Scythians, Tatars and Mughals

     Let us see the connection that these Scythian tribes had with the later day Tatars and Mughals who invaded India. In considering this connection we ignore religious overtones that evoke strong sentiments in present day India. Col. James Todd in his celebrated ‘Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan’ says, “Having thus brought down the genealogical history of the ancient martial races of India, from the earliest period to Yoodishtra and Crishna, and thence to Vicrramaditya and the present day, a few observations on the races invading India during that time, and now ranked amongst the thirty-six royal races of Rajasthan, affording scope for some curious analogies, may not be inappropriate.

  “The tribes here alluded to are the Hya or Aswa, the Takshac, and the Jit or Gete; the similitude of whose theogony, names in their early genealogies, and many other points, with the Chinese, Tatar, Mogul, Hindu, and Scythic races, would appear to warrant the assertion of one common origin.

  ‘’Though the period of the passage of these tribes into India cannot be stated with certitude, the regions whence they migrated may more easily be ascertained.

 ‘’ Let us compare the origin of the Tatar and Mogul, as given by their historian, Abulgazi, with the race we have been treating of from the Poorans.

 ‘’Mogul was the name of the Tatrian patriarch. His son was Ogz, the founder of all the races of those northern regions, called Tatars and Mogul. Ogz, or Oguz, had six sons. First, Kiun ‘the sun’, the Surya of the Poorans; secondly, Ay, ‘the moon’, the Indu of Poorans (the other four sons are the remaining elements personified: whence the six races of Tatars. The Hindus had long but two races, till the four agni-culas made them also six, and now   thirty-six!). In the later, Aya, we have even the same name as in the Poorans for the Lunar ancestor.

  ‘’The Tatars all claim from Aya, ‘the moon’, the indu of the Poorans. Hence with them, as with the German tribes, the moon was always a male deity. The Tatar Ay had a son, Juidus. His son was Hya, from whom came the first race of the kings of China.

  “The Pooranic Aya had a son, Yadu (pronounced Jadoo); from whose third son, Hyu, the Hindu genealogist deduces no line, and from whom the Chinese may claim their Indu origin. (Sir W. James says the Chinese assert their Hindu origin; but a comparison proves both these Indu races to be of Scythic origin).

  ‘’El Khan (ninth from Ay) had two sons; first, Kaian; and secondly, Nagas, whose descendants peopled all Tartary.

  “From Kaian, Jungeez Khan claimed descent. Nagas was probably the founder of the Takshac, or snake race of the Poorans and Tatar genealogists, the Tak- i-uk Mogul of De Guignes (Naga and Takshac are Sanscrit names for a snake or serpent, the emblem of Buddha or Mercury. The Naga race, so well known to India, the Takshacs or Takiuks of Scythia, invaded India about six centuries before Christ). Such are the comparative genealogical origin of the three races…

  ‘’Let us contrast with these the origin of the Scythic nations, as related by Diodorus (See Diodorus, Siculus, book ii.); when it will be observed the same legends were known to him which have been handed down by the Poorans and Abulgazi.

  “The Scythians had their first abodes on the Araxes (the Arverma of the Poorans; the Jaxartes or Sihoon. The Poorans thus describe Saca-Dwipa or Scythia. Diodorus makes the Hemodus the boundary between Saca-Scythia and India Proper). Their origin was from a virgin born of the earth (Ella = Ella, the mother of the Lunar race, is the earth personified. Ertha of the Saxon; ard in Hebrew) of the shape of a woman from the waist upwards, and below a serpent (symbol of Buddha or Mercury); that Jupiter had a son by her, named Scythes (Scythes, from Sacatai, ‘saca-dwipa’ and es, Lord; Lord of sacatai, or Scythia), whose name the nation adopted. Scythes had two sons,

  “Palas and Napas’’ (query: The Nagas, or snake race, of the Tartar genealogy?), ‘’who were celebrated for their great actions, and who divided the countries; and the nations were called after them, the Palians and Napians. They led their forces as far as the Nile on Egypt, and subdued many nations. They enlarged the empire of the Scythians as far as the Eastern Ocean, and to the Caspian and Lake Moeotis.

  “The nation had many kings, from whom the Sacans (Sacae), the Massagetae (Getes or Jits), the Ari-aspians (Aswas of Ari), and many other races. They overran Assyria and Media, overturning the empire, and transplanting the inhabitants to the Araxes under the name of Sauro-Matians. (Sun worshippers, the sooryavansi).”

  Col. James Tod says: “From between the parallels of 30° and 50° of north latitude, and from 75° to 95° of east longitude, the highlands of Central Asia, alike removed from the fires of the equator and the cold of the arctic circle, migrated the races which passed into Europe and within the Indus. We must therefore voyage up to the Indus, cross the Paropamisan, to the Oxus or Jihoon, to Sakatai or Saka-dwipa, and from thence and the Deshte Kipchak conduct the Tashacs, the Getes, the Camari, the Catti, and the Huns, into the plains of Hindustan.

  Strabo says (Strabo, lib. Xi. P. 254): “All the tribes east of the Caspian are called Scythic. The Dahae (one of the thirty-six races, now extinct) next the sea, the Massagetae (great Gete) and Sacae more eastward; but every tribe has a particular name. All are nomadic; but of these nomads the best known are the Asi, the Pasiani, tachari, Sacaranli, who took Bactria from the Greeks. The Sacae have made in Asia eruption similar to those of the Cimmerians; thus they have been seen to possess themselves of Bacteria, and the best district of Armenia, called after them Sacasenaei’.”

 “If we examine the political limits of the great Getic nation in the time of Cyrus, six centuries before Christ, we shall find them little circumscribed in power on the rise of Timoor, though twenty centuries had elapsed.

  “At this period (AD 1330) under the last prince of Getic race, Togluc Timor Khan, the kingdom of Chagtai was bounded on the west by the Deshte Kipchak, and on the south by the Jihoon, on which river the Getic Khan, like Tomyris, had his capital. Kogend, Taskkant, Ootrar, Clropolis, and the most northern of the Alexandrias, were within the bounds of Chagitai.”

  Tod quotes De Guignes in his ‘Histoire des Huns’ Vol I p. 42 as saying:, “The Yuchi, established in Bactria and along the Jihoon, eventually bore the name of Jeta or Yetan, that is to say, Getes. Their empire subsisted a long time in this part of Asia, and extended even into India. These are the people whom the Greeks knew under the name of Indo-Scythes. Their manners are the same as those of the Turcs. Revolutions occurred in the very heart of the East, whose consequences were felt afar.”

  The traditions preserved over time by the Hindu Jats of Biana and Bharatpur point their original native country at Kandahar and the Muhammadan Jats in this respect refer to Gajni or Garh-Gajni, which according to General Cunningham may be either the celebrated fort of Ghazni in Afghanistan or the old city of Gajnipur on the site of Rawul-Pindi. But John Dowson in his appendix to the celebrated ‘History of India as told by its own historians’, where he identifies the Jats, Hindu and Muhammadan both, with the Xanthii of Strabo, and the latii of Pliny and Ptolemy, places their parent country on the banks of the Oxus, between Bactria, Hyrkania, and Khorasmia. He points out that here in this position there was a fertile district, irrigated from the Margus river, which Pliny calls Zotale or Zothale, which he believes to have been the original seat of the Iatii or Jats.

  He traces their migratory course from the Oxus to the Indus in the Xuthi of Dionysiils of Samos, who are coupled with the Arieni, and in the Zuthi of Ptolemy who occupied the Karmanian desert on the frontier of Drangiana. There is no mention of their modern name in the classical writer’s works and, therefore, it seems reasonable to hold that they may have been best known in early times, by the general name of their horde, as Abars, instead of by their tribal name as Jats.

  If this view is correct, then the main body of the Iatii would have occupied the district of Abiria and .the towns of Pardabathra and Bardaxema in Sindh, or Southern Indo-Scythia, while the Panjab or Northern Indo-Scythia was chiefly colonized by their brethren the Meds. When towards the end of seventh century the Muhammadans under their commander Muhammad bin Kashim made their first inroads into Sindh at the time of Rai Dahir son of Chach son of Silaij, the Zaths and Meds were the chief population of the country. At that time the original seat of the Med or Medi colony was in the Panjab proper and that of the the latii or Jilt colony in Sindh. Now the Jilts are found in every part of the Panjab, where they form about two-fifths of the population, are Musulmans in Pakistan and Hindu in Indian parts, and are divided into not less than a hundred different tribes. To the east of the Panjab, the Hindu Jits are found in considerable numbers in the frontier states of Bikaner, Jesalmer, and Jodhpur, where Col.Tod had estimated them to be as numerous as all the Rajput races put together. They are found also in great numbers along the upper course of the Ganges and Jumna, as far eastward as Bareli, Farakhabad, and Gwalior, where they are divided into two distinct clans. To the south of the Panjab, the Musulman Jats are estimated by Pottinger to form the entire population of the fruitful district of Haraud-Dajel, on the right bank of the Indus, and the bulk of the population in the neighbouring district of Kach-Gandava. In Sindh, where they have intermarried largely with Buluchis and Musulmans of Hindu descent, it is no 1onger possible to estimate their numbers, although it is certain that a very large proportion of the population must be of Jit descent.

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