Unsung Heroes: Rudra Dutt Mishra


We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. We all owe a debt to all those who fought the British for the freedom of this country and made great sacrifices.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of make-believe political leaders – who took reins of the free India in their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cosy jails or in palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers.

We have a long, really a very long, list of such make-believe official ‘Freedom Fighters’ and the make-belive ‘heroes’ of this freedom struggle; but there is no mention of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for this country. In this regard, the Indian history needs to be corrected and the real and the fake freedom fighters need to be put in the places in Indian history where they actually belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and thus deprive them “the Jewel of their Empire”. They were pragmatic and knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others of the same elk had mesmerizing effect on the Indian people’s psyche; that if they were not pragmatic enough to hand over soon enough after the WW 2  the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and worked for the amicable settlement of the question of Indian independence, Indian people would rise in the foot-steps of these belligerent and ferocious revolutionaries. The imperialists were pragmatic and decided in their best interest to disband their empire in India.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish their heroic deeds. We are narrating here the life story of one such revolutionary. His name is Rudra Dutt Mishra.

Rudra Dutt Mishra was born into a wealthy family of the Alwar region. Mishra was known to be very bold and was never intimidated. He was always the one to voice his opinions. Mishra was a doctor by profession. It is said that one day he was asked by a notorious robber of the area to accompany him and treat one of his ill relatives. Being the bold man he was, Rudra Dutt consented. He was blindfolded and led to the hideout where he successfully treated the patient and then dined with the robber himself.

Rudra Dutt has been known to throw a shoe at a British judge at a court hearing.

On May 25, 1932, Rudra Dutt Misra, Dhanwantri, K B Gupta, B R Gupta, S H Vatsayana, Azad Vidyabhushan, Vaishampayan, Bhagirath Lal and Harkesh, the individuals who were the accused before the Delhi Conspiracy Commission, sent a petition from Old Viceregal Lodge, Delhi to the viceroy in his summer residence in Shimla, which is now a centre of advanced academic research.

The British government looked into the evidence produced by the prosecution before the Commission. The only evidence against the accused persons was the statements made by persons – mainly by Kailashpati and two others – who were revolutionaries of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association / Army (HSRA) but who had agreed to give evidence supporting the State case of conspiracy (called in legal language Approvers). There was no evidence of independent witnesses. The evidence of these co-accused (who were pardoned by the government on the condition of supporting the state case of conspiracy) was considered not enough. The conspiracy charge was finally dropped in February 1933 as untenable in view of this fact that there was not enough evidence to take it any further. Four of the accused were let off and the rest were to be tried individually ‘for severe overt acts’. Nothing more is known about this revolutionary. Help is needed to fill this gap.

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Unsung Heroes: Babu Ram Charan Singh


PART – 1:

We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. While we enjoy these powers, we always tend to forget that we all owe a debt to all those sons and daughters of mother India who fought the British for the freedom of this country and in return suffered great brutalities, pains and agonies at their hands, and even courted death willingly for the cause of their motherland.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of ‘make-believe’ freedom fighters – who later on took reins of the free India into their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cozy jails and palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers. None of them suffered even as little as a lathi blow on their head, while these great Indians – revolutionaries – suffered brutalities at the hands of the British and many of them went to gallows.

We have a long – really a very long – list of such ‘make-believe’ official freedom fighters and heroes of India’s freedom struggle.  But in this list – in the official history of Indian freedom struggle – there is no mention of the contribution of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for the sake of this country. In this regard, the history of Indian freedom struggle needs to be corrected for this flaw; and the true freedom fighters and the make-believe freedom fighters need to be assigned their ‘rightful’ respective places in the history of India’s freedom struggle, where they in fact and in honesty belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and deprive them of “the Jewel of their Empire”, which India was regarded by them.

The British rulers knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chapekar brothers, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Ras Bihari Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others like them had a mesmerizing effect on the mind and psyche of the Indian people. These rulers were well aware of the fact after they were weakened militarily and financially in the WW-2 that if they did not soon hand over the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and were in favor of an amicable settlement of the Indian independence issue, Indian people would rise in revolt against them and win their freedom, which they would not be able to stop with the use of their weakened military power.

The British knew that these revolutionaries had no faith in the Gandhian policy of non-violence and passive resistance in dealing with their rule of India. These revolutionaries were of the firm view that such tactics of passive resistance were mistakenly relying on the good moral sense of the British and vainly hoping the British to leave this country on their own under the moral pressure of  these Gandhian method of non-violence and non-cooperation. It is borne by the historical record and admitted by the British – post Indian independence – that it was only the rebellious impact of Subhash Chandra Bose and his Azad Hind Fauz on the mind of the Indian people that made them (the British) decide to leave India in 1947; when asked of the impact that Gandhi made on their decision to leave India, the British Prime Minister Attlee spoke in a slow tone to emphasize the meaning of his words: Mi ni mal !

The British did not have the slightest doubt in their mind that these teeming Indians – who numbered into crores -would rise in armed revolt against them; that they would follow in the foot-steps of revolutionaries; that these ferocious revolutionaries and their millions of followers did not believe in non-violence like Gandhi; that the British – who were running the imperial administration in India – would suffer a bloodbath at the hands of these violent Indians, in the worse way than they had in 1857.

The British imperialists were pragmatic. They decided at the end of World War 2 to disband their empire in India, hand India over to those who favored reconciliation with them (the British) and leave this country in the hands of those who were their friends in their best interest. The British were mortally afraid of the Subhash Bose’s Indian National Army, better known as ‘Azad Hind Fauz’. They had a foreboding of coming events in India in the Imperial Navy’s mutiny in Bombay and passionate national stirrings against the trial of Azad Hind Fauz’s soldiers.

The credit for creating circumstances that forced the British to take the decision to leave India goes to Indian revolutionaries in the major part. This claim is based on an objective analysis of these hard facts: firstly, the British imperialists were pragmatic people; secondly, India was indeed a ‘Jewel in the Imperial Crown’, which they were not willing to forgo; thirdly, in the World War Two the British were devastated militarily and financially; fourthly, revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Subhash Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad etc. were more loved and cherished by Indians than Gandhi and Nehru etc.; fifthly, there was mutiny in imperial navy in Bombay against the British; sixth, there was national resentment against the British for putting the Azad Hind Fauz’s soldiers on trial; seventh, Attlee – the British Prime Minister – himself admitted that in taking their decision to leave India Mahatma Gandhi had the ‘minimal’ effect and Subhash Bose’s factor had been a major consideration. The tall claims of the Gandhian pacifists that India won freedom by waging a non-violent struggle fly in the face of these hard facts.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish the memory of their heroic deeds. We are narrating here the life stories of some of them. One of such revolutionaries participating in Chandra Skher Azad’s Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was Babu Ram Charan Singh.

PART – 2:

Chandra Shekhar Azad had always carried with him a Mouser pistol to face any exigencies in his revolutionary work. As a tocken of his confidence, Chandra Shekhar Azad had given to Babu Ram Charan his personal Mouser pistol for the use in revolutionary work. Unfortunately, this pistol  given to Babu Ram Charan was prone to misfire at times. This defective pistol became a cause of trouble for Babu Ram Charan leading to his arrest and trial.

At one occasion when he was engaged in a revolutionary mission, he was accidently got injured in the palm of his hand by this pistol. His injury was being treated by one Bal Kishon, who was a co-revolutionary and a medical compounder by profession.

After the blowing up of the Vice Roy train, the British Government got the wind of a big conspiracy being hatched by the revolutionaries. The police in Delhi (and other parts of India) was at its job with full might snuffing at any available clue to the revolutionary activities.

To the British, these activities were sedition against their established rule. The following details about Babu Ram Charan Singh have been compiled from the official and certified copy of the “Proceedings of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission.” One such copy is in possession of this author and some others may perhaps be found in the British archieves. In this respect, post independence the Nehru / Congress government did nothing to preserve the memory of Indian revolutionaries; in fact, this government detested all revolutionaries, just to appropriate to itself the credit of getting India free from the British yoke.

At the end of October 1930, at about 7 A. M. when Bal Kishon was going from the house of Babu Ram Charan Singh after applying a dressing to his injury to his hand to Dr. H. Sen’s clinic,  a police constable stopped him on the way at a shop near Chawari Bazar close to the lane which leads to the Arya Samaj temple and went away after speaking something with him.

The next day, Sardar Karam Singh, a C.I.D. man, came to Dr. H. Sen’s shop, where Bal Kishon (son of Ramji Lal Sharma resident of village Khaira Meerut district) was working as a Compounder and called him out of the clinic. Sardar Karam Singh told him that he was wanted by the police for some thing.

Bal Kishon requested the constable to let him go inside the shop of Dr. H. Sen and arrest him there if necessary but the constable made him sit in the bazaar. Then, a sub-Inspector and several constables arrived there and told him to come with them. They asked him where his house was. Bal Kishon replied that he had no house of his own and was staying with Babu Ram Charan Singh in his house.

The police told him to take them to the house of Babu Ram Charan Singh and thereupon he took them to that house. On arriving there, the police searched the house but Ram Charan Singh was not found there. Bal Kishon was under watch not only by the police but also by the revolutionaries. Police’s interest in him was being watched by the co-revolutionaries and it was not safe to attempt to meet him. Bal Kishon was taken to the Kotwali and arrested.

Thus came Babu Ram Charan Singh to the notice of the police for the first time and his troubles began from then on.

Compounder Bal Kishan was arrested by the police near the clinic of Dr Sen and on coming to know of his arrest, Babu Ram Charan sensed his impending troubles and immediately left the house where he was staying. He met with other co-revolutionaries and informed them of this development. Immediately he was shifted to another safe-house of the organization. There were many safe-houses or hiding places rented by revolutionaries in Delhi through innocuously looking tenants, which were in fact revolutionaries or the sympathizers of the revolutionary organization. Some of these places were in the Hostel of Hindu College, Lachchmandas Dharamshala, Chawari Bazar, Sharma’s Farm House, Matia Mahal etc.

In Matia Mahal area safe-house, which was rented by the revolutionaries, four or five revolutionaries were already staying there. It was a secret place, away from the gaze of general public and on the upper story of a house. Babu Ram Charan Singh was shifted to that house. However, when the British police and its intelligence wing were highly active because of the Vice Roy’s train bomb-explosion, this safe-house was also not safe enough from the preying eyes of the foreign rulers police.

Soon thereafter that house in Matia Mahal where injured Ram Charan Singh was staying too was raided by the police in the mid-night hours.

The house was surrounded by the police from all sides in the best possible way; all exit points of the house were guarded by the police and one of the police detachments started climbing up the stair-case to the upper floor of that house.

The revolutionaries staying in the upper story of the house were not sleeping in the care-free way; they were fully alert to the possible impending danger, as if they were already waiting for this moment to happen. One thing that we all should always keep in our mind today, today when we are enjoying the pleasures of a free and independent India, is that all these revolutionaries were aged less than 24 or 25 years. What an irony of fate! They were youngsters in body but matured in mind, playing with fire and death but without any expectation of worldly reward except the freedom of this country – their motherland; mindless of the danger to their life, family and welfare but mindful of their duty towards the pains, sufferings, ignominy of their motherland called India!!

They immediately knew that the police was at their door-step and took no time to decide their next action i.e., fleeing away from the house.

But it was a three storied building and the only exit from the house was by climbing down the stair-case, which was now being used by the police to climb up. It was a dangerous moment for the revolutionaries and there was no time left now to think to devise some way out of the danger.

They all immediately took a desperate decision – to jump from the house down to the ground. Fortunately for them, on the second story of the house there was a projection (called Chhajja) to save them from directly falling to the ground from a height.

They all, one by one, jumped down from the third story of the house to that projection on the second story and, then from that place, jumped to the ground in the street. After landing on the ground, they all started running away in different directions.

Finding that their prey were about to escape before their own eyes, the police stationed on the ground guarding the house immediately raised an alarm and ran in hot pursuit of the fleeing revolutionaries.

Babu Ram Charan Singh was being chased by several constables; while running after him, these police-men raised alarm saying, “Daku, Daku, Pakado, Daku” (catch hold of them, they are dacoits).

On alarm being raised by the policemen, several ordinary people living in the neighborhood also joined in the chase and overtook the policemen in speed coming very close to Ram Charn Singh.

Realizing that he was about to be caught by these fellow compatriots, Babu Ram Charan said in a commanding voice, “Khabardar, Ham Krantikari Hain (Don’t touch us, we are revolutionaries!)”

The pursuers at once gave way to allow him to escape, slowed down themselves in speed, pretended as if they did their best to grab the fleeing criminal, looked back to the police-men following them who were left far behind them, as if to show them the uselessness of their chase and to discourage them, and stopped their chase. Thus, Babu Ram Charan Singh made good his escape from the police.

After escaping from the police encirclement, while still injured in his left hand palm, he reached his native village Barkali to take shelter in the safety of his native place. However, the police already had several revolutionaries in their dragnet and from them had extracted under torture the necessary information about his native place. Armed with this information, the police reached Babu Ram Charan Singh’s village. He was found there, arrested and taken away.

Initially, he was not produced before a judicial magistrate. He was kept in police custody for long and severally tortured by them to get information about his revolutionary activities and particulars of his fellow revolutionaries. He pretended innocence and denied any wrong doing. This was the standard technique of the revolutionaries in those days, which invited more torture at the hands of the police.

On being questioned of the cause of the injuries in his hand, he offered a simpleton native explanation. He said he was an ordinary village boy landing a helping hand to his family occupation of agriculture and, while tethering his domestic oxen, the oxen pierced its horn into his left hand palm.

The police was not convinced of this explanation.

When he did not succumb to the police pressure, he was produced before a judicial magistrate at Meerut. The magistrate directed that he be medically examined of his hand injuries. The district civil surgeon, an Englishman, examined him and prepared a medical report of his injuries. This medical report stated that the accused had one injury on the palm of his left hand; that the injury was caused by some piercing object like bullet.

Though the accused was arrested from a place in Meerut, was produced before a judicial magistrate there and medically examined by the civil surgeon of that place, he was an accused of the conspiracy in Delhi to throw the lawfully established British government of India by violence, that is, an accused in a sedition case in Delhi.

So he was directed by the Meerut judicial magistrate to be taken by the Delhi police to stand his trial there.

The police in Delhi was obsessed with the revolutionary activities and bomb explosions in Delhi,  and wanted to frame Babu Ram Charan Singh in these bomb explosion incidents.

On reaching Delhi, Babu Ram Charan Singh was produced before a judicial magistrate, who directed to get him medically examined. He was examined by the civil surgeon in Delhi and again a medical report of his injury was prepared. This time the report stated that the injury was caused by some explosion like a bomb.

After his medical examination, he was given by the court in remand to police custody for questioning. Once in their custody, the police in Delhi questioned him about his activities.

He again pretended innocence of any revolutionary activity. On being questioned the cause of the injury in his hand, he once again repeated the same native explanation that he was an ordinary villager, who while tethering his domestic oxen, was pierced by oxen with its horn in his hand palm. The police again was not convinced of this simple explanation.

To break his spirit and to spill the beans of his revolutionary activities, police applied all tricks of the trade on him. He was threatened that he would be implicated in the seditious revolutionary activities, which may even involve his whole family; and he may be sent to gallows for these crimes; as an alternative to save himself and his family, he was offered to be let off accepting his explanation, provided he truthfully revealed his revolutionary activities and activities of his fellow revolutionaries. But the trick did not work with him and he remained steadfast in his version of the story of the injury.

The police finding him non-cooperative and not forthcoming in revealing the revolutionary activities carried out by him and his fellow activists, resorted to the last weapon in their arsenal, i.e. torture.

While questioning him in custody, he was routinely forced by the police to lie down naked on ice-slabs for hours together. He was badly beaten and denied food for days together; and, then was given unwholesome food to eat.

To force him to reveal the secret activities of revolutionaries, the police applied for and got several remand extensions from the court, and every time he was tortured in police custody. This treatment broke his health and he developed dysentery.

This ailment though was successfully treated later on when he was sent to jail as under trial prisoner by a kind English jail doctor, ultimately resurfaced again in his old age and became the cause of his untimely death in 1976.

Broken in his health but not in spirit, he was sent in judicial custody to jail as under trial prisoner to stand trial on the charge of sedition. He remained in jail as under trial prisoner for about two years, without the grant of bail.

During the trial, the prosecution’s case was that he had been participating in the seditious (read: revolutionary) activities (with other accused persons who were being tried independently in separate trials in different courts); these activities were aimed at overthrowing the government by the use of force; to achieving this objective of overthrowing the government by force, he was making bombs and exploding them.

In support of this version, the government/prosecution relied, in addition to some police witnesses, chiefly on the medical report of the civil surgeon in Delhi.

It was averred by the prosecution that the injury to the accused was caused by the explosion of a bomb.   To prove its case, the prosecution relied on the medical report of the Delhi civil surgeon  which had stated that the injury was caused by an explosion like a bomb. The concerned civil surgeon was called as a witness in the court and examined by the prosecution.

In his examination-in-chief (main examination) the civil surgeon stood by the correctness of his report. Then, he was cross-examined (confronted with his statements by asking questions) by the defense counsel.

These questions and answers were the masterpiece of legal oratory. The questions by the defense and answers by the doctor went like this:

Q – You say that the injury of the accused was caused by a bomb explosion.

A – Yes.

Q – Could it be caused by a bullet?

A – No.

Q – Are you absolutely certain that it was caused by a bomb explosion and not by bullet?

A – Yes, absolutely certain.

Q – How can you be so certain?

A – A bullet fired from a weapon would pierce through and through across the palm. But a bomb explosion would not so pierce through and through, as is the case with the injury of the accused.

Q – How can you say that the wound of the accused was not through and through across the palm?

A – I put a wire into the wound and tried to pass it through, which it did not.

This pointed question by the defense and the pointed answer by the civil surgeon ended his cross-examination.

To rebut the prosecution case of a bomb explosion, the defense submitted the medical report of the civil surgeon of Meerut and summoned him as a witness in the court to prove his report.

In his examination-in-chief, he stood by his report that the injury of the accused was caused by a bullet. He was cross-examined by the prosecution about his report. It went like this:

Q – Could the injury of the accused be caused by a bomb explosion?

A – No.

Q – You say that the accused injury was caused by a bullet.

A – Yes.

Q – How can you say so?

A – To make sure of the nature of the injury, I put a wire into the accused wound and it passed through it.

This answer by a government civil surgeon completely demolished the prosecution case of the seditious activities of the accused by exploding bomb and saved Babu Ram Charan Singh.

He was acquitted of the charge. Although he had already suffered a tremendous amount of torture and had remained in jail.

To the great disquieting and discomfiture of the government, this unwanted outcome of his trial was caused by two factors: firstly, the over-enthusiasm of the prosecution to somehow prove that the accused was indulging in bomb-making activities of the revolutionaries to overthrow the government by force; and secondly, the credit to civil surgeon of Meerut for sticking to the truth of bullet injury.

In fact, the wound was caused by a bullet.

Babu Ram Charan Singh, though acquitted of the charge by the trial court, suffered great brutalities at the hands of British government and remained in jail as under trial prisoner.

After his acquittal in this case, he was given two mouser pistols as reward by his HSRA revolutionary friends, who were still active after the death of Chandra Shekhar azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and many other prominent leaders. These weapons were kept by him concealed in a ‘cavity’ specially made for this purpose in a wooden ‘Pata’ – field leveller used in agriculture – and to be used in revolutionary struggle against the British rule. He carried on his revolutionary activities thereafter for some time but death of so many revolutionary leaders made him dejected.

PART-3:

Babu Ram Charan Singh was the resident of village Barkali, Tehsil Sardhana, district Meerut in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). He was the only son of Gajraj Singh (alias Umrao), by caste a Jat. His was an agriculturist family having a considerable Zamindari in Barkali.

Around 1928, while studying at Sardhana, he came into contact with his fellow villager Bhagirath Lal, who was a revolutionary activist of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. A Brahmin by caste, Bhagirath Lal was then studying in Delhi and staying along with his younger brother Aman – aged about 12 years – in Lachhman Das Dhramshala at Nigambodh Ghat on the bank of river Yamuna.

While still a young boy studying in middle school, Babu Ram Charan got involved himself in the revolutionary activities of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He was supplied revolutionary literature by his mentor Bhagirath Lal, which included “The Life of Jatindra Nath Das”, “Desh-Ki-Bat” (Let’s talk about the nation), “Nav Yuvakon se do baten” (A few words to youths), “Amar Puri: by Kishan Dutt Paliwal”, “Azadi ke Diwane”, “Mulki Maya”, “Bandi Jiwan” (Slave Life) etc.

Greatly influenced by such literature and the stories of revolutionary heroes like Chandra Shekhar Azad etc., and inspired by the revolutionary zeal of Bhagirath Lal, Babu Ram Charan left in 1928 his school in Sardhana to participate in the revolutionary activities of HSRA.

He came to Delhi. He was then a middle class student and of about 17 years. As he hailed from a zamindar family, he was habituated to live a life of luxury and in his school was nicknamed ‘Jahangir’ because of his easy way of life (after the name of a Mughal king famous for his extravagant way of life).

By joining the revolutionary activities of HSRA, he voluntarily chose a life full of pains and sacrifices for the sake of his motherland. In Delhi he lived in a house in Sirkiwalan. The avowed aim of HSRA was to awaken and unite people, particularly youth, to make India free of the British rule by the revolutionary force.

To pass on in the preying eyes of the area residents as an innocent civilian engaged in legitimate occupation to earn his livelihood, he joined as a Store Keeper at the ‘Brooke Bond Company’.

This job was only for the namesake, was arranged by a party sympathiser there and was not supposed to go there and work as store keeper. In reality, he was carrying on revolutionary activities of HSRA led by Chandra Shekhar Azad.

He started working in Delhi at ‘Himalyan Toilets’ company – a manufacturing facility bearing such an innocuous name. ‘Himalyan Toilets’ in fact manufactured bombs and bomb-making materials, like picric acid, sulfuric acid and poisonous gas. Babu Ram Charan, in addition to working there, was engaged in distributing revolutionary propaganda literature, books and pamphlets etc.

Babu Ram Charan was very close to Bhagirath Lal and Bhagirath Lal was in the inner close circle of Chandra Shekhar Azad, and because of this proximity Babu Ram Charan came into close contact of Azad earning his full confidence.

In Delhi Babu Ram Charan was engaged in revolutionary activities, like opening bomb-shell factory, deliberating to rescue Bhagat Singh, buying arms, buying cyclostyle machines to print party pamphlets, organizing provincial committees of HSRA etc.

Once he, along with his another revolutionary friend, was going somewhere in Meerut, a city in United Provinces. They both were riding on a bicycle and it was the night time. The bicycle had a pump on it, which used to be there on bicycles in those times for inflating the tubes of bicycle wheels in case of necessity. In those days, it was necessary for bicycles to be equipped with a lamp powered by a dynamo for lighting in the night. But these revolutionaries were riding two persons on a single bicycle and the light of the vehicle too was not put on.

Near Begum Bridge area, a British policeman riding on a horse beckoned them to stop. On stopping the bicycle, the policeman arrogantly asked them why they were riding two on a single bicycle and why there was no light on in the vehicle. They knew that it was their mistake but they felt very bad on the arrogant tone of the policeman. Before they could say anything in response to the policeman, the policeman got down from his horse and deflated the tubes of the wheels of their vehicle. They got enraged of his arrogant behavior. While the policeman was kneeling down busy in deflating the tubes, these revolutionaries took the pump out of their bicycle and struck him with this weapon. The policeman groaning in pain, raised an alarm suspecting them to be revolutionaries. Both of them leaving behind their cycle escaped unmolested by the British power.

It was the courage of revolutionaries in those days of the British power when Indians, by and large, used to remain afraid of police; they normally used to avoid facing even a constable, let alone confronting him.

These were the times of the Soviet communist power in the world and the remaining HSRA revolutionaries in India, including Yaspal, after the mytrdom of Bhagat Singh, Chandra Sekhar Azad etc.  slowly drifted towards communism and communist party of India.

After India got freedom, the government of Uttar Pradesh somehow got to know his struggle and sacrifices as a revolutionary and the District Magistrate addressed a letter to him of the government decision to allot him 12 Acres of agricultural land in Gadarpur Tehsil in District Uddham Singh Nagar (then in U. P.). On receiving letter, he went to the District Magistrate and said to him, “We had not fought the British to get a reward. My conscience does not allow me accept any reward.” He declined to take the offered land. He used to wear Khadi cloths through out his life and, when asked for the reason for being so steadfast in sticking to Khadi cloths, he said, “While I was in Jail, I had taken a vow to always wear Khadi cloths. I cannot break my vow.”

Babu Ram Charan was a self-made person with great appetite for reading. He read the classics of Marxism, like Anti-Dhuring, Das Capital, Communist Menifesto, Dialectic of Nature etc. He started thinking on deeper questions of Nature and its mysteries.

Fortunately at that time he got possession of a book by Sri Aurobindo “Glimpses of Thoughts and Aphorism”, which changed his life forever. He found answer to all his questions in Sri Aurobindo. He was now a spiritual person. He plunged himself deep into the practice of Yoga. He became an accomplished Yogi in his own way and he remained so till his death.

He had a premonition of his approaching death and one day at the beginning of July, 1976 he told his relatives that he was taking their leave forever.

He told his family his death had come and no treatment was possible. Even at his death bed, while still in possession of his consciousness and aware of his coming end, he bid all his dear family members to leave him absolutely alone so that he may prepare himself for his journey to the next world in all joy.

And, thus a revolutionary departed with grace from this world.

Unsung Heroes: Bimal Prasad Jain


We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. We all owe a debt to all those who fought the British for the freedom of this country and made   great sacrifices.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of make-believe political leaders – who took reins of the free India in their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cosy jails or in palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers.

We have a long, really a very long, list of such make-believe official ‘Freedom Fighters’ and the make-belive ‘heroes’ of this freedom struggle; but there is no mention of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for this country. In this regard, the Indian history needs to be corrected and the real and the fake freedom fighters need to be put in the places in Indian history where they actually belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and thus deprive them “the Jewel of their Empire”. They were pragmatic and knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others of the same elk had mesmerizing effect on the Indian people’s psyche; that if they were not pragmatic enough to hand over soon enough after the WW 2  the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and worked for the amicable settlement of the question of Indian independence, Indian people would rise in the foot-steps of these belligerent and ferocious revolutionaries. The imperialists were pragmatic and decided in their best interest to disband their empire in India and hand over its reins to the votaries of amicable settlement of the issue of Indian independence.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish their heroic deeds. We are narrating here the life story of one such revolutionary. His name is Bimal Persad Jain.

Bhimal Persad Jain (also spelled Bimal Persad Jain in the Proceedings of Delhi Conspiracy Commission) was one of many prominent revolutionaries close to Chandra Shekhar Azad, the Commander-in-Chief of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).  He was arrested by the British police for participating in the blowing up the train of Lord Irwin, which was allegedly done by the accused persons / revolutionaries in a conspiracy to overthrow the British government by the use of violent / revolutionary means. He was one of the accused persons put on trial before the Delhi Conspiracy Commission.

Persons who had appeared as accused on the very first day of the opening of the trial before the Commission on 31st day of May, 1931 were: N. K. Nigam; B. R. Gupta; Rudra Dutt Mishra; Bhagirath Lal; Hardwari Lal Gupta; K. R. Gupta; Harkesh Singh; Gajanand Potdar; Kapur Chand. This Commission was manned by L. S. White, President; Kanwar Sain, Member; and Amir Ali, Member. The name of the lawyer who was appearing for the British government was Zaffarullah Khan, Bar-at-Law, along with Khan Sahib Mohamed Amin and Sardar Bhag Singh, Court Inspector. The names of the lawyers who appeared for the accused persons from time to time were: Asaf Ali, Bar-at-Law along with B. Banerji, Ansari, Baljit Singh, Bose. The evidence given before the Commission disclosed that the accused persons, along with many other revolutionaries who were not accused before the Commission (who were later on arrested, tortured and put in prisons), were running a bomb factory in the name of ‘Himalayan Toilets’ ( a smokescreen to hide the real work of bomb-making) at Qutub Road, Delhi.  It was found by evidence that not only Bimal Prashad Jain but also his wife Smt. Roopvati Jain, their co-revolutionaries Ageya, Durga Bhabhi, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Yashpal and many more persons were working to manufacture ingredients for making bombs, like Picric Acid, nitroglycerine and fulminate of Mercury. After the Delhi Conspiracy Commission was disbanded, Bimal Prasad was put on separate trial, convicted and sentenced to seven and half years’ rigorous imprisonment for his revolutionary activities.

Bimal Prasad had arranged entry-passes for Bhagat Singh to enable him and his co-revolutionaries to enter the assembly where they threw bombs, a symbolic gesture which they famously said was ‘to open the ears of the deaf British’. After the blast, Bimal Prasad handed over a press release to Hindustan Times newspaper about the necessity of blasting the bombs by the revolutionaries and before the newspaper staff could comprehend the contents of this press release he ran away from the newspaper office.

Bimal Prasad Jain was of the view that it was Yashpal (who later became a communist) who was responsible for the death of Bhagwati Charan Vohra, which he thought was done by Yashpal by sabotaging a bomb that was being tested by Bhagwati Charan Vohra. The reason for this suspecian was that Yashpal was having an improper relations with the wife of Bhagwati Charan Vohra. (later on, Yaspal married the widow of Bhagwati Charan Vohra). In HSRA the character of a revolutionary was considered of the highest value and particularly it was so in the matter of sex. This matter of the crime of sexual overtures of Yashpal towards the wife of another revolutionary was discussed under the leadership of Chandra Shekhar Azad in the Qudsia Bagh. It was decided in the meeting that Yashpal be punished by shooting and killing him. But by then, Yashpal had left Delhi for Lahore, which was his native place of influence. A team of revolutionaries was sent to chase him in Lahore and kill him. On reaching Lahore, Yaspal spread a word among his followers there that the decision to kill him was taken without hearing him. Due to this strategy adopted by him, there was a dissention among revolutionaries and he could not be killed as the party had decided. In saving the life of Yashpal there was some help from Kailashpati, who had not given permission to shoot Yashpal. The team that was assigned the task to shoot Yashpal had a number of persons (perhaps including Bimal Prasad Jain). Kailashpati  later had become an approver for the British State and had disclosed the names of revolutionaries of HSRA.

A biography of Bimal (or Vimal) Prasad Jain was written by his wife Smt. Roopvati Jain, which was released by the then President of India Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma. This book includes in its contents the revolutionary ideology of HSRA, which was declared by the organization in the pamphlet titled ‘The Philosophy of the Bomb’ distributed just after the blowing-up of the Vice Roy’s train in Delhi.

Bimal Prasad would have been hanged for being involved in the revolutionary activities but for a Valmiki lady named Asharfi Devi who refused to give details to the British police about the contents of the waste-materials coming out of the Bomb Factory, which details she refused to give to the police when she was told by some revolutionaries that if she told the truth to the police many of the youngsters working in the bomb factory would be convicted and hanged.

When this revolutionary’s real story was told to the former Delhi Chief Minister Sahib Singh Verma, he opened a school on Qutub Road in the name of ‘Asharfi Devi’.

 

Unsung heoros: Names


Let us put the history straight. Very few persons of our young generation know that there was an intense, violent and do-or-die revolutionary struggle – much before Mahatma Gandhi came on the political scene and during his non-violent Civil Disobedience and Non-Cooperation movement – against the British rule to free India. The persons carrying out these revolutionary activities were then the darlings of the Indian masses. This revolutionary movement was sought to be suppressed by the British by constituting various commissions. One such commission was Delhi Conspiracy Commission. It was constituted to put a group of revolutionaries on trial and punish them for their armed activities to free India (which was termed a conspiracy by these persons to overthrow the legitimate – British – government by violent means).

On perusal of the voluminous “Proceedings of Delhi Conspiracy Commission” it is revealed that in addition to the accused tried by the Commission, there were a large number of persons who had actively participated in the Indian revolutionary movement of “Hindustan Socialist Republican Association”, which was headed by its Commander-in-Chief Chandra Shekhar Azad. The armed actions were carried out by this revolutionary organization under the name of “Hindustan Socialist Republican Army”.

The names of these revolutionaries were disclosed by the approvers/prosecution witnesses in their statements made before the Commission. Today nobody knows their names but they were the true sons of their motherland who had risked their lives for the liberation of this country.

Upon the disclosure of their revolutionary activities by the government witnesses / approvers before the Commission, most of these revolutionaries were arrested (during the currency of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission and after its disbanding) by the British police, brutally tortured and sent to jails. Even in the jails, they were tortured. During these brutalities, their life was made hell, which is testified by their statements, memoirs and writings after their release from prisons during the British period and after the independence.

Sadly for this country, their names or sacrifices do not find mention anywhere in the Indian “official” history of freedom struggle. We are giving here the names (along with their Party names, which was done to conceal their real identity from the British police) of all these revolutionaries, which have been compiled from the Commission’s Proceedings.

We appeal to all those persons, Indians and foreigners both, who have information about these revolutionaries to come forth to provide the details of their lives, struggle and sufferings so that the same may be recorded on this website for the knowledge of our young generation and for the posterity.

  1. Chandra Shekhar Azad – Azad; Panditji; Mahasheji; Gupta; Ram Narain Gupta; Bhai Saheb: Public is requested to share more information about him for setting the history right and for the knowledge of our posterity.
  2. Bhagwati Charan Vohra –  Harish; Arjun: Public is requested to share more information about him (and others) for setting the history right and for the knowledge of our posterity.
  3. Yashpal – Jagdish; Pran; Sohan Singh;
  4. Vidya Bhushan – Ramesh;
  5. Bir Badar Tiwari – Bhaiya;
  6. Satgur Dayal Avasthi – Kapur;
  7. Dhanwantri – Dhani; Prem;
  8. Sampuran Singh Tandan – Asaf;
  9. Sukhdev Raj – Siraj;
  10. Sada Shiv Gajanand Potdar – P;
  11. Sada Shiv – Sakha Ram;
  12. Bisheshar Nath – Lieutenant;
  13. Nand Kishore Nigam – Saheb;
  14. Kashi Ram – Jagdish;
  15. Bhawani Singh – Ranbir Singh;
  16. Bhawani Sahai – Ram Pershad;
  17. Hazari Lall – Sri Kishen; Tara; Pandey; Ramu;
  18. Bhagirath – Chunchul;
  19. Kapur Chand – Hari Ram;
  20. Girwar Singh – Ganga Ram;
  21. Bhimal Pershad Jain – Jain; Shanker; Balam;
  22. Harkesh – Master;
  23. Chhail Behari – Suraj; Master;
  24. Vaishampayan – Shiv; Bachhan;
  25. D. V. Tailang-Munnd;
  26. Kailashpati – Raj Bali Pershad; Raghu Nath Pershad; Kali Charan; Sital; Daya Krishen; Kalyan;
  27. Ram Lall – Bhoot;
  28. Bishamber Dayal – Bhagwati; Bhai Saheb;
  29. Babu Ram Gupta – Babu;
  30. Khayali Ram Gupta – Chatterbox; Gupta;
  31. Madan Gopal – Kabal; Munshi;
  32. Keshub Chand – Bhoot Nath;
  33. Rudra Dutt Mishra – Kailash;
  34. Ram Chandra Bapat – Kapi;
  35. Lekh Ram – Jat;
  36. Durga Devi – Bhabi;
  37. R. C. Sharma – Sharma;
  38. Parkasho – Sarla;
  39. Sada Shiv Rao Mulkapurkar – Sakharan;
  40. Bhagwan Das – Kailash;
  41. Shanker Rae – Double Rote;
  42. M.P. Avasthi – Khanjar;
  43. Kailashpati Asthana s/o Hirdat Narain r/o village Muftigunj district Jaunpore; real home in Azamgarh (party name: Raj Bali Parshad; Raghu Nath Pershad;Daya Kishan Shrivastava, B.A.; Kamta Parshad at Ajmer; Sital)
  44. Shailendranath Chakravarti
  45. Bijoy Kumar Sinha
  46. Manohar Lall (Punjabi)
  47. Muneshar Prashad Awasthi (Swadesh Press, Gorakhpur)
  48. Haldhar Bajpai (Cawnpore)
  49. Surendranath Pandey (Cawnpore)
  50. Sheo Verma
  51. Sukh Deo Raj (party name: villager)
  52. Mahabir Singh (party name: Pratap)
  53. Bhagat Singh
  54. Yashpal (Machchi Hatta opposite Onkar Electric Works, Lahore)
  55. Gaya Parshad
  56. Kundan Lal (Rajputana)
  57. Phanindar Nath Ghosh (Bihar/Orissa)
  58. Master Ram Sharan Das (Lahore)
  59. Jai Gopal
  60. Raj Guru
  61. Kishori Lal
  62. Hans Raj Vohra
  63. Jaideo Kapoor
  64. Kashi Ram
  65. Nand Kishore Nigam (professor at Hindu College; Superintendent of Hindu Hostel)
  66. Bhimal Pershad Jain (son of Benarsi resident of village Sissana district Meerut, living in Khari Baoli, Delhi) ( party name:  Balam)
  67. Bawani Sahai (party name: Ram Pershad)
  68. Bhawani Singh (Ramjas High School 10th class in 1928)
  69. Narain Das (Shivpuri)
  70. Gopal Kishen Puranik
  71. Gopal Rao Bharve (Lashkar)
  72. Sita Ram Sheore (Ganesh Mandar Jhansi)
  73. Ashraf (formerly in C.I.D.)
  74. Bhagwan Das
  75. Gajanand Sada Shiv Potdar
  76. Vishwanath Rao Vaishampayan
  77. Sada Shiv Rao Mulkarpurakar
  78. D. V. Tailang
  79. Bhagirath (resident of village Barkali District Meerut, United Provinces; party name: Chunchal)
  80. Shankar Rao (brother of Sada Shiv Rao Mulkarpurakar) (party name: Double Rote)
  81. Bhagwati Charan Vohra c/o Rup Chand Sharma, Sharma Brothers, Chauk, Gwalmandi, Lahore (party name: Arjun)
  82. Ram Singh (Mulgunj near Church, Cawnpore)
  83. Bir Bahadur Tiwari
  84. Satgur Dayal Avasthi
  85. Bishambar Dayal
  86. Hazari Lal (of Patna, based in Delhi)
  87. Harendra Nath Mozumdar (Bengal)
  88. Gopi Nath Mitra
  89. Pratul Ganguli (Bengal)
  90. Arjun Lal Sethi (Ajmer)
  91. Keshab Chand Gupta (Ajmer)
  92. Ram Chandra Sharma (Nalgarha)
  93. Brahmanand
  94. Dr. Amar Singh (working for Delhi Air Force)
  95. Champa Lal Joti Pershad (of Asli Ghee Store, Khari Baoli)
  96. Khiali Ram Gupta
  97. Babu Ram Gupta
  98. Hamid (compounder at Civil Hospital, Cawnpore)
  99. Vashishtha (of Sewa Dal, Benares)
  100. Prem Duut (of Delhi Shudhi Sabha)
  101. Shridhar Sharma (Ajmer)
  102. Ram Chand Bapat (Ajmer)
  103. Daya Shankar Shukla (of Naryal Bazar, Cawnpore)
  104. Mst. Prakasho
  105. Khayali Ram Gupta (resident of Cloth Market, Delhi and shop in Ballimaran)
  106. Deo Brt (student of Maharaja college, Jaipur)
  107. Kailash (Jaipur)
  108. Girdhar Lal (Jaipur)
  109. Master Chhail Behari
  110. Master Raj Bali Singh (student of Commercial High School Delhi)
  111. Bhagwan Das
  112. Hardwari Lal (worked as tailor at Egerton Road and lived in Bazar Sita Ram)
  113. Hazari Lal
  114. Rudra Dutt Mishra
  115. Krishna Kumar (student in St. Stephens College, Kashmere Gate)
  116. Durga Devi (wife of Bhagwati Charan Vohra)
  117. Shridhar Sharma (resident of Jaori Bazar, Jaipur, wherein house Bhagat Singh etc. after rescue were to be sheltered. His father had a shop ‘Druggist Hall’ in the Jaori Bazar)
  118. Ramesh (c/o Matsaddi Lal, Malakpur district Muzaffarnagar, United Provinces)
  119. Ram Lal (of Saugar, Central Province of Saugor, formerly in C.I.D.)
  120. Sampuran Singh Tandan (party name: Asaf)
  121. Bal Krishan (compounder at Universal Drug Stores, Delhi)
  122. Babu Ram Charan – Ram Charan Singh: Store Keeper; (worked as Store Keeper in Brooke Bond; resident of village Barkali District Meerut, United Provinces)
  123. Babu Ram Gupta
  124. Dhanwantri (party name: Prem)
  125. Girwar Singh
  126. Lekh Ram
  127. Vidya Bhushan
  128. Harkesh (worked as Master in Municipal Board School, Delhi and house in Khajurwali Gali)
  129. Bijay (absconding, cloths found in Bhawalpur House, Lahore)
  130. Badshah Gul (North Frontiers)
  131. Pandit Daulat Ram (Professor at Lahore and living at Court Road, Srinagar, Kashmere)
  132. Vatsayan (party name: scientist)
  133. Bisheshar Nath
  134. Girdhar Lal Purohit
  135. Hem Chand
  136. Raje Lal
  137. Balbhadar (of Patkapur, Cawnpore)
  138. Didi (of Punjab and adopted sister of Bhagwati Charan Vohra)
  139. B.K. Dutt (of Howrah)
  140. Keshab Chand Gupta (of J.P. Bhagarhatta, Ajmere)
  141. Madan Gopal (party name: kewal)
  142. Kashi Ram (party name: Jagdish)
  143. Durga Devi (her son Hari)
  144. Inderpal
  145. Rama Krishna and sons, Lahore
  146. Master Chhuttan Lal (of Ajmere)
  147. Sham Lal (of Ajmere, employed in Loco. Workshop)
  148. Bal Krishan (compounder with Dr. Sen)
  149. Master Bhagwat Dayal Sharma (of Anand Parbat, Delhi)
  150. Brahma Nand
  151. Jai Dev Kapur
  152. Hirendra Nath Mozamdar
  153. Gopal Kishen Puranik (of Shivpuri Bazar, Gandhian)
  154. Hari Shanker (of Gwalior)
  155. Ram Gopal Gupta (of Gwalior)
  156. Hirde (professor of Hindi in Victoria College, Gwalior)
  157. Shanker Rao (of Jhansi)
  158. Madan Mohan (first year student of Hindu College)
  159. Sher Singh
  160. Sohan Lal (a B.A. student of Hindu College)
  161. Charnji Lal Paliwal (of M.A. class Hindu College)
  162. Rajendra Pal Warrior (Meerut – U. P.): Did not marry. High in spirit till his death. Nothing more is known.
  163. Musaddi (Meerut): Did not marry. Incapacitated due to British brutalities. Ran “Progressive Book Shop” in Meerut, selling Soviet literature till his death. Nothing more is known.
  164. Dharam Pal (Dadari – Ghaziabad): A fierce revolutionary who was intercepted by a British Station Master at a Railway station (with a trunk-box containing revolver and ammunition) but ran away leaving behind that trunk-box. His son ran a newspaper in Dadari. Nothing more is known.

Unsung Heroes: Nand Kishore Nigam


We Indians are free today. There are Prime Ministers, Ministers, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Ministers, IAS officers and other endless persons holding power today. We all owe a debt to all those who fought the British for the freedom of this country and made   great sacrifices.

These sacrifices were made by them voluntarily out of their love for their mother land. While these true sons and daughters of mother India suffered great agonies at the hands of the enemies of their country, a large number of make-believe political leaders – who took reins of the free India in their hands as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers etc. – were enjoying their life in cosy jails or in palaces with full sympathy of the British rulers.

We have a long, really a very long, list of such make-believe official ‘Freedom Fighters’ and the make-belive ‘heroes’ of this freedom struggle; but there is no mention of those who sacrificed their comforts and life for this country. In this regard, the Indian history needs to be corrected and the real and the fake freedom fighters need to be put in the places in Indian history where they actually belong.

We must be sensible to understand one thing: the British people were at that time of the history, as they are today, very pragmatic people. They had the means, the weapons, and they had the strength, the British Army, to foil any non-violent attempt to liberate India and thus deprive them “the Jewel of their Empire”.

They were pragmatic and knew fully well that Indian revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen, Aurobindo Ghosh, Batukeshwar Dutt, Subhash Chandra Bose and countless others of the same elk had mesmerizing effect on the Indian people’s psyche; that if they were not pragmatic enough to hand over soon enough after the WW 2  the rein of India to those who advocated non-violence and worked for the amicable settlement of the question of Indian independence, Indian people would rise in the foot-steps of these belligerent and ferocious revolutionaries. The imperialists were pragmatic and decided in their best interest to disband their empire in India and hand over its reins to the votaries of amicable settlement of the issue of Indian independence.

We all owe a debt to these revolutionaries. At the least that we can do to them is to remember them and cherish their heroic deeds.

We are narrating here the life story of one such revolutionary. His name is Nand Kishore Nigam.

Professor Nand Kishore Nigam was a very famous revolutionary, next only to Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagwati Charan Vohra etc. during the revolutionary hey-days in 1928-1929. Of course, he does not find a place, not even a mention, in the free India’s Government list of freedom fighters.

This is the scorn and empathy that such revolutionaries met at the hands of our successive governments after 1947. To give a hint of what important place he occupied in the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (during action – Army) under its Commander-in-Chief, Chandra Shekhar Azad, let us give here the summary of a small portion of the voluminous “Proceedings of the Delhi Conspiracy Commission” manned by its President L. S. White and members Kunwar Sain and Amir Ali.

The narrative goes thus: Kailashpati returned to Delhi from Gwalior and went to Bimal Prasad Jain to discuss party affairs with him. At that time, he lived sometimes with Bhagirath Lal and sometimes with Bimal Prasad Jain. Part of the time he also lived with Bhawani Singh, who was living over Chiranji Lal’s house in Sirki Bazaar. This went on till October. Bhagirath was living in the Lachhman Das Dharamshala at Nigambodh Ghat on Jamuna bank and was frequented by Babu Ram Charan Singh, who belonged to his native village Barkali in District Meerut and lived in Sirki Bazar.

When the colleges opened again in October, Kashi Ram returned from Lahore to Delhi and lived in Lachhman Das Dharamshala at Jamuna Ghat. Nand Kishore Nigam had become a professor at the Hindu College by then and was living in the New Hindu Hostel, of which he was the Superintendent. After two days of his return from Gwalior, Kailashpati read in newspapers that Bhagwan Das and Sada Shiv Rao had been arrested in Bhusawalj. After a week of this, he showed a bombshell to Bimal Prasad Jain and suggested to him that it would be a good thing if something like it could be made. Jain said he would try.

After a week a mistri came from Baghpat who was known to him. He showed him the shell and asked him whether a thing of that kind could be made and the mistri said that he had a friend who lived at Phatak Habash Khan and he would try to get some made by him. Jain also made enquiries about this work from a mistri who was working in the same firm in which he (Jain) was working. It was some Electric firm near the Chartered Bank in Chandani Chowk.

But the attempt to make the bombshells was given up by them because the mistri of the Electric Company became inquisitive and suspicious as to what the things were for.  At that time, in October – December 1929, the following members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association were actively engaged in revolutionary activities in Delhi: Chandra Sekhar Azad; Nand Kishore Nigam; Bimal Prasad Jain; Bir Bahadur Tiwari; Kailashpati; Yashpal; Bhawani Sahai; Bhawani Singh; Bhagirath; Ram Charan Singh; Kashi Ram; Bhagwati Charan. This above passage gives an idea how revolutionaries at that dangerous times – the times of the British police and their government – risked their peaceful lives for the sake of this country and how their sacrifices were neglected in free India.

The revolutionary Nand Kishore Nigam died on 22 July 1980, after a prolonged illness. He was born in December 1906 in Delhi – House No. 1258, Pahari Imli, near Jama Masjid, Delhi – 6. His father Shiv Sahey Nigam was the Station Master at Bhartana Railway Station, who expired in 1908. His eldest uncle Shri Brij Lal Nigam and as well as his sister Chandrani Nigam had brought him up. N. K. Nigam completed his school education from Amba Prasad A.S.V.J. Sanskrit School, Daryaganj, Delhi and completed his B.A. (Hons,) in History from Hindu College (Delhi University), then at Kashmiri Gate, in Delhi, in first Position.

Getting the 1st position, he was employed by the college as Professor and Hostel In charge of the College.  He participated in the agitation against the Simon Commission. Years later in 1929, as Incharge of the Hindu College Hostel, he met Chandra Shekhar Azad, popularly known as Panditji.

Soon his room became a meeting place for revolutionary freedom fighters like Azad, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Bhawani Singh, Kashi Ram, Bimal Prasad Jain, Vaishampayan, Kailashpati, Bhagirath Lal, Babu Ram Charan Singh and Dhanwantri.

Since his school days, he was very much inclined towards freedom struggle but the good counsel and advice of his school teachers Amba Prasad and Ajmal Khan stopped him in his steps to participate in the freedom movement for the moment, that is, till he completed his studies. But as soon as he completed his studies, he joined Pt. Chandra Shekhar Azad’s group, who later handed over the command of bomb making work.

These bombs were to be used against the British police that tried to stop the revolutionary war or to take revenge against British police, like Saunders, for improper killings of Indians, like Lala Lajpat Rai etc.

When the college authorities came to know about the meetings of revolutionaries in the Nigam’s room, they asked Nigam either to leave the college or leave the company of revolutionaries. The college authorities feared that if the British Government came to know about these meetings in the college campus, the government recognition and aid to college could be stopped and Hindu College could be black listed.

He left the college but not his childhood dream of freeing India. He started to live with his married sister at Esplanade Road, now known as Amir Chand Dehlvi Marg alias Cycle Market, Chandni Chowk, Delhi. Why can’t it be named after Professor Nand Kishore Nigam today to recognize his sacrifices and to repay the debt to a true son of Mother India?

Once Azad demanded of him Rs. 500 for the revolutionary work and to meet that demand he had sold his share in the ancestral property at Pahari Imli to the other co-parcener Chandi Prasad.

In September 1930, he was formally inducted into the movement by Azad and was allotted Delhi as his area of activities. Later on, Kailashpati was arrested by police and he disclosed the names of his revolutionary associates, which forced Nigam to go underground.

He left Delhi and joined Azad in Kanpur. He was arrested from Gaya Prasad Library in Kanpur and was kept in solitary confinement in jail. He was tortured. In winter season, he was laid down totally naked on the ice-bricks and was beaten with iron chains.

Still, he never uttered any names of his revolutionary associates and during such tortures , a wound on his head went with his death. That wound never healed up.

He was arrested a second time in February 1933 in connection with the Delhi Conspiracy Case and on 16 February 1933, he was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment under the Arms Act. In Gonda Jail, he was kept in dark room for one year. When his condition became serious, the British government released him in 1934.

In due course, he was cured and was employed with Tatas. In 1941, he left the job and started his own business in Delhi. He was arrested, for the third time, on 9 August 1942, along with Farid Saheb. He was kept under detention for two years. He again fell ill and was released after his illness persisted for months.

After independence, he served as India’s First Commercial Secretary in Karachi for three years (1957–1960) and later as Trade Commissioner and Consul-General of India in Kuwait.

He has written two books “Azad Baleedan” in Hindi and the other “Delhi in 1857” in English, the second one was presented to the first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru.

He remained a bachelor all his life. After independence his family elders pressurized him to marry but he turned down every request or pressure saying: “jailon mein lohe ki chenon se pit pit kar sari haddiyan toot rahin hain aur itni bimariyan lag gaeen hein pata nahi kab maut aa jaye.” (My all bones have been broken in jails by beating me with chains. I have contracted so many diseases that my death may come at any time). Such were the sons of this country who fought for their motherland.

Unsung Heroes: Bhagwati Charan Vohra


Did the British willingly want to free India? Or, were they forced to leave? Were they afraid of Indians? Were they afraid more of Mahatma Gandhi or Bhagat Singh, Chandra shekhar azad, Subhash Chandra Bose etc.? Let us correct the history of India’s freedom struggle. Let us put people in their right places. The British were fearful of the memories of 1857, the First War of Independence. They were in mortal fear of the eventuality of the Second such War with Indian revolutionaries. Let us remember those who fought and made ultimate sacrifices for this country.

At the end of October 1929, Bhagwati Charan was introduced by Kashi Ram to Kailashpati in Qudsia Gardens. At that time Bhagwati Charan was an absconder in the Lahore Conspiracy Case. Bhagwati Charan expressed a desire to meet Chandra Shekhar Azad and asked the two what the party was doing in this part of the country.

He was told that for lack of funds, the party was not able to do anything. Kailashpati said that he would endeavor to affect a meeting between him and Azad. About that time, which was the beginning of November, Vaishampayan came from Cawnpore on his way to Lahore and informed that he had come from Azad; so it was concluded by members in Delhi that Azad was in Cawnpore.

Vaishampayan also gave an address in Cawnpore to Kailashpati through which he should be able to get in touch with Azad. This address in Cawnpore was of Ram Singh who lived near a Church in Mulganj and in case the house of Ram Singh could not be located, then to get in touch with Sheo Ram Singh, who was the brother of Ram Singh and studying in seventh Class in Marwari High School.

Vaishampayan was to return from Lahore in two or three days and when he did not return so, Kailashpati sent Bhawani Singh to Cawnpore to meet Azad and to tell him that he would bring Bhagwati Charan and Yashpal to Cawnpore.

Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Bimal Prasad Jain


The house of Bimal Prasad Jain was in Khari Baoli. He originally hailed from Sisana in Meerut District. At the end of July 1929, it was decided that they would make picric acid in the house of Gajanand Sada Shiv Potdar in Gwalior for filling bombs.

Azad sent Vaishampayan somewhere to bring apparatus and acids for this purpose and he brought them. Vaishampayan also purchased in Gwalior antimony tri-sulphate, potassium chlorate and sulphur.  Azad, Sada Shiv Rao, Gajanand Sada Shiv Potdar, and K began to make picric acid.

After two unsuccessful attempts they sought the help of D.V. Tailang who was a class fellow of Potdar and a member of the party who used to come there. Tailing referred them to J.V. Cochen’s ‘Practical Chemistry’ and following the instructions in it, they succeeded in making picric acid.

They also started to make tin bombs, that is, cigarette-tins. These bombs were made with a view to defend themselves if necessary as they had not sufficient weapons. These bombs were filled with sulphur, antimony tri-sulphide, sugar and potassium chlorate. Some were also filled with picric acid.

They also made a cast-iron shell. One of the tin bomb was taken away by Vaishampayan, Sada Shiv Rao, Bhagwan Das and Kailaspati to a hill outside Gwalior for experiment. They threw one and it exploded well and found by experiment that the bombs made by them were satisfactory. The other three were kept to be used in case of need or if any ‘action’ took place.

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