Who was Sandrocottus: Samudragupta or Chandragupta Maurya? – Sanskriti – Hinduism and Indian Culture Website


https://www.sanskritimagazine.com/history/who-was-sandrocottus-samudragupta-or-chandragupta-maurya/

Sabarimala, Equality and Spiritual Wisdom: Mata Amritanandmayi


By: C.V.Rajan (an earnest spiritual seeker)

Amma (Mata Amritanandamayi) was invited as the Chief guest in the huge conglomeration of Ayyapa devotees at the Ayyappa Bhakta Sangamam on 20th Jan 2019 at Thiruvananthapuram, in which several heads of Hindu religious institutions and prominent citizens participated.

The following is the translation of Amma’s Malayalam speech at the gathering:

“Whatever incidents that have happened recently related to Sabarimala are quite unfortunate. The root cause of the problem is the absence of adequate knowledge about the specific nature of conception of each deity worshiped in a temple and the practices of austerities associated with each of them. Ignoring or discontinuing them is not correct.

“When we consider the nature of deities worshiped in a temple, we should understand the difference between them and the concept of God as an all pervading Truth. God as almighty has no limitations of constraints; there is no difference of male or female in Him. There is a difference between the fish in the ocean and the ornamental fish nurtured in a fish tank at home. For the fish in the tank, we have to feed food, provide oxygen and also change waters. There is no such limitation for the fish in the ocean.

“When we take bath in a river, we don’t have any procedures to follow. At the same time, when a swimming pool is filled with the water from the same river, the water has to be filtered and chlorinated. People who want to swim in the pool have to wash their bodies first to remove sweat; they should also remove their old clothes and wear specific swimming suits. One should not use soap in a swimming pool.

“Though only the water of the river has been used in the swimming pool, the rules of cleanliness are different. Likewise, even though only the all pervading Almighty is worshiped in a deity, the rules regarding following cleanliness for worshiping the deity are different and specific.

“How we keep our mindset reflects in what we gain. When we sow a seed, we get fruits in future only if we water the sapling, apply manure regularly and take proper care of the plant. Likewise, the formerly consecrated deity in a temple has to be worshiped as per established procedures, offered food etc and whatever rules of cleanliness, dos and don’ts must be followed strictly. But there are no such rules for God as the all pervading Almighty.

“Every deity in different temples has different rules to be followed for worship. For example, the procedures of worship of Devi (goddess) in a temple where She has been consecrated in a fiery mood is different from Devi in another temple where she is conceptualized as a peaceful Goddess. If those specific procedures are not followed, it can affect the sanctity of the temple.

“In our shastras, the deity worshipped in a temple is conceptualized as a minor. Just as a child requires the care of parents and teachers, the deity also requires the care of Tantris and pujaris. The role of devotees of the deity is also of paramount importance. In fact the deity indeed exists for the sake of devotees!

“Sabarimala Ayyappa was a Naishtika Brahmachari (Strict follower of celibacy). It is believed by devotees that before he entered into Samadhi, Swami Ayyappa had expressed his wish that all the practices of austerities must be followed by his devotees.

“Changes according to changing times are necessary, but when it comes to temples, if we start changing things at will, then there is scope of losing our fundamental values. It is like trying to bathe a child again and again and losing the child itself in the process!

“Sri Shankaracharya, Sri Narayana Guru and Sri Chattambi Swamikal were all proponents of Advaita philosophy. But they, after attaining that highest state, came back and established temples for worship and outlined the procedural norms for the worship of those deities. I have been invited to visit such temples too and I have gone there. In some Shiva temples, I was asked not to circumambulate there and I was asked to go back. Bowing to the procedures followed in such temples, Amma did obey them and returned.

“Even when Amma consecrated Brahmasthana temples at her Ashrams, Amma consulted experts and pundits and took their advice. When Amma gave Sanyasa to some of her brahmacharis, Amma followed the established procedures by inviting a Sanyasi of a specific sect to carryout the procedural norms. Thus Amma has not relinquished the norms despite seeing everything as manifestations of God.

“Temples are indeed like the pillars of our religious culture. We are duty bound to take care of them. Otherwise they will be like flying kites with thread cut off.

“Even in the outer world, we can see that in earlier days, smoking was permitted anywhere in places like Airports but nowadays there are strict norms that smoking can be done only in specific places earmarked for the purpose. People do follow such restrictions.

“In Mannar Salai, a woman is the priest. It is the norm for that temple. In some places there are schools exclusively for boys or girls. One does not demand gender equality there. In Sabarimala, one cannot say there is gender discrimination as ladies of specific age group are permitted to worship as per the norms of the temple.

“When parents say to little children that if you tell a lie, your eyesight would be lost or nose will get cut, it is just to instill some fear in children to prevent them from lying. It is done with a practical application of mind, by coming down to the level of children for their comprehension. If it were true, practically all of us would be without eyes and noses!

“A little girl showed a picture drawn by her to her father and said, “Father, see the elephant I have drawn!” The father who was busy with some work saw it and noticed only some lines scribbled there. He said, “Where is the elephant? I don’t see such anything in your sketch”. The child got disappointed and started crying. The father, realizing his mistake said, “Oh, yes! Earlier I did not see the picture clearly as I was not wearing my specs! Now that I am wearing it, I can see a beautiful elephant there!” The child felt very happy. It is how the language of the heart is spoken. One has to come down to the level of others to communicate certain things.

“God is the ultimate truth and to attain him, temples are useful as the steps to the upper floor. The upper floor and the steps are made of the same bricks, cement and mortar. Everything is indeed God. It does not mean that the steps are not needed. For everybody to reach the higher floor, steps are indeed necessary.

“Amma did a small research in the past spanning a period of 10 to 15 years. She would send her messengers to various hospitals during Sabarimala season to find out the pattern of influx of patients. She could observe that during Sabarimala season, the number of patients coming to hospitals dropped by 20 to 30% . It was so because, during the season, many men (on account of practicing austerities for going to Sabarimala) did not drink, did not consume non-vegetarian food, did not fight with their wives and also did pooja and chanting by sitting as a family together. Thus Sabarimala temple’s influence in bringing positive vibes in both in the body and mind of the people in the society is obvious.

“Thus it is important that these traditions are nurtured and maintained in the society. The society remains bound to good values this way. Everyone should mind this and move forward.

“When Arjuna wanted to commence the war and sought permission from Krishna, Krishna said “Take permission from Bhishma who is the right authority to give you the green signal on this matter.” Likewise, there are certain things that are to be left to the decision of the right authorities who are the most appropriate and competent ones to give the right direction.

“What I want to say here is that in this specific issue, it is the devout Tantris and poojaris of Sabarimala and ardent devotees like you who are to sit together, discuss and come to a conclusion. There is a saying in Malayalam that if you eat very slowly, you can even eat a palm tree. I don’t have anything more to say and many people who spoke before me have mostly said what has to be said on this issue. 

Indian Linguistics, Mathematics and Astronomy: Panini to Ramanujan


By Shri J K Bajaj & Shri M D Srinivas

Part 1 / 2: Linguistics

Any study of the Indian tradition of science has to start with linguistics . Not only linguistics is the earliest of Indian sciences to have been rigorously systematised, but also this systematisation became the paradigm example for all other sciences.

Like all sciences and arts of India, Linguistics finds its first expression in the Vedas. For most of the Indian sciences, the elements of study and the categories of analysis were established in the Vaidika period, and the basic data was collected and preliminary systematisation achieved already at that stage. Thus, for the science of Linguistics, we find, in the siksha and pratisakhya texts associated with the various Vedas, a complete and settled list of phonemes appropriately classified into vowels, semi-vowels, sibilants and the five groups of five consonants, all arranged according to the place of articulation that moves systematically from the throat to the lips. Phonetics and phonology are therefore taken for granted by all post-Vaidika authorities on etymology (nirukta) and grammar (vyakarana) , including Yaska and Panini . In the pratisakhya literature we also find the morpho-phonemic (sandhi) rules and much of the methodology basic to the later grammatical literature.

Indian Linguistics finds its rigorous systematisation in Panini’s Ashtadhyayi . The date of this text, like that of much of the early Indian literature, is yet to be settled with certainty. But it is not later than 500 BC. In Ashtadhyayi, Panini achieves a complete characterisation of the Sanskrit language as spoken at his time, and also specifies the way it deviated from the Sanskrit of the Vedas. Using the sutras of Panini, and a list of the root words of the Sanskrit language (dhatupatha) , it is possible to generate all possible valid utterances in Sanskrit. This is of course the main thrust of the generative grammars of today that seek to achieve a grammatical description of language through a formalised set of derivational strings. In fact, till the western scholars began studying generative grammars in the recent past, they failed to understand the significance of Ashtadhyayi: till then Paninian sutras for them were merely artificial and abstruse formulations with little content.

Patanjali (prior to the first century BC) in his elaborate commentary on Ashtadhyayi, Mahabhashya , explains the rationale for the Paninian exercise. According to Mahabhasya, the purpose of grammar is to give an exposition of all valid utterances. An obvious way to do this is to enumerate all valid utterances individually. This is how the celestial teacher Brihaspati would have taught the science of language to the celestial student, Indra. However for ordinary mortals, not having access to celestial intelligence and time, such complete enumeration is of little use. Therefore, it is necessary to lay down widely applicable general rules (utsarga sutras) so that with a comparatively small effort men can learn larger and larger collections of valid utterances. What fails to fit in this set of general rules should, according to the Mahabhashya, then be encompassed in exceptional rules (apavada sutras) , and so on.

In thus characterising grammar, Patanjali expounds perhaps the most essential feature of the Indian scientific effort. Science in India starts with the assumption that truth resides in the real world with all its diversity and complexity. For the Linguist, what is ultimately true is the language as spoken by the people in all their diverse expressions. As Patanjali emphasises, valid utterances are not manufactured by the linguist, but are already established by the practice in the world. One does not go to a linguist for seeking valid utterances, the way one goes to a potter for pots. Linguists make generalisations about the language as spoken in the world. These generalisations are not the truth behind or above the reality of the spoken language. These are not idealisations according to which reality is to be tailored. On the other hand, what is true is what is actually spoken in the real world, and some part of the truth always escapes the grammarians’ idealisation of it. There are always exceptions. It is the business of the scientist to formulate these generalisations, but also at the same time to be always attuned to the reality, to always be conscious of the exceptional nature of each specific instance. This attitude, as we shall have occasion to see, permeates all Indian science, and makes it an exercise quite different from the scientific enterprise of the West.

In Linguistics, after the period of Mahabhashya, grammarians tried to provide continuous refinements and simplifications of Panini. A number of Sanskrit grammars were written. One of them, Siddhanta Kaumudi (c.1600) became eminently successful, perhaps because of its simplicity. These attempts continued till the nineteenth century. Another form of study that became popular amongst the grammarians was what may be called philosophical semantics, where grammarians tried to fix and characterise the meaning of an utterance by analysing it into its basic grammatical components. This, of course, is the major application for which grammar is intended in the first place.

Grammars for other Indian languages were written using Paninian framework as the basis. These grammars were not fully formalised in the sense of Panini. Instead, they started with the Paninian apparatus and specified the transfer rules from Sanskrit and the specific morpho-phonemic (sandhi) rules for the language under consideration. Such grammars for various Prakrit languages of North India, as also of the South Indian languages, continued to be written until the nineteenth century. In the sixteenth century, Krishnadasa even wrote a grammar for the Persian language, Parasi Prakasa , styled on the grammars of the Prakrit languages.K

Part 2 / 2: Astronomy & Mathematics

Among the sciences of the Indian tradition, Astronomy and Mathematics occupy an important place. Indian mathematics finds its early beginnings in the famous Sulabha Sutras of Vaidika literature. Written to facilitate accurate construction of various types of sacrificial altars for the Vaidika ritual, these sutras lay down the basic geometrical properties of plane figures like the triangle, rectangle, rhombus and circle. Basic categories of the Indian astronomical tradition were similarly established in the various Vedanga Jyotisha texts.

Rigorous systematisation of India astronomy begins with the Siddhantas, especially the Brahma or Paitamaha Siddhanta and Surya Siddhanta. Unfortunately, no authentic original versions of these Sidhanta texts are available. The earliest exposition of the Siddhantic tradition is found in the work of Aryabhata (b.476 AD). His Aryabhatiya is a concise text of 121 aphoristic verses containing separate sections on the basic astronomical definitions and parameters; basic mathematical procedures in arithmetic, geometry, algebra and trigonometry; methods of determining mean and true positions of the planets at any given time; and, description of the motion of sun, moon and the planets, along with computations of the solar and lunar eclipses.

Aryabhata was followed by a long series of illustrious astronomers. Some of the well known names are those of Varahamihira (d.578 AD), Brahmagupta (b.598 AD), Bhaskara I (629 AD), Lalla (c.8th century AD), Munjala (932 AD), Sripati (1039 AD), Bhaskara II (b.1114 D), Madhava (c.14th century AD), Paramesvara (c.15th century AD), Nilakantha (c. 16th century AD), Jyeshthadeva (c.16th century AD), Achyuta Pisharoti (c.16th century AD) Ganesa Daivajna (c.16th century AD), Kamalakara (c.17th century AD), Munisvara (c.17th century AD), Putumana Somayaji (c.17th century AD), Jagannatha Pandita (c.18th century AD), and several others.

The texts of several of these astronomers gave rise to a host of commentaries and refinements by later astronomers and become the cornerstones of flourishing schools of astronomy and mathematics. The tradition continued to thrive up to the late eighteenth century. In Kerala and Orissa, original astronomical works continued to be written till much later.

The most striking feature of this long tradition of Indian mathematics and astronomy is the efficacy with which complex mathematical problems were handled and solved. The basic theorems of plane geometry had already been discovered in Sulabha Sutras. Around the time of these Sutras, a sophisticated theory of numbers including the concepts of zero and negative numbers had been established, and simple algorithms for basic arithmetical operations had been formulated using the place-value notation.

By the time of Aryabhatiya, the Indian tradition of mathematics was aware of all the basic mathematical concepts and procedures that are today taught at the high school level. By the 9th or 10th century, sophisticated problems in algebra, such as quadratic indeterminate equations, were solved. By the 14th century, infinite series for trigonometric functions like sine and cosine were derived. By the same time, irrational character of p was recognised, and its value was determined to very high levels of approximation.

The reason for this spectacular success of the Indian mathematicians lies in the explicitly algorithmic and computational nature of Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians were not trying to discover the ultimate axiomatic truths in mathematics; they were interested in finding methods of solving specific problems that arose in the astronomical and other contexts. Therefore, Indian mathematicians were prepared to work with simple algorithms that may give only approximate solutions to the problem at hand; and they evolved sophisticated theories of error and recursive procedures to keep the approximations in check. This algorithmic methodology persisted in the Indian mathematical consciousness till recently. Srinivasa Ramanujan in the twentieth century seems to have made his impressive mathematical discoveries through the use of this traditional Indian methodology.

Similar pragmatic concerns of determining time and calculating the positions of the various planets and eclipses of the sun and the moon reasonably accurately informed the efforts of the Indian astronomers. In this they were greatly successful. Indian astronomers often take the beginning of the Kaliyuga in 3102 BC as their starting point in their calculations. The Siddhanta texts deal with a much larger period consisting of 4,320,000 years, called a Mahayuga, and sometimes even a period 1000 times greater, called a Kalpa. While working with such long time periods, the Indian astronomers were able to keep their techniques fairly simple and their parameters well refined at all times. Even towards the end of the eighteenth century and early parts of nineteenth, when the astronomical tradition had become dormant in large parts of India, European astronomers were able to locate Brahmins in South India, who could calculate details of the current eclipses to an accuracy comparable to and often better than the best calculations of Europe of the time.

The reasons for the simplicity and accuracy of the Indian astronomical techniques are again to be found in the pragmatic attitude of the Indians towards the sciences. Indian astronomers were in the business to calculate and compute, not to form pictures of the heavens as they ought to be in reality. Indian astronomers do use some geometrical models, but for them these are no more than artefacts to aid their calculations. It is obvious that the astronomical parameters obtained in such a pragmatic approach would get out of tune with reality sooner or later and the calculated positions of the planets would start deviating from actual. Indian astronomers were aware of this and were quite willing to take up the onerous task of continuously observing the skies, continuously checking their computations against observations and repeatedly re-adjusting their parameters so as to make their calculations accord with reality. Thus, the sixteenth century astronomer Nilakantha Somasutvan, finding a contemporary commentator fretting about the circumstance that different Siddhantas mentioned different times, and the computed times differed from the actual ones, exhorts:

O faint-hearted, there is nothing to be despaired of… One has to realise that five Siddhantas had been correct at a particular time. Therefore one has to search for a Siddhanta that does not show discord with the actual observation at the present time. Such accordance has to be ascertained by observers during times of eclipses, etc. When Siddhantas show discord observations should be made with the use of instruments and correct number of revolutions etc. found, and a new Siddhanta enunciated. ” [‘Jyotirmimansa of Nilakantha’, cited in K. V. Sarma and B. V. Subarayappa, A Sourcebook of Indian Astronomy, p.7]

A little later Jyeshthadeva in his Drikkarana recounts how from Aryabhata to the present day the astronomers have adjusted the parameters to accord with observations and how he too is doing the same job for his times.[2] He ends with the advice that ‘henceforth too the deviations that occur should be carefully observed and revisions effected’ .[ ‘Drikkarana of Jyeshthadeva’, cited in K. V. Sarma and B. V. Subarayappa, above, pp.5-6].

Note: This article is borrowed with thanks from “Know Your Bhārat” and you may subscribe to it by sending ‘START’ on WhatsApp to 8884472345. The original source at: https://bit.ly/2LjOQDo

De-colonisation of India’s Civil Services


By: Niraj Kumar

The civil services including the All India services like IAS, IPS and other Central Services IRS,IFS etc along with the state services have been the backbone of Indian administration since the past two centuries. However, given the kind of changes needed in our governance these services seem to have outlived their utilities at least in their present form. Drastic changes are needed in all aspects of the civil services, be it their objectives, structures and the personnel who man them. This very brief article/presentation is meant to highlight the issues pertaining to the personnel management which need to be addressed urgently.
The problems with personnel management:
1) It starts with the recruitment exam itself. Firstly the recruiting agency i.e. the UPSC for centre and other PSC’s for the state are full of people who are not in sync with the task at hand. While most are not professionally qualified for such roles entrusted upon them, many others are too radically leftwards of the political spectrum to be given such roles. This has continued in the current government too.
2) The syllabus for the exams especially the humanities subjects are totally out of context as far as the needs of modern civil servants are concerned. The syllabus is such that most aspirants undergo some form of brainwashing and thus become aliens in their own social milieu by the time they get selected.
3) Taking a simple example, the syllabus of Philosophy optional paper is overwhelmed by Western philosophers like Marx, Hegel ,Kant etc who are hardly of any use to our society and administrators.
4) The brainwashing with one particular leftist ideology intended through the syllabus is further reinforced by the text books and study materials prescribed by the coaching institutions. However, the coaching institutions cannot be blamed much as they only follow the trends set by UPSC through its question papers based on the syllabus.
To appreciate this point one can peruse the questions in General Studies. Most of the questions in the current affairs are based from the articles of one particular newspaper “The Hindu” and magazines like Frontline, EPW etc. This forces students to read them diligently for at least 2-3 or in many cases 4-5 years given the long duration of the exams. Thus most aspirants inadvertently get brainwashed by the time they enter the services. Such people then go on to man sensitive tasks, even having implications for our national security. Here is a sample of an ideologically motivated question from CSE mains exam, 2018, GS paper 1:

‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation.’ Argue by giving suitable illustrations.(250 words)

5) There is an inherent language bias in the entire process favouring the English medium candidates. The success rate of candidates qualifying with Hindi and other regional languages as medium is declining alarmingly.
6) Apart from these serious lacunae, the examination process is too long and tedious in today’s world. There is also a lack of transparency in manner in which examinations are conducted. The multiple optional subjects being the most controversial point. Several aspirants have been critical of the interview process and the overall conduct of these recruitment bodies.
7) After recruitment the training of selected officers is also a huge problem area. Training should be meant to equip the officers in problem solving, quick decision making, inter personal skills. However, the focus is mostly on academics and extracurricular activities to the extent that it apparently becomes a paid holiday at the cost of public money. The values imbibed in the training academies are cherished by the officers for their lives. The British legacy of officers enjoying at the cost of their subjects still continues to a great extent if one has a closer look.
8) There are several other issues pertaining to the exams, training, service allocations, promotions etc which can be deliberated upon in details when required.

The possible steps which may be considered for rectifying these anomalies are:

1) Reforming the UPSC and other state PSC’s to ensure that they are manned by the right set of people and are held accountable for the responsibilities entrusted upon them. Proper screening of the prospective members with special focus on their professional qualifications and ideological leanings is required.
2) Immediate change in the syllabi of the coveted Civil Services exams so that they are helpful in selecting the best possible officers. The syllabi should be able to test the students on their knowledge, understanding and respect for this great nation and its history and culture. This should be of utmost importance while selecting a future civil servant.
3) Ways to shorten the examination cycle should be explored. It could be changed to 2 exams every year like the NDA, CDS etc with a cycle of 6 months each. Number of attempts and age limit should be 4 and 25 respectively for the general category, along with appropriate relaxations for the reserved categories. This will save the previous time of lakhs of youths who waste their precious time, even after graduating from elite institutes like IITs, AIIMS, IIMs etc.
4) The examinations should be as objective as possible. The optional papers in the mains examination should be removed and a common paper should be there for all aspirants.
5) Interview process should be objectified, either by averaging out 2 or 3 interviews given to different boards, or by video recording of interviews to make the Boards accountable. The parameters used to assess candidates and marks allotted for these parameters should be made available.
6) Service allocation may be done only after training is complete with at least 10% weight being given to performance in training. This will automatically increase the importance of training for the candidates. In the performance assessment 360 degree analysis may be adopted if feasible. Respect for common citizens, behaviour in public, respect for national values etc should be judged carefully.
7) Appropriate changes in other personnel management policies conduct rules etc may be made to achieve our desired goals. These may be deliberated upon in details when required.

Law of Pendulum and ghosts !!!


By: Shreepal Singh
What is the law of pendulum? It is described in detail HERE.

The law of pendulum predicts many things and throws many surprises. Let us see what more it can inform us.

In this article we are using two terms: Matter and Life, and they are defined as follows. Matter is deterministic; that is, it is governed by blind laws of nature in its constitution and motion. Life has will; that is, it has its own volition that defies the blind laws of nature.
Premise (axiom): Life is a reality of nature. Matter is a reality of nature.

Hypothesis:

  1. At the one end of universal pendulum is absolute matter and at the other end in the reverse cycle of pendulum is absolute life.
  2. In the absolute matter, there is no part of life and in the absolute life there is no part of matter.
  3. In one cycle of pendulum – in its movement from the point of absolute matter towards its end point of absolute life – there are varying graded points or stages of an incremental amount of life and proportionately decreasing amount of matter.
  4. In the reverse cycle of this pendulum – in its movement from the point of absolute life towards its end point of absolute matter – there are varying graded points or stages of an incremental amount of matter and proportionately decreasing amount of life.
  5. This cyclic movement of pendulum would be interpreted by us – humans – in one instance or cycle as ascending of matter towards life (which we term evolution of life) and in another instance or reverse cycle as descending of life into matter (which would be an evolution in reverse direction).
  6. Also this cyclic movement of pendulum would be interpreted at one end as absolute consciousness – or Sachidanand (the only absolute truth + the only absolute consciousness + the only absolute bliss) of Hindus, Nirvana of Buddhists, Kaivalya (absolute one) of Jains, God of Christians, Allah of Muslims – (at that end) and at the reverse end as absolute darkness – mass of blind matter. It is the beautiful description of cataclysmic end of this universe – turning cosmos into a small point of so called “Black Hole” in one case; and, in another case, a divine golden age (which we have no means to even speculate). It is simply a cyclic destruction and creation of universe, which – science asserts – is done under blind laws of nature and – Yogis assert – is done by the will of the Divine. It is not important how it is done but the important thing is that it – destruction and creation – is done.
  7. This law of pendulum predicts that in this universe there must be many living entities with varying degrees of consciousness, with matter and without matter, who exist at different points of the movement of this pendulum.
  8. In addition to human beings, in this universe there are multiple varieties of beings like ghosts, spirits, souls, vital bodies, psychic beings, Siddha Yogis and many more. Newspapers have been filled with the stories of ghosts infested houses and palaces. Science does not dare to test their veracity. There are children telling their previous births; science does not dare to investigate them. There are cases of “near death experience”, a person coming out of his physical body and floating freely wherever (s)he wishes; there are cases of medical hypnosis and person getting out of physical body and telling correct information of events thousands of miles away. But science does not dare to touch them. Because, it is truth and science has no explanation, and therefore look the other way. India abounds in cases – since ancient times – where a Yogi gets out of his physical body and enters into the body of a newly dead person.
  9. We human beings should be not only intelligent but also wise to leave the scope to know more tomorrow that we do not know today.
  10. Yoga is a science that exclusively deals with these unknown secrets, which are mystic to mind. It is a fascinating science. It is the science that is most valuable to humans in its utility. While our modern science deals with matter, the science if Yoga deals with consciousness.

Hindus indebted to Sikhs: Khalsa Panth to defend Hinduism !


By Shatavadhani Dr. R. Ganesh Translated by: Sandeep Balakrishna


Aurangzeb attacked Kashmir and attempted to kill all the Kashmiri Pandits. Struck by the fear of death, they requested the king of Kashmir to surrender the kingdom itself. In this manner, without the slightest resistance, Kashmir surrendered to Islam. Since the Kashmiri Pandits stepped back from sacrifice and martyrdom, the entire land fell to Islam. The society doesn’t pay heed to people who are not willing to sacrifice themselves. If we are unable to make sacrifices then we must accept our ordinariness. The Pandits who did not make sacrifices then are struggling to this day.

Aurangzeb sent a chief named Sher Afghan to the Kashmiri Pandits with the message that either they convert to Islam or die. At that point, a group of Pandits rushed to Anandapur and sought an audience with Guru Tegh Bahadur. They told the Guru about Aurangzeb’s orders and requested him to protect them. Guru Tegh Bahadur was lost in thought as to how this problem could be solved; upon seeing his father in a pensive mood, his son Gobind Singh asked him what the problem was. Guru Tegh Bahadur said, “Some great man has to go to Aurangzeb and tell him on his face, ‘What you’re doing is wrong!’ At least then the rest will be spared from the sword of conversion dangling over their necks. And that great man should be ready even to lay down his life.”

In response, Gobind Singh said, “Who else but you can go? You are indeed that great man!” Adhering to the words of an innocent young boy, Guru Tegh Bahadur left Anandapur and went to Delhi along with a small group of his followers. He engaged in a debate with Aurangzeb. That rogue agreed to nothing. Not just that, he said in a mocking tone, “Perform some miracle in front of me!” In response, Guru Tegh Bahadur retorted, “I will not perform any miracle to convince people such as you!”

The Kashmiri Pandits sent a memorandum declaring that if this one man, Guru Tegh Bahadur, would convert to Islam, they would all follow suit. And the person behind this suggestion was the Guru himself. In Delhi, even after Aurangzeb tried to convert the Guru using guile and threat, he simply refused to yield and said in a fearless tone, “Not just me, even a single strand of my hair will not convert to Islam!” Aurangzeb threw Guru Tegh Bahadur and his associates into prison. When the Guru began to harbour doubts about surviving for long, he wrote a letter to his son Gobind Singh. The summary of the letter is as follows: “All human efforts have failed. The only thing left is the Divine. Earnest means of reconciliation has become helpless today. It is only the Supreme who can save us.”

In response, his nine-year-old son wrote: “We have Divine grace, we also have strength. The fetters of slavery shall break free. There is always value for truth and freedom. We have to accept that the Supreme is all-powerful and the world is his playground. We have to wait for his blessings.”

Both these letters later found their way into the Guru Granth Saheb. Guru Tegh Bahadur realized that his son was mature and an appropriate heir. In the Sikh tradition, there was a practice of sending betel leaves to the person who is the heir to the position of a Guru. Thus, the purohita Gurdit escaped from prison and took the betel leaf to Gobind Singh. Enraged that one of them escaped, Aurangzeb had the rest of them cut into pieces. With the horrific idea that if he tortured and killed his students in front of him Guru Tegh Bahadur would convert to Islam, Aurangzeb made the Guru’s disciples undergo cruel ordeals, tortured them, and had them killed. But neither did he convert to Islam nor did he display any weakness of heart.

Finally on 11th November 1665, Aurangzeb ordered that Guru Tegh Bahadur’s head should be chopped off in Delhi’s Chandni Chowk. Guru Tegh Bahadur spread out a sheet of cloth and sat down, in Chandni Chowk, awaiting his death. With a view that the Guru might agree to convert to Islam in the very last moment, a Maulvi was present. The executioner stood waiting with a sharpened sword in his hand. Everyone around was shedding tears. Bhai Chaitanya, a lower caste road sweeper too was wailing. He pleaded with the Guru, “Why don’t you perform a miracle to save your life?” Guru Tegh Bahadur replied, “I will not resort to any miracles to save my life. My life itself is a miracle.” The executioner raised his sword, Guru Tegh Bahadur’s head rolled down. A small chit was attached to the rosary beads he had worn around his neck. On it was written “Sir diya par sirhardiya,” meaning “I gave my head but didn’t give up my faith.” Thus he gave his own life but ensured that the Kashmiri Pandits’ faith in Sanatana Dharma remained unaffected.

Bhai Chaitanya took his head and ran to Gobind Singh. Lakhi Singh took his body, placed it in his own hut and then set fire to the hut, thus performing the last rites of Guru Tegh Bahadur. 

In Delhi’s Rakhabganj there is the sacred spot where Guru Tegh Bahadur’s last rites were performed. In the place where he was executed, the Sisganj gurudwara stands today. In this way, Guru Tegh Bahadur exhibited incomparable valour and imbued the Sikhs with the martial spirit by offering his own life.

Soon after this, Guru Gobind Singh took over as the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh had four children. Once when Aurangzeb was at Anandapur, he invaded the city. At that time, two of his elder children attain martyrdom. Guru Gobind Singh’s mother Gujaridevi escaped with his two younger children Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh, thus protecting them. However, Sangu, the lady who was a cook at Guru Gobind Singh’s house for twenty years, gave away the secret, falling prey to the desire of great rewards. Gujaridevi and the two children were thrown into prison. They were taken to Nawab Vazir Khan. He forced the children to convert to Islam. The Qazi there said that just because their father Gobind Singh was an enemy of the Mughals, the children should not be punished. However, since they refused to convert to Islam, they were killed by a most cruel punishment of building a wall around them even when they were alive. 

Both the children were made to stand and around them a three-foot thick wall was being constructed using brick and mortar. At that point, the elder of the two, Zorawar Singh had tears in his eyes. His younger brother Fateh Singh saw this and said, “Brother! Are you crying out of fear?” The elder one replied, “No, not because of fear. You are shorter than me and therefore you will die earlier. You will be sacrificing yourself first for the sake of dharma. I’m sad that I did not get this meritorious opportunity!” After the wall was completely built, it was broken after an hour, the corpses were dragged out, and chopped into pieces. Guru Gobind Singh’s mother Gujaridevi was killed by throwing her off a turret of the fort. When the wealthy merchant Todar Mal begged them to release the mortal remains so that he could perform the last rites, he was told, “Fill with gold coins the space that is covered by all that land used for their last rites. Only then will we give you the chance to perform the funeral rites.” It is only after Todar Mal filled the place with gold coins that he was given permission to perform the last rites of the valorous mother and the two child martyrs.

When Guru Gobind Singh heard about this great sacrifice of his mother and his sons, instead of shedding tears, he announced, “The Mughal Empire has seen its death!”

A sanyasi named Madhav Das used some device and ensured that anyone who sat on his seat, the seat would roll away. Guru Gobind Singh easily sat on it. Deeply influenced by this, Madhav Das said, “I am your Banda (servant)” and surrendered to Guru Gobind Singh, who said in response, “It is not enough if you are just Banda, you have to be Bahadur (brave) as well!” Later, he was the one who led an army and fought under the name Bahadur; with a huge army he established a Sikh kingdom.

This historical piece is borrowed with thanks from HERE

Deeply pained at the persecution and suffering of his children and followers, Gobind Singh decided to form a separate sect in order to fight the Mughals. This was how the Khalsa Panth was born: to protect the Hindu people who were following their tradition peacefully. In Gobind Singh’s own words:

Chidiyon se mein baaz banaaoon |
Savva laakh se ek ladhaaoon ||

I will make hawks out of sparrows |
I will fight lakhs of soldiers alone ||

In the Vaishakha Month of 1699 on the solemn occasion of the Baisakhi festival, about eighty thousand people had assembled in a town called Nayanadevi. On that occasion, Gobind Singh thundered, flashing a sword:

During the present time, we must offer our Puja to Chandi Devi in order to protect the country. But that Puja must not involve incense and lamp but blood. Who among you are ready to offer your blood?

A Brahmana named Dayaram Khatri came forward. Gobind Singh pulled him inside a room. A slashing sound emanated from within. Then, Gobind Singh emerged with a bloody sword in his hand. Next, a Jat youth from Delhi named Dharmadas came forward. Then it was the turn of a washerman named Mohak Chand from Dwaraka. After him was a barber from Bidar (in today’s Karnataka) named Saheb Chand; then came a water-seller named Himmat Raya from Jagannath Puri. The same scene was repeated: Gobind Singh would emerge with the same bloody sword.

Gobind Singh’s mother, Gujari Devi exclaimed, “Enough! Stop these killings!” At this, Gobind Singh brought out all the five volunteers. He had actually killed five goats. He said to crowd, “Mera paanch pyaare!” (The Five who are dear to me!). This was how Gobind Singh had selected five people who were ready to sacrifice their lives. Of these, three members belonged to what is known as the lower castes, and two from the upper castes. Said Gobind Singh:

Hey Araj tu khaalis hove |
Hams Hams sheesh dharma hita kove ||
You Five have become sanctified, you have become Aryas; you are ready to sacrifice your lives for the sake of Dharma. Because of this, Mother has become very pleased. Going forward, build a large army. Let this become a new Path.

After this, Gobind Singh prepared a mixture of milk and water and got their respective mothers to add sugar to it. He stirred the mixture with his sword and with his own hands, made them drink it. Then he takes the Diksha from his own disciples. When the gathering witnessed this scene, they spontaneously exclaimed, “Wahe Guru!” This eventually became a sacred Mantra.

Thousands of people took Diksha into this new sect. This is the Diksha involving the Five Kha alphabets: Kesh (hair), Khang (comb), KhaDa (an iron bangle always to be worn on the wrist), Khacchh (wearing the Dhoti wrapped around the legs like a trouser) and KripaN (sword)Gobind Singh says further:

Sakala jagat mein Khalsa panth gaaje |
Jage Sakala Dharma Hindu bandha baaje ||
Let the Khalsa Panth roar like a lion throughout the world|
Let Hindu Dharma rejuvenate ||

In this manner, Guru Gobind Singh built up a vast force of warriors out of the Khalsa Panth. He preached equality of women and men, opposed the practice of Sati, encouraged widow remarriage and advocated compassion and love towards the poor and the downtrodden.

If these followers were all Keshadharis (those who never cut their hair), another non-warrior sect named Sahajadharis, eventually grew. Guru Gobind Singh dispatched five of his disciples named Karma Singh, Khada Singh, Veer Singh, Sena Singh, and Ram Singh to Kashi to study Vedas and Upanishads. In time, this led to the formation of the Nirmal Panth.

Whereas the Khalsa Panth advocated Kshatra, the Nirmal Panth advocated Brahma. In this manner, the Vedic conch of Yatra Brahma ca Kshatram ca… sounded once more.

As a fortuitous coincidence of sorts, Punjab lies in the Veda Bhoomi itself. Or in the general region of today’s Haryana’s “Brahmavarta,” which was originally intertwined with Punjab.

Saraswati Drishadwatyordevanadyoryadantaram |
tam Deva nirmitam desham Brahmaavartam pracakshate ||

(Manusmriti II-17)

According to this verse, today’s Kurukshetra is Brahmavarta. This land is where the Vedas originated. Illustrious scholars like Sri Sediyappu Krishnabhatta have written about this in detail in his Tathya Darshana. The Khalsa Panth thus originated in this sanctified region.

The Sikh sect fused the Brahma and Kshatra ideals once again. A measure of the blazing Kshatra tradition among the Sikhs can be seen in the fact that there is not a single beggar in this community. But in the present time, we are actually insulting this noble Sikh tradition by cracking mindless Sardarji jokes.

The Sikhs form a paltry two percent of India’s population. But they constitute ninety percent of all the people who sacrificed their lives and limbs during the freedom struggle! The total number of Indians who were hanged by the British were 120. Of these, 93 were Sikhs! The total number of Indians dispatched to the dreaded Kala Pani (Andaman Islands) is 2646. Of these, 2147 were Sikhs! The total number of Indians killed in the Jallianwala Bagh genocide was about 1300. Of these, 799 were Sikhs! The total lives extinguished by the British during the freedom struggle is approximately 4279; of these, 3197 were Sikhs!

These numbers in themselves show the glorious valour and patriotism of the Sikhs. However, post-Independence, thanks to the selfishness, greed, and lust for power on the part of our political leaders, and the lack of foresight of some Sikh political leaders, the Sikhs have more or less completely splintered away from their mothership of Sanatana Dharma.

None of this would be acceptable by Guru Gobind Singh and the entire Sikh Guru Parampara. What’s more, the tendencies of Sikh separatism which has shown signs of revival in recent times is actually against the original ideals and goals of the Sikh Gurus.

How does one rectify this?

This historical piece is borrowed with thanks from HERE.

Vatican in India: Intellectual Terrorism and Subversion of a Nation


Imperialism in new Avatar (1)
Imperialism – step by step (2)
Vatican’s intellectual Jihad (3)
Subversion of India (4)

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