God’s particle (Higgs Boson)

History of the development of science is reflected mirror image of the history of evolutionary development of humans. Nature with all its properties and essence has always been in existence there and simply we did not know them. By and by we are becoming aware of them. By knowing nature humans are empowered also. By the knowledge they make machines and change nature according to their needs. Humans are a part of nature. In humans nature is climbing up the ladder to heaven.

A wonderful thing to study is the interrelation of the world as it is in its essence and the human presence with all their inquisitiveness to know this essence. As an example, before humans knew that apple falls down to the Earth and does not go up above because of an attractive force of Earth – gravity – that pulls it towards it center, obviously this force was always present there. By the works of Isaac Newton we got an idea of this force and its peculiar mechanism of working. What is the relation of this force of gravity as it exists there in nature and our understanding of this force? This simpleton explanation of this force given by Isaac Newton is not correct, we are told by Einstein; it is because of the curvature of space (and space is real thing!) created by the presence of Earth around it that makes the Newton’s apple move along the shortest path – geodesic path – which looks like falling of the apple down towards Earth! This time also, the force of gravity as it is in its essence was always present there and simply we changed our understanding of the same. We call this change the development of science. What is the relation of this development of science to humans? Nature with all its essence (or all its forces) has always been present and working there without any consideration for the human presence and their efforts to know this essence. When we humans come to know of some part of nature, we simply change ourselves; when we reform and refine our understanding further, we further change ourselves. The development of science is reflected in human evolution.

We humans are inquisitive by nature. We live in a world, which is made-up of a countless things of myriad qualities. We want to know our world, which of course includes us humans also. It is a mysterious yet beautiful loop, wherein ‘we’ who are the product of this world want to know this world. In this inquisitive pursuit, what is given to us as an undisputed premise is ‘our world’ and what is given to us as an available tool is ‘our mind’. The working of our mind is akin to a computer wherein the biological brain is the ‘processor, input to this processor is made by feeding ‘data’ obtained from our observed world and the output is the ‘reasoned conclusion’.  ‘Reason’ is ingrained in nature as its inherent working principle and when it is represented and understood in an abstract form it becomes mathematics. This ‘reasoned conclusion’ has a long history of development culminating into modern science. Science, to understand world, observes phenomena, offers speculative reason (hypothesis), tests the correctness of this reason by artificially duplicating in laboratory the phenomenon in question (experiment) and after validating this reason in this manner adds one more brick to the edifice of science.  Mathematics is the strongest tool of science to validating a ‘reasoned conclusion’. In this manner in order to understand our world we labor brick by brick, develop our science and in the process become more and more enlightened life species on earth.

In this pursuit of understanding the world we have come a long way today. Have we, really? Of course, it is all relative! From where we started (cave-dwelling hunters) our journey of this inquisitiveness, we have really come a long way! From the goal of understanding our world fully, where no question is left to answer or no doubt is left to resolve, we are still far away!!

How do we understand ‘Higgs’ boson’ and ‘Higgs’ field’ as a layman but correctly? And, how can we put the importance of this discovery (if the discovered boson, which is like Higgs’ boson, really turns out to be Higgs’ boson) in the right perspective of things?

In our scientific search of the world, we have come to know that mass and energy are two different forms of the same thing; that mass can be transformed into energy and, vice versa, energy can be transformed into mass; that their inter-relation is defined by the Einstein’s famous equation: .

There is an enormously successful theoretical framework proposed by physicists to understand the entity that we call matter and of which our world is made-up of. This framework is referred to as the Standard Model and satisfactorily describes the fundamental sub-atomic particles and forces of nature. According to this Model atom is made-up of electrons and nucleus (the later consisting of protons and neutrons). These atomic particles are in turn are further made-up of two types of sub-atomic particles: leptons and quarks. Leptons exist on their own but quarks exist bound together. Leptons consist of 12 particles: electrons and electron-neutrinos; Muon and Muon Neutrino; Tau and Tau Neutrino. Atomic particle proton is made-up of six quarks: Down; Up; Strange; Charm; Bottom; and Up. Apart from these 12 sub-atomic particles, there are six force carriers: photon; Z boson; W+ boson; W – boson; Gluon; Higgs boson. Dictated by the requirement of the applicable mathematics, this Standard Model proposes that none of these particles – except the Higgs particle – has a mass. But in nature we find that all these particles – except photon particle – have varying degrees of mass. How can we explain this situation? It is proposed by the Standard Model that all these particles get their respective amount of mass only by interacting in varying degrees with the Higgs particle! In nature these fundamental particles interact with the Higgs particle and their respective masses are determined by the strengths of their respective interaction with the Higgs. Therefore, if there was no Higgs particle in existence, the matter in the universe would have no mass! Without the mass, the matter (the mass-less particles) would not have stick-together to form atoms etc. But how can one contrive an experiment to search for this Higgs? We know in nature particles have mass; we also know that mass and energy are one and the same thing inter-related to each other by above said Einstein’s equation. By accelerating the speed of a particle, we can add mass (a measure of inertia) to it; by this acceleration, we in fact add energy to the speeded-up particle. Suppose, we accelerate two particles in opposite directions and then make them collide head-on; what will happen? A great amount of energy would be produced by this collision. Now, the energy cannot be destroyed by any means! At the micro-level, the extra energy imparted by the process of acceleration to the particles speeding in the opposite directions, at the head-on collision, would be transformed into different kinds of new particles. This was the job done by Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN at Geneva. One can know the mass (or energy measured in electron Volt – eV) of particles (protons – it is about 1 GeV) which are to be subjected to acceleration and one can also measure the amount of energy imparted to the particles by the acceleration of that particle (till the end of 2011 this energy was increased to 4 TeV per beam and on collision became 8 GeV of total energy); one can also calculate the amount of energy produced by the head-on collision of the two accelerated particles. Now, the new particles produced by the collision-energy may be detected in refined decay (lepton and photon) channels and measured for their mass or energy. If the amount of total energy produced by the collision is more than the energy accounted for by all the newly created (and detected) particles, then there is a case for the discovery of a new particle! In the CERN experiment when collision-energy was accounted for by the total energy used by various newly formed (and of the already known type) particles, there was an excess amount of energy in the range of 125.06 G(ega) e(lectron) V(olt) in the CMS experiment with 0.6 error margin and 125.3 GeV in ATLAS experiment with 0.6 error margin, which was used in the formation of a super-massive Higgs (like) boson! But this experimental process is not simple. At the time of collision there are many kinds of natural cosmic process of constant formation of new particles going on in the background (and, to reduce this factor, the experiment needed to be made underground). Also, the detectors have to catch the right moment (and that depended on the computer software). There had to be repetition of the experiment to remove the negative factors like bumps in cosmic radiation, detectors failure to catch the right moment, background noise, software mistakes etc. to earn the required credibility (the data from June 5 to 18, 2012 of proton-proton 500 trillion collisions at 8 GeV was analyzed). This was experimental discovery and just two days before the CERN announcement, the Fermilab scientists had also announced that if the Higgs boson was to be discovered, it was likely to be discovered in the 115 to 135 GeV range! This was all done and there was a Higgs like particle. What meaning does it hold for laymen like us? How can we evaluate the worth of this discovery?

We have been able to identify and reduce all fundamental forces into four kinds: electromagnetic; gravity; weak (nuclear) force; strong (nuclear) force. All these four forces are different from one another and fundamental in their separate properties. Strangely, these four fundamental forces are not equal in their strength. The weak nuclear force is almost a 1 billion, trillion, trillion times stronger than gravitational force! The Standard Model is not able to explain this problem, which is called the Hierarchy Problem. We want to somehow unify all these four forces into a single fundamental force (grand unification of forces). Now, all forces exist in their respective fields; and, a part of this field is carried by a particle of this force. By the application of proper branch of mathematics, we conclude that all fermions and leptons are different forms of a single force but, according to the dictate of the applied mathematics, none of these sub-atomic particles has any mass! We know, in real world it is not so; except photon, all sub-atomic particles have mass (which is measured in eV – electron volt- since mass and energy are interchangeable and this mass could be in the range of GeV – Gega electron Volts). Without mass, sub-atomic particles would be able stick-together and would not be able to form atomic particles – like electrons, protons, neutrons. Without atoms and molecules, no world comes into being. But the world is there in existence.

Then, from which source these sub-atomic particles get their mass? This was the question which prompted Peter Higgs and five other independent researchers to propose that we can solve this puzzle by assuming that there is a ‘field’ of force (Higgs’ field) and a part of this field is carried by a particle (Higgs’ boson); in Quantum Physics field and particle are one and the same thing and this duality (field versus particle) is dependent on and the result of ‘inter-action with the wave’ etc. etc. Peter Higgs’ assumption required that all sub-atomic particles should have no mass; that these particles should be able to interact (in their own way – that is yet to be discovered) with the new particle (Higgs’ boson); that depending on this individual type of interaction with Higgs’ boson, these particles should be able to acquire (get transferred to themselves) a particular quantity of mass from this boson. Can we try to understand Higgs’ boson by an oversimplified analogy? Suppose, 2,3,4,5 are fermions and leptons; if these are sought to be reduced into a single force, we should have a combined pool of energy of 2345= 120; but what we find in nature is: 2345=945. In case the total energy pool of 2345 was 120, we could have concluded that particles 2345 were interchangeable in their mutual relations; but the pool was not 120; it was 945. How to resolve this problem? It was proposed that 2 (+1 particle depending upon the capacity of 2 to interact with Higgs’ field)* 3 (+2 particles depending upon the capacity of 3 to interact with Higgs’ field)* 4 (+3 particles depending upon the capacity of 4 to interact with Higgs’ field)* 5 (+4 particles depending upon the capacity of 5 to interact with Higgs’ field) was = 945. It agreed with the real nature; or, it was tailored to agree with the real nature! Here, several implications are involved: firstly, there is a vast amount/quantity of Higgs’ field existing there in nature and how much amount of mass was taken from this vast Higgs’ field depended only upon the property of a particular sub-atomic particle; secondly, there is a limited number/amount of sub-atomic particles in universe and commensurate with that limited number we find limited mass accounted in nature, while leaving a still greater amount of mass unaccounted for (95% dark matter); thirdly, in the dream of scientists to unify all fundamental forces into a single unified force, Higgs’ field may put a spanner by proposing that: there is one class of sub-atomic particles/forces that have no mass; and there is another class of particles/force (Higgs’ boson/field) that transfers mass to those non-mass particles. Fourthly, if 95% of the mass in the universe (dark matter) is unaccounted for and all the known matter in our universe accounts for only 5% mass of the universe, then there is still scope in the universe of the formation of more matter till this 95 % of the dark matter or Higgs’ field is exhausted and this process of new formation may still be going on in our otherwise expanding universe;  fifthly, if and when we discover how the non-massive sub-atomic particles (before they get mass by interacting with Higgs’ boson) are created, we can get some insight whether such particles are still being created and, if so, how much time it will take for them to get transfer to them the remaining 95 % of the remaining Higgs’ field (or dark matter); sixthly, what will happen when the entire 100 % of the dark matter is consumed and accounted for by the matter that may be created henceforth? In any way, we need to study the mechanism of the interaction of sub-atomic particles with Higgs’ field. When we discover this mechanism, a new era of science would start. Once the Higgs’ field (or, simply the mass field) is understood, we can manipulate the Higgs’ field like the electromagnetic field. Gravity is the property of mass and by oscillating the mass-particle (distinct from electrons etc.) we can fabricate gravity transmitters; and these may likelier transmit messages instantaneously over the entire span of universe unlike today’s electromagnetic ones that take years together to send signals over vast universe. Also, we may likely fabricate mass-less vehicles which would travel at the speed of light, like photons. More dangerously, we may fabricate weapons which would take away mass from our massive-bodies (living and non-living both) and destroy anything without explosion. Such a weapon would be qualitatively higher in the capacity to destroy than today’s atomic bomb. Today we know a lot about electromagnetic waves and their utilization but almost nothing about gravity. This new discovery, if really a discovery, would empower humans beyond imagination; to safely handle such a potent power humans would have to have to evolve themselves from their present egoistic self to saner beings.  We are still away from a single unified force! Mass (or Higgs’ field) is not God. Neither the Higgs’ particle is God’s particle. In fact, mass is resistance; it restricts the change; it is inertia; it puts hurdle in the way of velocity. It is because of the mass that nothing that is material can travel at a speed more than the velocity of light. It creates a drag on the speed. And, at the speed of light this drag becomes infinite making it impossible for the matter to speed up further. Mass is just opposite to God.  Freedom from mass – freedom from this drag – is liberty; now we know sub-atomic particles are mass-less before they interact with Higgs’ field; being mass-less they cannot create atomic articles, atoms, molecules and compounds, that is, they are free and cannot create our world. In Higgs’ venture God nowhere comes in. What is the relationship of Higgs’ venture (God’s Particle) with the God’s and His Beings’ venture? It is this. In order to understand our world, science observes a phenomenon; proposes an explanation (by hypothesizing parametric conditions) for this phenomenon; artificially duplicates this phenomenon in laboratory (by carrying out an experiment in those parametric conditions); if phenomenon is duplicated, the hypothesis is validated and phenomenon is satisfactorily explained by science. By this scientific process we understand our world and fabricate articles of our daily use; control diseases; make weapons; talk wirelessly; send rockets to moon etc. To deny this success of science is hypocrisy on our part; it is ignorance; it is foolishness. And, in the usual human inquisitiveness to know the world, what does the other part of seekers (God’s venture) do? Equally, this set of humans also first observes the natural phenomena; proposes an explanation (by hypothesizing that there is only one force in nature; that it is conscious and benevolent; that to know this force one needs to comply/meet very rigorous parametric conditions like making mind and its noise quiet, prayer and surrender to this force etc.) for this world phenomena; duplicates those parametric conditions (by carrying out a para-psychological experiment by meeting those parametric conditions); if the hypothesis is validated by this experiment, then this set satisfactorily understands this world and its phenomena. By following this process, there have been persons in the past and there are present still today who understand this world. They utilize this knowledge by flying with a speed that is more than of light (by Einsteinian Relativity it is impossible and yet they so fly!); they present themselves physically available at several geographical locations at a single moment of time (Higgs’ field would not allow such a feat and yet they achieve it!); they would die in their physical body and come to life once again (such a possibility is denied by medical science and yet they perform it!); they would remember their own past birth (and yours and mine also) and would see the coming events of the future (such a possibility is dismissed by our science and yet they show these abilities to the whole world to test and verify the same!). One who denies these feats carried out fairly regularly by spiritual persons the world over without taking pains to verify them is a hypocrite. He or she does not want to understand the world and is a pretender only. Thanks to Peter Higgs for his labors and, more than him, thanks to Lord Buddha, Lord Jesus and countless other saints for their labors! All of them are working towards the same goal, that is, to understand our world. Both the opposite teams are like tunneling towards the same center of this heap of world from two opposite directions! If they do not miss their goal, they are sure to meet each other.

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