध अखबार न्यूयॉर्क टाइम्स भारत के खिलाफ लिखने के लिये कुख्यात है। यह अखबार भारत और उसके प्रधान म॔त्री मोदी के खिलाफ जहर उगलता रहता है।

असल में किसी भी देश में कोई भी अखबार उस देश का प्रतिनिधित्व नहीं करता, वह तो केवल उस अखबार से जुड़े हुए लोगों के विचार बताता है। अमेरिका में बहुत सारे ऐसे लोग हैं जो भारत से बेहद प्रेम करते हैं। लेकिन ऐसे भी लोग वहां हैं जो भारत से घृणा करते हैं। उन्ही में से एक इस अखबार के एडिटर श्री जोसफ होप भी हैं। इन्होने ऐसे लेखकों का जमावडा इकठा किया हुआ है जो भारत के छिलाफ लिखते रहते हैं। इनमें कुछ भाडे पर लिखने वाले भारतीय लेखक भी हैं।

वैसे तो इंफॉर्मेशन टेक्नोलॉजी ने लगभग सभी अख़बारों की कमर तोड दी है। ताजा समाचार जानने के लिए नई पीढी का कोई भी आदमीआज अखबार नहीं पढता। हर वह आदमी जिसके पास मोबाइल फोन है आज समाचार संवादाता बना हुआ है। बासी खबर कौन पढ़े? ताजी से ताजी खबरें हर समय इंटरनेट पर मौजूद रहती हैं।

अखबार समाचार के बजाय पाठकों को केवल अपनी “राय” परोसते हैं। जिसको जो राय पसंद होती है वह उसी तरह के अखबार को पढता है। अखबार आज जिंदा रहने के लिए डोनेशन मांग रहे हैं ! फिर भी बहुत से अखबारों के पास ढेर सारा धन है और वे अपनी “राय” को दूसरो पर थोपने के लिये इसे दूर दूर तक फैलाने की कोशिश करते रहते हैं। यही हाल न्यूयॉर्क टाइम्स का भी है।

इस अखबार के लेख भारत के लोगों की आंखे खोलने के लिये काफी होने चाहिये। कुछ ऐसे ही लेखों के अंशों का हिंदी अनुवाद यहां दिया गया है. हमने इन्ही के नीचे भारतीय दृषिकोण से प्रतिक्रिया भी दी है:

“मोदी के 2002 के गोधरा दंगों के बाद, इस व्यक्ति की आश्चर्यजनक जीत जैसे मुर्दा से वोट पाने की कला।”* इस व्यक्ति से अमेरिका को कई खतरे हैं जो खतरे अमेरिका को हिटलर से थे। पर अमेरिका जानता था कि हिटलर उसका दुश्मन है, लेकिन मोदी अमेरिका की आँख में धूल झोंकने में सफल हुए हैं।

(टिप्पणी – यदि कोई ठीक इसके उलट यह कहे कि अमेरिका के ऐसे विचारों और लोगों से भारत को और सारी दुनिया को भी ख़तरा है, तो यह ठीक ही रहेगा )

मोदी तो सभी महाशक्तियों जैसे.. ..रूस, फ्रांस और ब्रिटेन की आँखो में धूल झोंकने में सफल रहा है।

(टिप्पणी – और अमेरिका तो दशाब्दियों से सारी दुनिया की आँखों में धूल झोंकता ही आया है – कहता कुछ है करता कुछ है – सददाम हुसैन का सन्दर्भ लें )

इस व्यक्ति का उदय दुनिया के लिए खतरा है, क्योंकि उसने न केवल भारत के फायदे के लिए एक देश को दूसरे देश का दुश्मन बनाया बल्कि इसका इस्तेमाल भी किया है। यह केवल भारत के हित को देखता है, भारत को सर्वोच्च बनाने का एकमात्र लक्ष्य यह व्यक्ति देखता है। “यदि इस व्यक्ति को रोका नहीं गया, तो भविष्य ऐसा होगा कि पूरे विश्व को भारत आंखें दिखाएगा।”

(टिप्पणी – अभी तो अमेरिका ही आँखे दीखाता है और उसे रोकना जरुरी है – सारी दुनिया के लिए )

लेकिन मैंने आज अमेरिकियों से कहा है कि यदि हम इसे पहचान नहीं सकते हैं तो एक महान मूल्य का भुगतान करने के लिए तैयार रहें। और वह एक आदमी नहीं है, उसके कई पुरुष हैं, और भारत के रॉयल्टी संगठन के लोग भारत के हित के लिए सभी देशों में लॉबिंग करते हैं।

मोदी एक निश्चित रणनीति के साथ आगे बढ़ता है और उसकी रणनीति किसी को भी समझ में नहीं आती कि वह क्या करना चाहता है। उनके हंसने वाले चेहरे के पीछे एक “खतरनाक राष्ट्रवादी” छिपा हुआ है। यह भारत के लाभ के लिए सभी विश्व के देशों का उपयोग कर रहा है..

(टिप्पणी – यह कितनी छोटी सोच है ! यदि भारत यह कहता है कि सारी दुनिया को नियम से बांध कर चलना चाहिए; याकि , दुनिया की समस्याओं का हल गौतम बुद्ध का मार्ग ही करेगा ; याकि , सारी दुनिया को मन और शरीर की सेहत चाहिए तो क्या यह एक रणनीति है ?)

अमेरिका ने पाकिस्तान और अफगानिस्तान के साथ संबंधो को नष्ट करके और वियतनाम जैसे दुश्मनों के साथ दोस्ती करके एशिया में चीन के प्रभुत्व को कमजोर कर दिया है, अब मोदी चीन के खिलाफ वियतनाम और अफगानिस्तान का उपयोग करता है।

(टिप्पणी – तो क्या सारी दुनिया को अपने भले के लिए उपयोग करने का ठेका केवल अमेरिका ने ही ले रखा है ?)

मोदी ने दक्षिण चीन सागर में वियतनाम में तेल का उत्पादन शुरू किया, जहां से सभी तेल भारत को दिया जाता है, और भारतीय कम्पनी रिलायंस को काम पर लगा दिया है, यहाँ भी अमेरिका का प्रभुत्व न के बराबर करवा दिया है।

फिलहाल, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, चीन में वियतनाम को नियंत्रित करता है, ओर वो वियेतनाम तो भारत को सभी लाभ दिलाता है.. !!

*मोदी ने चीन अमेरिका को, एक दुसरे के खिलाफ करके दोनों देशों से 1.2 लाख करोड़ रुपए का निवेश हासिल किया है, …जिसे भारतने पिछले आठ वर्षों में भी हासिल नहीं किया जा सका था.

आज पाकिस्तान के पुराने मित्र देशों के इस्तेमाल से ही, इस व्यक्ति के द्वारा तबाही, जैसे अफगानिस्तान की सीमा पर एक बंदरगाह और भारतीय सेना का स्टेशन स्थापित किया जाता है, और ईरान को व्यापार की रिश्वत देते हुए ईरान को पाकिस्तान के खिलाफ खड़ा कर दिया है।

मोदी पाकिस्तान और तालिबान की तबाही के लिए रॉ के एक दल को बलूचिस्थान में लॉबिंग करने के लिए लगा रखा है। यह हम अमेरिकी का अनुमान नहीं है, अमेरिकी ख़ुफ़िया तंत्र की रिपोर्ट है.. लेकिन उस व्यक्ति ने अमेरिका के हाथों को बांधा है और यह उसकी रणनीतियों में से एक है.. जिसको हम समझने में बिलकुल विफल रहे हैं।

मोदी ने पाकिस्तान के पारंपरिक मित्र सऊदी अरब को पाकिस्तान से अलग करने में भी महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई है।

मोदी ने श्रीलंका में रॉ लॉबिंग समूह की अगुआई में भारत विरोधी, सत्तारूढ़ दल के 20 साल के शासन का तख्ता बदला। अब श्रीलंका का प्रधान मंत्री का 3 दिवस का भारत दौरा होता है जो बहुत संकेत देता है..‼

मोदी ने एशिया महादेश पर चीन और अमेरिका के प्रभुत्व को बहुत ही कमजोर कर दिया है और यह सार्क सम्मेलन रद्द करवा कर अपनी ताकत दिखा भी चुका है।

पूरे एशिया के ऊपर भारत का प्रभुत्व, एशिया की दो महान शक्तियों, रूस और जापान को एक विश्वसनीय मित्र के रूप में बनाकर हासिल किया है।

मोदी ने अमेरिकी सरकार में लाॅबिंग कर के MTCR ग्रूप में जगह हासिल की, और कुछ समय में ही NSG में भी स्थान ले सकता है जो आगे जा कर अमेरिका के लिए हानिकारक होगा।

इसके अलावा, इस व्यक्ति ने भारतीय राजनीति को एक अलग स्तर पर पहुंचता दिया है। दुनिया को यह सोचना चाहिए कि सभी देशों के कई दुश्मन देश हैं… लेकिन चीन और पाकिस्तान के अलावा भारत का कोई भी दुश्मन नहीं है, और इन दोनों दुश्मन देशों की समस्या का समाधान भी भारत के पास मौजूद है..!! “यह आदमी पाकिस्तान को वास्तविक युद्ध की तुलना में काफी अधिक नुकसान पहुंचा रहा है।

“ईस्लामिक देशों को पाकिस्तान के खिलाफ इस्तेमाल करके मोदी ने यह साबित कर दिया है कि आज वह दुनिया का एक महान नेता है।”

इन सभी षड्यंत्रों में इसी व्यक्ति की रीढ़ है और अन्य देशों के लिए भारत की ये प्रगति उचित नहीं है।

इसलिए, मैं दुनिया के सभी बुद्धिजीवियों से चर्चा करने और सोचने तथा भारत के विपक्ष को भड़काने और अगर संभव हो तो भारत जैसे पिछड़े देश को दुनिया का महाशक्ति बनने से रोकने का अनुरोध करता हूं ।

Phoney Intellectualism of Congress Pampered Muslims


Parmanand Pandey, Secretary-General: Indian People’s Congress

How can a scientist, a philosopher, an intellectual be prefixed with the community that he or she belongs to? When we say a Muslim/ Hindu/Christian scholar it connotes that the person has the depth only in that particular religion. It is an oxymoron- a contradiction in terms. But when a person is called a historian, then he/she cannot be branded as a Hindu/ Muslim or Christian historian. That is why, it was shocking to know that the Congress President Rahul Gandhi recently met Muslim historians, journalists, economists and intellectuals.

As a matter of fact, it is the so-called intellectuals of the Muslim community who themselves should have objected to being prefixed with the word Muslim because that makes them narrow-minded. They cannot even pretend to be intellectuals. Their shameless behaviour of not objecting to clubbing them with their community has totally exposed them that they have been working more on communal lines than indulging into any dispassionate intellectual exercise.

If Rahul Gandhi met them for seeking their advice on the religious matters, it is all the worse. The so-called intellectuals cannot arrogate to advise a political leader on the religious matters and if they are doing so, then they would have to cast off the mask of intellectualism, which they wear to get the respectability by dubious means.

Verily speaking, they are not intellectuals at all but frauds. They are wolves in sheep’s clothing. Their agenda is not to serve the society but to operate for the furtherance of their sectarianism.

These dubious intellectuals reportedly questioned Rahul Gandhi’s visit to different temples during the recent elections. What right do they have to ask about the religiosity of a political person? They did not stop only there but they told him that the perceived image of the Congress has been of a Muslim supporting party but his visits to temples have sent a wrong message among Muslims.

This is the height of their hypocrisy. However, what is more, baffling was the apologetic behaviour of Rahul Gandhi towards those dyed-in-wool communal persons masquerading as intellectuals and scholars.

The less said about the despicable conduct of Rahul Gandhi the better. But what has happened to the Congress Party, which is so brazenly alienating the majority community i.e. Hindus without any sense of remorse?

Almost at the same time, another ‘intellectual’ Shashi Tharoor declared that if Modi comes to power in 2019 India will become Hindu Pakistan.

Nobody knows the basis of his idiotic prophecy. If it is based on his intuitive feelings, then nothing can be said but the facts speak otherwise. In Pakistan there were17 per cent Hindus in 1948 now it has been reduced to two per cent while in India there were 8-9 per cent Muslims but now their population is more than18 per cent. The number of mosques has increased manifold in India but the temples and gurdwaras have disappeared in Pakistan with incredible speed. The number of Hindu women being raped and converted to Islam is alarmingly high in Pakistan but there has hardly been any case of forcible conversion of Muslim women to Hinduism.

On the contrary, even in India Hindu women are given allurements to marry Muslim men and convert to their religion. It is called Love Jihad that is going unabated even during the Modi regime. So, the prophecy of the writer of ‘why I am a Hindu’ is not based on any empirical facts.

The Hindus are, therefore, rightly disturbed by the irresponsible statement of Tharoor. The least that the Congress Party can do is to publicly apologise to Hindus to soothe their frayed tempers for the preposterous statement of Tharoor.

Buradi Suicide, Superstition and Mental Health


By: Shreepal Singh

In Buradi, a suburb of Delhi, 11 persons of a single family have died a few days back. It is now almost clear from the police investigation that it was not the case of murder but they had committed suicide. Why did they commit suicide? The entire family was superstitious and

claimed one of them was in touch of the ‘soul’ of his father who had recently died. This person who claimed to be in contact of the ‘soul’ of his father was guiding his entire family on the ‘dictation’ of that ‘soul’ to do what they did. The entire sad episode would have been a deep mystery – almost impossible to crack for the police  in their investigation – but for one fortunate circumstance: the family members wrote down in registers and in detail everything that they had in  their minds !

Why did they commit suicide? They committed suicide because they were superstitious in their beliefs; because superstition is a mental illness. Now the society is struggling to search ways and means how to avoid such incidents in future.

In this context, there has come a statement of Dr. Nimesh Desai, the Director of Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences, who said that it is estimated there are 10 – 20% people in India who are suffering from the problems of mental health. It is a huge number. Other countries too are not faring any better in this matter and it is  stated by Dr. Desai that there is a still larger number of people in the U.S. who are suffering mental health problems.

What is mental illness? One who is not a normal person in his mind is suffering  some kind of mental illness. Who is normal in his mind? Any test? Yes, there is the test. The normal person is the one who takes the real ‘things’ of this world in his mind in the real way as these things in ‘reality’ are!! We live in this real world and there are real things around us and we must take them as they are. The reference point for a normal mind is the realities of this world; this real world is the calibrating – reference – point to put our mind at its correct place.

A fledgling science – parapsychology – puts this situation in a beautiful way when it allocates three categories to people: Normal; Abnormal; and Supernormal. When one’s mind is normal, it is good; when it goes down as abnormal, it is sad state requiring medical attention; and when it goes up to become supernormal, it is applauded.

Unfortunately, from the medical point of view going below or above normal state of mind is ‘mental illness’. There have been many great Yogis who were above normal and were often times looked down as mentally ill persons, like Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Sai Baba of Shridi. In fact, all great spiritual persons have been above normal, whether looked down or applauded by the ordinary folk.

Now, come to these Buradi people, who committed suicide. One of them claimed that he was in touch of his dead father. Is it ever possible to be in touch with a person who has been dead? It is a superstitious belief; it is not the reality for a ‘normal’ human being; it is a mental illness !

However, when one goes from ‘normal’ mind to ‘supernorlal’ mind, things become weired. It is a well-known fact of the Buddhist religion that Buddha, after he achieved enlightenment, went up (!) to meet her mother – long dead by then – and guided her there (where?) to become enlightened (enlightenment of the dead !!) – that is, Buddha is said to have helped her dead mother to escape from the endless cycles of life and death!

This state of one’s mind – or one’s belief – must be declared an ignorance and superstition by the modern standards of medical science, be such state of mind of the Buradi persons or of Buddha. However, Buddha escaped this judgment (of being mentally ill) because he performed many acts, which were  supernormal – or miracles – in the estimation of ordinary folks.

Then, how can one draw a line of distinction between a ‘superstition’ and  an ‘enlightenment’; how can one draw a line between the mental state of the Buradi persons and the mental state of Buddha? Drawing of such a line of distinction is very necessary, for Buddha cannot be judged a ‘mentally ill’ person notwithstanding any number of reasons given in its support by the modern medical science.

This line of distinction is the only measure, the only way, that our society – humanity – can put into place to safeguard itself against the state of mental illness – the state of mental illness into which these Buradi people had degenerated. There is a very thin line between the ‘abnormal’ mind and ‘supernormal’ mind, because none of the two is a ‘normal’ mind !!

Let us enlighten ourselves on this subject. People with normal mind remain in constant touch with the realities – material world – around them. How do they do it? They do it by habitually living in the ‘realities’ of this world; they have concerns only with these worldly realities. As normal people, they deal with these ‘realities’ as against ‘make-believe’ world of beliefs; they habitually live in the context of Time in the ‘present’ only as against living in the ‘past’ or in the ‘future’. Their buzz word is: realities; realities here; and, realities now.

Unfortunately, today the humanity is driving itself towards ‘mental illness’ – towards mental insanity – simply for the reason that people in their mental efforts of scientific research, more and more push themselves hard into the ‘make-believe’ world of hypothetical realities. This is our way of making scientific discoveries and progress. These mental hypothetical realities conceived by scientific mind are not only the ‘make-believe’ realities but they also tend to tax human mind. These ‘make-believe’ hypothetical realities taxing human mind travel from the laboratories of scientists to the class rooms of ordinary students, and thence to the ordinary people of our educated society. They are gradually taking our enture human society into its sweep.

The tense hypothetical realities are not the realities of this world; they are mentally conceived realities only; they are tense realities and tax the mind. While dealing with these make-believe realities, we humans do not ‘live’ in the present: in the present as against the future. By resorting to them, we put pressure on our mind to project ourselves into the ‘future’.

Though human mind has been pushing itself hard in this direction since the ‘age of reason’, human mind is not a dedicated tool for this purpose! It is opening the human mind to the mysteries of this universal existence, to understand which mysteries it is not designed by Nature. Uncovering of these mysteries belong to a different domain and by a different tool. Pushing this mental tool too much for the work for which it is not meant, would push humanity – by and large – towards menta illness. Medical science has still not come up of age to deal with this situation – except prescribing for leading of a simple and mental stress free life.

Now, let us see the line that distinguishes the superstition of Buradi persons and enlightenment of Buddha. The great Yogis and spiritual personalities have suffered themselves on their chosen path and learnt many  precious lessons. These lessons are always needed to be heeded by all those people who wish to put their foot on this strange ‘soul contacting’ business to avoid getting mentally ill.

Those great spiritual persons who had  labored on this strage path and suffered in consequence, have laid down certain guidelines – safety precaution – for the good of posterities.

The first and the foremost lesson among them all is: such things, like ‘attempting’ to contact with the ‘soul’ of the dead persons, are NOT meant for the worldly people – people who run shops and businesses; people whose concerns have even remotely anything to do with the attractions of this world.

If one attempts such things, then for him or her this world and its concerns should be nothing but a deadly poison! If one attempts such things, then he or she has to make a choice: Either this world or that world! The unfortunate 11 persons living in Buradi made a wrong move by embracing two antagonistic worlds – running shops and businesses and contacting ‘soul’ of dead person !! And, they suffered for their mistake. The lesson is: An ordinary normal person should remain an ordinary normal person !!

Passport Case: Farcical Enquiry Erodes the Credibility of MEA


By: Parmanand Pandey, Advocate, Supreme Court (General Secretary IPC) 

 Caesar’s wife must be above board but what would say when the judge pronounces the judgement without hearing the arguments? This is what has happened l’affaire Tanvi Seth. By releasing the report of the so-called enquiry in fifteen days after the incident, the External Affairs Ministry has not inspired any confidence in the public.

The report has held the passport official of Lucknow guilty of misbehaving and asking irrelevant questions from her but it leaves many questions unanswered. It may be recalled that hurt by the searching questions of the passport officer regarding her different names and different addresses, the passport seeker Tanvi Seth twitted to the External Affairs Minister Ms Sushma Swaraj, who immediately swung into action and virtually in a jiffy took two decisions. One: the lady concerned was called the next day and the passport officer handed over her passport and apologized for the alleged misbehaviour of the official. And the second was that the concerned passport officer was transferred from Lucknow to Gorakhpur without any enquiry.

Although the ‘transfer’ under the employment law is not a punishment yet the way it was effectuated was certainly humiliating and highly injurious to the honour and dignity of the officer.

Now after a fortnight, it is being told that the passport officer Mishra was at fault, but if it was so, why the country was kept in dark for more than two weeks? This gives enough doubt that the enquiry report is manufactured one to justify the hasty action of the Minister.

Such types of wishy-washy enquiries erode the credibility of the government and cast serious doubts about its functioning in the eyes of the public.

Even the cursory reading of the report which has appeared in newspapers leads to serious apprehensions. While it tells that the passport officer asked awkward questions from Tanvi Seth but it is absolutely silent on the facts as to why there was hanky-panky in her conduct right from the beginning?

Therefore, if some people are raising doubts that she could be used as a pawn in the hands of terrorists, then it cannot be outrightly dismissed and discounted. There are innumerable examples where Hindu girls have been roped in by the Muslim boys and used for undesirable activities in the country.

The case of Ishrat Jahan, who was killed in an encounter in Gujarat, is a burning example of the nefarious design of the anti-national forces. She was born as Pranesh Kumari Pillai, seduced and married to a Muslim extremist and thereafter made to work for the Laskar-a-Toiba. The similar case has been witnessed recently, when Akhila, the only daughter of Ashokan was cajoled and converted to Islam, with the help of PFI activists.

This issue has come into so much public glare that now there is little possibility of her becoming a tool into the hands of terrorists. However, the report of the National Investigation Agency (NIA) submitted to the Supreme Court cannot be glossed over, which has said that the girls of other faiths are being systematically converted to Islam, which some term it as the ‘Love Jihad’.

Who knows that the way Tanvi Seth behaved herself would not be misused for the purposes that are dangerous to the country? Therefore, this matter should not be swept under the carpet but needs to be thoroughly investigated.

It is also very strange that some people who have voiced against the action of the External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj are being dubbed as trollers. Every criticism cannot be trolling. Every public figure should be prepared to face the scrutiny of the public.

So if there is a criticism of her hasty action, she should try to rectify it instead of playing the victim card. Of course abusing, slandering and making inflammatory statements against her must be denounced by one and all but she should show by her action that if ‘justice’ has been done to the lady, no injustice should be done to the passport officer.

Social media has now become enormously powerful, which can be trenchant in its criticism of the public figures but, in all fairness, she must give a convincing explanation of this episode instead of becoming unnecessarily touchy.

She must also tell to the country as to why she took the unilateral decision against the passport officer without giving him an opportunity to tell his side of the story, which flies into the face of the canons of the natural justice?

What does Philosophy have to do with Science?


Are Thoughts “Subjective Impressions” of Human Mind? First Lesson of Yoga !


 By: Shreepal Singh

We are humans and we have our thoughts. In fact, it is our thoughts that make us so different from animals. We have from very simple thoughts to very complex thoughts. The bundle of our knowledge – all the laws of Nature revealed to us by science – is the bundle of our thoughts about Nature. On the one side there is Nature (whether we are here or not to know this Nature) and on the other side are our thoughts about this Nature.  While we humans are “objective” entity, our thoughts look very much “subjective”; as we all know “objective” thing exists in reality and independent of us and “subjective” thing is only an impression within our mind, which has no existence independent of us.

We have reached a stage in our evolutionary journey where we are only able to say this much: This Nature is an “objective” reality and our thoughts about this Nature are nothing but our “subjective” impressions in our mind, which have no real existence independent of us! We are evolving beings and we know many things but we are yet to know many more things in this evolutionary journey! This is the dismal state of our knowledge today! Not only this dismal state of our knowledge, we still have many people – people holding responsible public positions – among us who completely deny the natural phenomenon of evolution. We have yet to go a long way in our journey! In the geometric pattern of the “progress” of our scientific knowledge, this point in 21st century is not the last point – we have not reached the dead-end of our knowledge. Let us come to “thoughts”.

What is a ‘thought’? Does ‘thought’ exist? How do we know of the ‘apparent existence’ of, say, mind – that is, reason? What is reason? We human beings (like our inferior cousins, plants, microbes and animals) observe ‘objective’ world around us. We act, being propelled by the movers of life, like the so-called instincts and ‘go ahead’ by preserving ourselves in a hostile environment, dealing to dominating our competitors in our surroundings, adapting and procreating our progeny. This is evolving ourselves in relation to the objective world around us. This is life. But this is not enough to ‘reason’. To be able to ‘reason’ we have to rise a bit higher on the ladder of life. To ‘reason’, we take a portion of the ‘objective’ world around us and isolate this portion from the ‘unified whole’ of this world. This is the separation of a part from the whole by using the faculty of our ‘reason’.

  We study the properties of this isolated part and then refit it into the whole again. It is like breaking the whole into pieces creating jigsaw puzzle and solving the same by putting them back in different relations. This is unification. The reasoning follows the process of movement from unity to separation to unity again. Or, it may be put this way: we take a set of material objects (with their associated properties) and isolate this set from the remainder of the whole universe. It is an incongruous heap or, say, a jumbled world. The incongruity in their interrelation is a ‘problem’ or, say, disorder. We re-position them again and again in their interrelation till congruity is established. Then, the incongruous heap turns into a congruous order of their interrelations. We call it a ‘thought’.

  The output of the process of reason is a thought. And, this thought, when found to be in congruity with another neighboring ‘assembled’ thought, is elevated to the dignity of a principle or even a law. This congruity – this thought – is already existing in universe in the form of an ‘ordered state’ of Nature; we simply become conscious of this ordered state in our own way – by reasoning. The net output of this reasoning process is called by us a thought, which is nothing but a reflection in our mind of a reality that is existing outside us.

Let us give an analogy to make it easier to understand. We human beings perceive colors, beautiful and of varied hues. Do these colors exist in universe independent of human beings? Yes, they do exist. But they do not exist in the form of ‘colors’ as we perceive them. The colors are the corresponding sensations in the brain of human beings of particular frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Colors exist in Nature, though not as colors but as a corresponding reality. Our universe is an apparatus that is full of order and logic, if there is a human being to search and sense these harmonious structures. Even if there is no human being there to sense and ‘certify’ this orderliness of universe, it still exists there as a hard reality. Our universe is a beautiful creation that is still continuing to grow. Our thoughts are merely our “equivalent(s)” of these ordered states existing in Nature, and even if we are not there to sense these “equivalent(s)”, they exist there independent of us.

This universe is a grand thought. All thoughts that we become aware of in our own way are already existing in the form of the congruity of the material reality in Nature. Whether we receive (which we prefer to call perceive) or not receive, these ‘thoughts’ – the building blocks of this Grand Thought – are already existing out there in this universe. Thoughts are immortal.

  One may raise a question – a doubt – here: If there is ‘real existence’ of thoughts and consciousness outside of human beings, then we must be able to fabricate devices that generate and receive these ‘realities’. Is it possible? Why can we not detect any of them today with our modern tools that are sensitive enough to detect the presence of a minuscule form and amount of energy? If there is this objective presence of thoughts etc. we must surely be able to get an indication of their existence through these fine instruments. But we do not get any such indication. Is not all this talk of an objective existence of thoughts, desires and consciousness a humbug and nonsense? It seems so today. But we should not be in hurry in pronouncing our judgment on the basis of our inability. Yes, we are unable but it should be all the more reasons on our part to be more humble in our judgments and verdicts on things that we still do not know. We know today all our ‘thoughts’ or ‘sensations’ of desires are the phenomena occurring in our mind only. We know there are transmissions of impulses of energy through various neurological circuits in our brain. We also know these processes occurring within biological brain are phenomena that are interpreted by our ‘mind’ as our ‘thoughts, desires’ etc.

 But human brain itself is a trans-receiver. It generates and receives thoughts and desires, though we are not able to detect them outside our ‘mind’. Why is it so?

 Brain is made up of matter and thoughts, desires etc. are not made up of matter. However, this matter is able to detect things that are not material (including electro-magnetic energy, which is material). Brain is a very sensitive material tool, which is simply devised by Nature’s evolution. It is conscious of itself. It is possible to fabricate a device that is able to generate and receive thoughts, desires etc. But it has to be likewise sensitive enough; it has to be conscious of itself. It is creating artificial life in laboratory. It is possible but creating artificial life is not enough to generate or receive thoughts etc. This artificially created life must also be ‘sensitive enough’ and – it means simply that – this life must be organized in the required fashion like brain. Brain has been organized – in a manner as it is – by life’s evolution process. It can be achieved in laboratory too but it would amount to achieving such evolutionary traits of mind by us artificially. Now we have the necessary tool – genes – to accomplish this task in laboratory. It is duplicating (and not only duplicating but refining too in a better way that is not available in Nature) evolution artificially. It is all possible.

  It all is creating ‘mind’ artificially. But today we are quite far from even properly understanding the biological structure and functions of human brain. An individual neuron in brain is not self-aware but when we put billions of them together in a particular manner there, the brain suddenly becomes self-conscious possessing an ego-awareness, which is the signature tune of mind. How biological brain is connected to non-biological mind? Or, is mind simply an operation that is going on in the background of biological brain? Even if this be the case, this operation of mind would be akin to a computer-like non-biological (mind’s) software running in the biological hardware (of brain). But then this software application also has some linking bridge with the biological brain. There is yet a long way for us to go. The coming age of bio-science would belong to the understanding of relation of human brain with mind. We have yet to understand not only the functioning of physical brain, but also the co-relation between brain and mind; and understanding mind means understanding mind’s conscious, subconscious and unconscious parts; and understanding those domains of mind that are beyond the conscious, sub-conscious and unconscious parts, which are still unknown to us. The biological brain is like an electric motor – you supply the power and it moves on giving an output; or like a dynamo – you move it and it supplies the power giving an output. In neither case it is a ‘power’; it simply is an instrument that processes a ‘power’, which ‘power’ exists in some form independent of this ‘instrument’. All this can be done artificially. But by undertaking this task in laboratory, our understanding of mind would completely be changed. By this way we would establish humans’ relationship with Nature in a totally new way; this way humans would transform themselves.

The universe is an ordered whole, and therefore, the universe is a grand thought. Not only the universe as a whole is an ordered apparatus, every constituent part of it is an ordered formation, which human beings perceive in their mind as ‘reasoned thoughts’. Whether human beings are there or not to perceive these ‘ordered formations’ as thoughts, has no bearing on their existence. The formations that we know as thoughts have their own world and are governed by their own rules. Every thought that may ever be conceived by human beings and also the thoughts that can never be conceived by them already exist in universe.

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