Indo-Europian Languages, Sanskrit and an Indian Expedition to Greece


We humans know many things but many things still remain an enigma to us. We know almost nothing about many things of our past. One of the greatest mysteries about our past is the origin of the so-called family of Indo-Europian languages. The term “Indo-European” is now well established for over two centuries. Why the word “Indo” is connected to Europian languages? What do they have to do with India – a far away place – and its language? And, which is this language of India? It is equally long established that this Indian language is Sanskrit.

Ordinary people cite the examples of this connection of Indian language Sanskrit to the Europian languages by indicating the similarity between many Sanskrit and these European languages’ words, for example in English language for ‘Matr’ (मातृ) there is ‘Mother’; for  ‘Pitr’ (पितृ) there is ‘Father’; for ‘Bhratr’ (भ्रात्र) there is ‘Brother’ etc. Europian scholars have conducted a systematic and elaborate research into this phonetic and grammatical connection of Sanskrit laguage with all the languages of Europe – English, German, French, Russian, Greek, Latin, Slav etc (with a few exception) – and have come to the conclusion that Sanskrit is really connected to all these Europian languages as their mother language.

But how this connection of Sanskrit was established with these European languages in the past is not known. All these Europian languages represent the best of literature, philosophy, science, history and other sublime human thoughts. We know all scientific terminologies are rooted in Greek and Latin languages and, in turn, Greek and Latin languages are rooted in Sanskrit. For example, one may wonder the word ‘genesis’, from which the scientific term ‘genetics’ is derived is rooted in Sanskrit word ‘Janm’ (जन्म); or, Greek ‘Prima’ is rooted in Sanskrit ‘Pratham’ (प्रथम);  two is from ‘Dwi’ (द्वि); three is from ‘Tri’ (त्रि); ‘Penta’ is from पन्चम; seven is from सप्तम; eight is from ‘अष्टम’; nine is from ‘नवम’; decimal is from ‘ दशमलव’ of Sanskrit. More examples of such Europian words rooted in Sanskrit will be given at the end of this article.

But there is a wide blank space in human history how this connection of Europian languages with Sanskrit came about. It happened in remote past, which is wrapped in the mist of pre-historic antiquity. Human ingenuity knows no limits, it constantly knocks at the door of mystery and one day the door becomes wide open. But it requires an honesty of investigation and inquiry.

Sanskrit is native to India and this Sanskrit connects India to Europe in a superior way, which hurts the Europian ego – its sense of superiority. This sense is misplaced because inquiry and knowledge have no ego – no superiority complex. But it hurts humans; it bruishes them. It makes them defend against the perceived onslaught. And, (they have a feeling) India is a wretched third world poor and ignorant country; how come this India dares to walk over its Sanskrit bridge to Europe and challenge their superior power of originalty? It is their wounded pride. But the originalty always sides with the truth.

Everybody knows this truth and therefore to overcome this hurdle, many so-called scholars of the west have invented a spurious theory of ‘Proto Sanskrit’ language, which is supposed to be a common mother language of all Europian peoples, and of which mother language the ancient Indians too had a chance to share alike with Europeans, and to develop their sanskrit ! This is a pure fake invention. There has never been a so-called ‘Proto Sanskrit’. There is no legend or tradition about the existence of such a primordial language among any people in the world – or of its mention anywhere in the ancient classical literature – or about the place where that language was spoken or of the people who spoke it or about the time when it was spoken. There are many reasons why such ‘Proto Sanskrit’ would not exist and why it could not have been developed into Sanskrit. This theory is nothing but a red herring.

It is well known that Latin language is the nursing mother of all Europian languages – and this Latin itself in turn is nursed in antiquity by the Greek language. All classical literature – Herodotos, Arrian, Diodorus, Strabo, Ptolemy, Nearchus, Justin, Curtius, Seculus and even the later ones – is in Greek language. Herodotos wrote his ‘Histories’ in two volumes, Arrian wrote his ‘Anabasis’ in twelve volumes, Diodorus of Sicily wrote his works in ten volumes, Strabo, Ptolemy, Justin, Curtius, Seculus etc. also wrote likewise. It speaks volumes of the splender, glory and antiquity of Greek language in comparison to Roman, that is, Latin. In fact, Latin language got its influence and primacy during the period of an extensive Roman empire at about 150 AD – after the coronation of king Augustus, the great.

Most of these Greek writers wrote before the Christian era, for example, Herodotos wrote in 480 BC and Dionysius wrote in 59 BC. They all refer to the glory of Greece in still more ancient times and the influence of Greek heroes on Roman empire. Dionysius writing in 59 BC in his volume 1 at page 105 (out of 7 of them) of ‘Roman Antiquities’ states that one ‘Pelasgian people’ with their leader had subdued many nations, they came to Greece and from Greece came to Rome to a welcome by Roman people; that they were given a land by the Romans and there these Pelasgian people made their abode – a village – on top of a hill in Rome; that they had instituted the worship of their leader at an altar as a deity built in his memory, which worship is still continued in his own time (59 BC); that these ‘Pelasgian people’ were so named because they came there wandering ‘like a flock of pelican’; that they were of high moral values and had killed, subdued and tamed many barberian tribes that were abound in the area.

This all was being written in 59 BC. Even before that time, in 326 BC, Alexander had come to India, in Sind. His historians – Ptolemy, Nearchus, Arrian etc – wrote that he (Alexander) had boasted that he and Indians had a common deity in Hercules, who had come to India in remote antiquity and was equally  worshipped by Indians in Mathura; that this Hercules was the god of power and had a club in hand and lion’s skin on his body. Who was this Hercules – who was an equal Indian and Macedonian god? In how much past – counting backward from 326 BC – did that Hercules come to India, or go to Macedonia from India as the leader of ‘Pelasgian people’ to be worshipped by Macedonians there? There is something very serious in this hint: a Hercules worshipped in India in Mathura in 326 BC and also worshipped in Macedonia. This is all based on written historical record – Arrian wrote his 12 volumes of ‘Anabasis’ and Dionysius wrote 7 volumes, which all are still extant.

Is it possible that sometime in remote past Sanskrit speaking Indians had migrated to and colonised Greece – and then Rome of Italy? Is it possible that they were the wandering ‘Pelasgian’ people, who flying like a ‘flock of pelican’ came from India to Greece, colonising and civilizing it, and thence came to Rome, founding a village at a hill-top and erecting an altar there to be worshipped as a deity in the memory of their (Pelasgians) leader called Hercules? Is it possible that these Sanskrit speaking people laid the foundation of the corrupted dialect of Sanskrit in the form of classical Greek? There is no other way to explain the reason of the Sanskrit roots – and plain words – being the explicit foundation of classical Greek and Latin languages – except by looking at this possibility and searching for its evidence.

Col. James Todd has suggested in volume 1 of his celeberated work ‘Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan’ that this Hercules weilding a club in his hand and wearing a lion’s skin on his body was none other than the elder brother of Indian deity Krishna, whose name was Balram – that Balram was a deity who was worshipped in Mathura (during Alexander’s time in 326 BC as well as today); he was the god of power who held a club in his hand; he was an ‘Ees =god’ of the ‘Hari’s Kula =tribe of Hari -Yadavas’ and was aptly named by Greeks and Romans as Hercules or ‘Ees of Hari Kula’; that he had led an expedition from India to Greece after the Mahabharata War was over, Pandavas had retired to the Himalya mountains and Krishna was dead. Such is the possibility hinted at by a western scholar (read Todd to find out he was a scholar) even in 1882 or so! It calls for a serious research. It would be a re-writing of the history of India, Greece, Romans and the western civilization.

Here there are two objections to be countered in this respect. First it is generally accepted that Indians never went out of India to colonize foreign lands. This is partially wrong: Indians did not invade and conquer other lands by force but they went and culturally conquered foreign lands – just look at the entire span of east Asia, China, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Vietnam etc ! It was a willing welcome of Indians by foreign lands.

The second objection relates to the time scale of history. The known current academic fashion is to limit the human civilization to 9000 years or so only and no more. And, this 9000 years time span is known, although sketchily. Such Indian colonisation of Greece etc is not possible. The internet gives us information that a sunken Dwarika city at the Gujrat coast has tell-tale remains of big human made structures and that carbon dating has put these different remains at 32000 to 9000 years old. Is it all humbug? Or, is it correct in its claim of 32000 to 9000 years? Why is the scientific community silent about such an onstensibly preposterous claim? It needs to come out and take a stand – killing by silence does no credit to them. It is a work of more in importance for archeology than the 1930’s excavations at Mohen-jo-Daro and Harappa by John Marshal. But why is such an investigation by an international team of archeologits not being undertaken? Is it because these remains lie sunk at the coast of India and not at the coast of sea somewhere in Europe or the United States? If the claim is right, then humans need to re-write their history afresh. Then, there is a real possibility of Sanskrit migrating out of India to Greece sometime in antiquity counting backwards from 326 BC, when Alexander visited India.

One more aspect: a period of general migration of people is admitted in pre-historic times. There are ancient remains of altars, gods images, structures etc scattered in different countries that were once part of the Roman empire – in addition to many legends and traditions – connecting ancient India to those parts. In his ‘Prehistoric Dacia’ Nicolae Densusianu of Romania (which land was once part of Roman empire in antiquity) has written about all such remains still found scattered in his country, which connect ancient India with that country through Indian gods, deities and legends.

Now we close this post with linguistic similarity of European languages to Sanskrit, which have been borrowed with thanks from the work of E. Pococke, which work was published in 1856 from London. Here are some of the examples of these similarities:

Sanscrit = Zend. = Greek (Doric.) = Latin. = Gothic.

Prat’hma  = Frat’hema = Prota = Prima = Fruma

Dwitiya = Bitya = Deutera = Altera = Ant’hara

Tritiya = Thritya = Trita = Tertia = Thridyo

Chaturtha = Tuirya =Tetarta = Quarta = Fidvordo

Panchama = Pugdha = Pempta = Quinta = Fimfto

Shasta = Catva = Hekta = Sexta = Saishto

Saptama = Haptat’ha = Hebdoma = Septima = Sibundo

Ashtama = Astema = Ogdoa = Octava = Ahtudo

Navama = Nauma = Ennota = Nova = Niundo

Dasama = Dasema = Dekata = Decima =Taihundo

Sanscrit. = Zend. = Greek. = Latin.

Dad-a-mi = Dadha-mi = Dido-mi = Do

Dada-si = Dadha-si = Dido-s = Da-s

Dada-te = Dadha-te = Dido-ti = Da-t

Tishtami = Histami = Histemi = Sto

Asmi = Ahmi = Emmi = Sum

Bharami = Barami = Phero = Fero

Vahami = Vazami = Ekho = Veho

Asi = Ahi = Essi = Es

Tishtasi = Hisht’hahi = Histes = Stas

Dadasi = Dadhahi = Didos = Das

Bharasi = Barahi = Phereis = Fers

Tisht’hes = Histois = Histaies = Stes

Dadhyas = Daidhyao = Didoies = Des

Bhares = Bharois = Pherois = Feras

Sanscrit. = Zend. = Greek. = Latin.

Tisht’hat’ha = Hist’hat’ha = Histate = Statis

Bharat’ha = Barat’ha = Pherete = Fertis

Tisht’het’ha = Histaeta = Histaiete = Stetis

Dadyata = Daidhyata = Didoiete = Detis

Bhareta = Baraeta = Pheroite = Feratis

Asti = Ashti = Esti = Est

Tishtati = Histati = Histate = Stat

Dadati = Dadhaite =Didote = Dat

Barati = Baraite = Phere(t)i = Fert

Bharet = Baroit = Pheroi = Ferat

Dadyat = Daidhyat = Dedoie = Det

Santi = Hente = (S)enti = Sunt

Tishtanti = Histenti = Histanti = Stant

Dadati = Dadenti = Didonti = Dant

Bharanti = Barenti = Pheronti = Ferunt

Vahanti = Vazenti = Ekhonti = Vehunt

Sanscrit = Latin

St’ha-tum, to stand = Statum

Da-tum, to give = Datum

Jna-tum, to know = No-tum

Pa-tum, to drink = Potum

E’-tum, to go = Itum

Stra-tum, to strew = Stratum

Ank-tum, to anoint = Unctum

Svani-tum, to sound = Son-i-tum

Sarp-tum, to go = Serptum

Vami-tum, to vomit = Vomitum

Pesh-tum, bruise = Pistum

Jani-tum, to beget = Gen-i-tum

 

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