Daily life of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdeo & other Indian revolutionaries


Two weeks after the murder of Mr. Saunders, Bhagat Singh and Sukhdeo came to Amritsar.  Kailashpati told Sukhdeo that he wanted to return to United Provinces on which he said that arrangements would be made for the same.

In the beginning of February it was arranged that Bijoy Kumar Sinha should meet Kailashpati in Delhi near Hardinge library according to this arrangement Kailashpati left Amritsar to Delhi. While Kailashpati was in Amritsar his expenses were being paid  by Sukhdeo.

On reaching Delhi Kailashpati meet Bijoy Kumar Sinha near the Hardinge library and had a talk lasting for an hour, when Jaidev Kapur came there and Kailashpati was made over to him, Jaidev took him to Jamuna Ghat to Ramswaup Dharamshala where Kashiram was living at that time.

Kashiram was studying in second year class in Hindu College with whom Kailashpati stayed for about a month.  While Kailashpati was there, Sheo Verma used to come to Dharamshala and once or twice Sukhdeo also came there.

In a room adjoining Jaideo’s, Nandkishore Nigam was living while preparing for M.A. final exams. In the room other side of Kashiram lived Bhimal Pershad Jain, who was Kashiram’s class fellow.

They all used to meet together and discuss revolutionary topics like how revolution should be carried out in India. Bhimal Pershad Jain’s brother Jogmindera Das was living with him and was preparing to appear in matriculation examination.

Bhavani Sahai who was class fellow of Jogmindra Das also used to come there and discuss the revolutionary topics. All these persons agreed with the view that the revolutionary means should be adopted for setting India free All these persons used to supply the revolutionary literature to each other, among which included one was the book titled “Bandi Jiven”.

On March 17 Jaideo came there and told Kailashpati to leave Delhi at once and to go and stay in a Dharamshala at Meerut. The Simon commission was coming to Delhi next day. Kailashpati thought it not proper to go to Meerut in case some action was to be undertaken to blow up Simon Commission and there might be a lot of police activity both in Delhi and Meerut.

Thus instead of going to Meerut Kailashpati went to Bhatnawar in Shivpuri district in Madhya Pradesh. At Shivpuri Kailashpati stayed with Narayain Das for whom he had introductory letter from Gopal Kishen Pauraink.

After staying for 2 days Kailashpati went to Bhatnawar and stayed at Adarash Vidyalay for two and half months and worked as its Headmaster. After that Kailashpati went to live in Lashkar in district Gwalior and met one Bharwee  at the  end of July 1929.

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Unsung Heroes: Bhagat Singh, Sukhdeo, Kailashpati


We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. We all owe a debt to all those who fought the British for the freedom of this country. We have a long, really a very long, list of official Freedom Fighters and the make-belive heroes of this freedom struggle.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and thus deprive them “the Jewel of their Empire”. They were pragmatic and knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others of the same elk had mesmerizing effect on the Indian people’s psyche; that if they were not pragmatic enough to hand over soon enough after the WW 2  the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and worked for the amicable settlement of the question of Indian independence, Indian people would rise in the foot-steps of these belligerent and ferocious revolutionaries.

The imperialists were pragmatic and decided in their best interest to disband their empire in India. We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish their heroic deeds. We are narrating here some of their revolutionary activities.

Two weeks after the murder of Mr. Saunders, Bhagat Singh and Sukhdeo came to Amritsar.  Kailashpati told Sukhdeo that he wanted to return to United Provinces on which he said that arrangements would be made for the same.  In the beginning of February it was arranged that Bijoy Kumar Sinha should meet Kailashpati in Delhi near Hardinge library.

According to this arrangement Kailashpati left Amritsar to Delhi. While Kailashpati was in Amritsar his expenses were being paid  by Sukhdeo.  On reaching Delhi Kailashpati met Bijoy Kumar Sinha near the Hardinge library and had a talk lasting for an hour, when Jaidev Kapur came there and Kailashpati was made over to him, Jaidev took him to Jamuna Ghat to Ramswaup Dharamshala where Kashiram was living at that time.

Kashiram was studying in second year class in Hindu College with whom Kailashpati stayed for about a month.  While Kailashpati was there, Sheo Verma used to come to Dharamshala and once or twice Sukhdeo also came there.    In a room adjoining Jaideo’s, Nandkishore Nigam was living while preparing for M.A. final exams. In the room other side of Kashiram lived Bhimal Pershad Jain, who was Kashiram’s class fellow. They all used to meet together and discuss revolutionary topics like how revolution should be carried out in India.

Bhimal Pershad Jain’s brother Jogmindera Das was living with him and was preparing to appear in matriculation examination.   Bhavani Sahai who was class fellow of Jogmindra Das also used to come there and discuss the revolutionary topics. All these persons agreed with the view that the revolutionary means should be adopted for setting India free.

All these persons used to supply the revolutionary literature to each other, among which included one was the book titled “Bandi Jiven”. On March 17 Jaideo came there and told Kailashpati to leave Delhi at once and to go and stay in a Dharamshala at Meerut. The Simon commission was coming to Delhi next day. Kailashpati thought it not proper to go to Meerut in case some action was to be undertaken to blow up Simon Commission and there might be a lot of police activity both in Delhi and Meerut.

Thus instead of going to Meerut Kailashpati went to Bhatnawar in Shivpuri district in Madhya Pradesh. At Shivpuri Kailashpati stayed with Narayain Das for whom he had introductory letter from Gopal Kishen Pauraink.  After staying for 2 days Kailashpati went to Bhatnawar and stayed at Adarash Vidyalay for two and half months and worked as its Headmaster. After that Kailashpati went to live in Lashkar in district Gwalior and met one Bharwee  at the  end of July 1929.

Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Bimal Prasad Jain


The house of Bimal Prasad Jain was in Khari Baoli. He originally hailed from Sisana in Meerut District. At the end of July 1929, it was decided that they would make picric acid in the house of Gajanand Sada Shiv Potdar in Gwalior for filling bombs.

Azad sent Vaishampayan somewhere to bring apparatus and acids for this purpose and he brought them. Vaishampayan also purchased in Gwalior antimony tri-sulphate, potassium chlorate and sulphur.  Azad, Sada Shiv Rao, Gajanand Sada Shiv Potdar, and K began to make picric acid.

After two unsuccessful attempts they sought the help of D.V. Tailang who was a class fellow of Potdar and a member of the party who used to come there. Tailing referred them to J.V. Cochen’s ‘Practical Chemistry’ and following the instructions in it, they succeeded in making picric acid.

They also started to make tin bombs, that is, cigarette-tins. These bombs were made with a view to defend themselves if necessary as they had not sufficient weapons. These bombs were filled with sulphur, antimony tri-sulphide, sugar and potassium chlorate. Some were also filled with picric acid.

They also made a cast-iron shell. One of the tin bomb was taken away by Vaishampayan, Sada Shiv Rao, Bhagwan Das and Kailaspati to a hill outside Gwalior for experiment. They threw one and it exploded well and found by experiment that the bombs made by them were satisfactory. The other three were kept to be used in case of need or if any ‘action’ took place.

Forgotten Indian Revolutionaries: Delhi Conspiracy Commission


Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) had a wide network of revolutionaries primarily in North Indian Provinces and, when the Delhi Conspiracy Comission was constituted, had been trying to organizationally link up with the revolutionaries who were waging a war in other Provinces of India against the Indian British Empire. The number of these Indian revolutionaries, some known and most of them unknown, is indeed a large one. We will try to bring them, with their life sketches and contribution in India’s armed freedom struggle, before the public memory of this nation. This task of bringing their toils, turbulations and sacrifice for the sake of this country to public memory has been left by the official history of Indian freedom struggle to ordinary common people.

The source of information about these revolutionaries and their activities is the officially certified copy of the Proceedings of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission, which is indicated as ‘GIPD – 318 (C) CC Delhi – 21.12.31 – 35’ and of which one such copy is in possession of this contributor. Other copies may possibly be found in the Indian National Archives and the British Colonial Archives.

The Chief Commissioner of Delhi, exercising his special powers under section 3(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, issued an order dated 9 April 1930 constituting a commission, which was known as the ”’Delhi Conspiracy Commission”’. The Commission was directed that certain persons shall be tried by it for the offence of Conspiracy political conspiring to wage a war against the British King. The number of accused to be tried by the Commission was 24 in all. Out of these 24 persons, 14 were arrested and produced before the Commission, while nine were declared absconding and one had died.

Though only 24 persons were accused of the offence, during the trial it transpired that there were a large number of persons who had participated in the venture. It was an Indian revolutionary movement directed against the British to win India’s freedom by violent revolutionary means. The three-member Commission was constituted of L.S.White – President, Kanwar Sain – Member and Amir Ali – Member.

During the trial of the accused persons, the Crown was represented by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and his team. The accused were represented by Asaf Ali with support from others. On 14 May 1931, nine accused were presented before the Commission. These were Nand Kishore Nigam, B.R. Gupta, Rudra Dutt Mishra, Bhagirath Lal, Hardwari Lal Gupta, K. R. Gupta, Harkesh Singh, Gajanand Potdar and Kapur Chand. On that day, the Crown presented Kailashpati, who had turned state’s approver, as a witness.

The prosecution in addition to Kailashpati also presented other approvers in support of its case of the alleged offences.  Girwar Singh son of Ghasi Ram, caste Rajput, aged 22 or 23 years, resident of village Harra Police Station Sardhana District Meerut in U.P. was also tendered pardon by the Magistrate, which was accepted by him, and was produced on 24th February 1932 by the prosecution in support of its case. Another approver Dandpani Venkat Tailang son of Venkat Rao Gopal Tailang, aged 21 or 22 years, caste Dakshni Brahmin, resident of Jhansi in U.P. was examined by the prosecution on 8th March 1932. Yet another approver examined was P.W. 14 Ram Lal son of Ganga Ram, caste Chhatri, aged 23 years, student, resident of Saugor. Approver Madan Gopal son of B. Kishan Lal aged 24 years, Caste Yadav, occupation dairy-man, resident of Ajmere in Rajputana was examined as P.W. 15 by the Crown. Approver Bal Kishon (alias Kishen Bal) son of Ramji Lal Sharma, Caste Brahmin, aged 24 years, occupation Compounder, resident of village Khaira District Meerut in U.P. was examined as Prosecution Witness 16.

As the information about the revolutionaries sketched here is based on the statements of the revolutionaries-turned-approvers, the question arises about the credibility of these approvers and the worth of their statements. Let us examine this issue. All these approvers testified before the Commission for the prosecution and against their own countrymen who were their fellow-revolutionaries and were accused of waging a war against the British rulers to free their country. Neither then in a slave India nor now in a free country would these persons earn any sympathy from their countrymen.

But one could not be oblivious of human nature. In judging their conduct, we have to place them in their circumstances of the time and then look at them to understand their behavior. No one can deny that each one of them had chosen, and voluntarily, to involve himself in the activities that were obviously extremely dangerous for their own and their families’ security. They were all young men of 21 to 24 years. The decision on their part to involve them in the revolutionary activities was a courageous act, which was solely motivated by nothing else but by a patriotic urge.

How many of our own family members then had that courage, is a question that propels us to think beyond their supposed treachery to their mother land and make them legitimate object of our sympathy. They are reviled by time and they need rehabilitation by history.

Secondly, by going through the “Proceedings of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission” one is not left in any doubt that each of these approvers tried to mislead the Crown, to create the confusion of facts in the fond hope that this confusion would help the accused – their own revolutionary friends and well-wishers of the mother land – in getting an acquittal and, very importantly, to spread the revolutionary message through their statements, albeit confessional to the crime in nature, among the Indian youths. It was observed by the Commission again and again that the approvers concerned did not give prompt reply to the questions put to them; that they gave irrelevant details, that they reflected a lot before giving answers to simple questions and that a question had to be repeated several times to get straight answer. This was their device to help their once-friends and their country.

And, the history is witness, their hope of providing some help to their once-revolutionary friends in the difficult situation of the moment proved correct; the Commission was not in the position on the testimony of the approvers to convict any of the accused. The State was ultimately forced to disband the Commission and launch separate prosecution against each of the accused and, of course, against all those persons whose revolutionary activities had come to the light during the Commission’s proceedings. One such case was that of Babu Ram Charan.

The approver Bal Kishan (a compounder by occupation) had deposed that he was staying with Babu Ram Charan and that he was coming after applying dressing to Babu Ram Charan when he was arrested on the way. Bal Kishan was forced to lead the police to the house of Babu Ram Charan and his house was searched. The occupant was not found at the house. The police later on arrested Babu Ram Charan and it was found that his hand was injured in some bomb explosion and that Bal Kishan was applying dressing to this injury.

Babu Ram Charan was put to a trial in Delhi in 1932 on the sedition charges and this case came to be known as “the Delhi Bomb Case”. This one case is an example of how separate trials were launched by the Crown against individual accused and how the once-revolutionaries-turned-approvers tried to mislead the Commission and helped disband it.

Thirdly, the approvers were human beings, as vulnerable to threats, torture, inducements, tricks and the effects of psychological weapons as any human being could be. The persons who were involved in the Delhi Conspiracy could be divided into three classes: the persons who made the extreme sacrifice by voluntarily courting death when it became necessary to do so; the persons who did not betray the cause of revolution and voluntarily suffered extreme pains for their beliefs and actions:  and, the persons who were motivated by the revolutionary patriotism, took part in the revolutionary activities, suffered its concomitant hardships but at the time of crucial test showed the normal human weakness. The approvers belonged to the third class; we must admit they fought and we must agree they were weak.

This brings us to the question: what is the worth of their statements? How credible are they in their statements? When the statements of these different approvers are compared and collated with each other and examined critically, they throw new light on some old issues presumed to be long-settled, many mistakes of the historical record stand corrected, many new facts and secrets, and many new personalities and events, which have been consigned to the historical oblivion, come to light of the day. From the historical point of view, their statements, when critically examined from this angle, provide us invaluable information about the personalities involved and the insight and motives guiding the Indian revolutionary movement.

In these posts we shall try to give as much information as possible about each one of these revolutionary personalities and their revolutionary activities, who were connected with the Delhi Conspiracy to overthrow the British Rule in India. It is a debt we Indians owe to them and which is shamefully denied by the Indian official power that be.

Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh etc. : space denied in official history


How India gradually compromised its freedom by her unwise steps and ultimately in 1857 lost it to the British Empire completely, is a fairly established history that should still teach a lesson or two to modern free India. But, the history of how that country was catapult by the great sacrifices of revolutionaries within a short period of about 40 years (1910 to 1947) from a slave population to a belligerent national mass and compelled the British very soon to resign to their unpleasant fate of disbanding their Indian Empire in the face of such belligerency, albeit by designing a graceful exit, is not so fairly known.

Saga of these revolutionary sacrifices and their decisive historical contribution in making the British making their mind to go, is a missing chapter in the official history of Indian freedom struggle. The powerful Indian revolutionary forces had, almost as a singular and decisive factor, molded the belligerent mood of Indian people that made the British gauge the seriousness of the situation and make-up their mind to leave.

Since in the face of these glowing sacrifices by revolutionaries and their mesmerizing effect on public psyche, the legitimacy of the claim of official freedom-fighters to take the rein of new India into their hands was seriously compromised, dubiously the new regime by design did not concede any historical space to these unsung heroes of the country. The successful attempt of official free India to consign to the dustbin of history the Delhi Conspiracy and Lahore Conspiracy cases and their accused is a glaring testimony of this unfortunate attitude.

This series of the life sketches of the accused of Delhi Conspiracy (Chandra Shekhar Azad), Lahore Conspiracy (Bhagat Singh), Chitgong Armoury (Master Surya Sen), Azad Hind Fauz (Subhash Chandra Bose), Alipur (Sri Aurobindo) cases etc. is intended to correct this historical mistake of the official history of Indian freedom struggle. Heroes of these struggles had made much greater sacrifices in the national cause and had a much profound vision about a free India than those who usurped the reins of free India and distorted the history to appropriate this claim to themselves.

Unfortunately, most of the persons involved in these cases have already died leaving no trace of the turbulent times and their travails due to this official apathy to recognize their contribution and preserve its memory. With the passage of time, even the people who knew about these efforts made in the difficult hours of India are now not left in good numbers.

The persons who still survive and know about their activities may bring their memory to the public domain by contributing to these lines. This series really needs the unbiased collaborative work from all those, Indians and non-Indians, who may happen to have in their possession the relevant and credible information about Indian revolutionaries.

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