Who was the First Prime Minister of Free India ? Correct the History !


By: Shreepal Singh

Who was the first Prime Minister of India – India that was made free from the yoke of British Imperialism, whatever size of the piece of land of that free India might have been?

Certainly, it was not Jawahar Lal Nehru. Let us correct the history for the posterity.

The first Prime Minister of India was Subhash Chandra Bose, fondly called by Indian people Netaji – that is, the Leader. Bose had announced the formation of Provisional Government of India on 21 October 1943.

Proclamation of Provisional Government of India 

A cabinet of Ministers was duly formed, which was headed by Subhash Chandra Bose himself.

Cabinet Ministers of Provisional Government of India headed by Bose

This free Indian Government was recognized by 11 countries as the legal and legitimate Government of India, which countries included Japan and Germany. This provisional government of India in exile had its operating headquarters in Singapore.

What are the normal tell-tale signs of a real government? The government must have a “Head” who may have his team to assist him in governance; the government must be “Sovereign”, that is, it must not be subject to any other state; the government must enjoy an international recognition, may be even by only one foreign nation; it must have a seat – a place – to operate from. In fact, these are the only requirements for a legal and legitimate government in the view of international law. However, the government of free India headed by Subhash Chandra Bose had more than these minimum requirements.

This first government of free India led by Subhash Chandra Bose at its head  had its own army with the combined strength of rank and file of about 60, 000.

Bose inspecting Indian National Army 

It had several regiments nicknamed “Rani Jhansi” and some other patriotic names.  It was called Azad Hind Fauz – that is, Indian National Army. This government had also got printed “Indian Passports”, which fact was testified by the deputy of Bose in his statement to the British (after he was captured by the British on the fall of Berlin in WW2).

Bose inspecting “Rani Jhansi” Regiment of Indian National Army

But it had the most important element of a government – a piece of land, under its control. The army of this government had launched an offensive against the British forces at Andaman and Nicobar island, defeated the enemy there, hoisted the Indian flag – Tiranga – at the main seat of power in that piece of Indian land and had flung open the gates of Cellular Jail, where mostly political prisoners – REAL freedom fighters, and not make make-believe freedom fighters – were incarcerated by the British. All these prisoners were liberated by the Indian National Army.

Bose inspecting Cellular Jail after liberating Indian territory of Andaman and Nicobar

Not only this Indian land – Andaman Nicobar – was liberated by the Indian National Army, this army entered the mainland India through Moreh point ( at Indo-Myanmar boarder) and fought the enemy at Kohima – where now a cemetray  of the killed British military officers lie. This battle was fought from 4 April to 22 June, 1944.

This battle at the hands of Indian National Army was judged the MOST FIERCE battle that the British forces had to face during the entire WW 2. It was so judged – voted – in a survey conducted by the British military authorities among those of their soldiers who had participated on different fronts in WW 2. This battle was dubbed by them as “Stalingrad of the East.” There are many individuals still alive – aged more than 100 years – who had participated in this battle and are able to tell what had happened in that battle. Out of the total strength of about 60,000 rank and file of the Indian National Army, about 26,000 had died fighting the enemy – the British forces! This is the price India had to pay – the price that forced the British to decide to leave India and go back to their home, England.

It is a common knowledge of WW 2tt history that the most ferocious battle was fought at Stalingrad in the terstwhile USSR between the forces of Hitler and Joseph Stalin and the battle at Stalingrad was the turning point in the World War 2. Here for the first time the forces of Hitler were defeated and victorious Red Army of USSR started its march towards Berlin. Berlin – and with it Hitler – fell with the reach of Red Army there. One can very well imagine the significance of dubbing by the enemy its war with Indian National Army as the “Stalingrad of the East” !

On the crucial date commemorating their battle with Indian National Army, the British bigwig military officers even today come here to pay their homage to the fallen British soldiers. This cemetery displays an engraved stone that reads: “When you go home, remember that we died today for your tomorrow”.

No Indian having a common sense would doubt that Subhash Chandra Bose had fought for the freedom of India from slavery; that it was the only real way to fight with an enemy – the enemy who had enslaved a people not by openly fighting with them but by the deceitful tactics of “divide and rule”, plundred the wealth of this country by destroying its industries and artisons and emasculated its people by destroying their culture and education; and, that the enemy knew very well that it was a real fight, unlike those who mocked a fight in the name of non-cooperation, civil disobedience and satyagrah.

It was for this very reason – because he gave them a real and tough fight – that the enemy declared Subhash Chandra Bose a “War Criminal”, who – if found – was to be tried by them at the Nurenberg international tribunal set up for war criminals of WW 2.

See the hypocricy of the British imperialists in declaring Subhash Chandra Bose a war criminal ! It was their dibolical intention ! Hitler invaded Poland, England, Russia and a host of other foreign lands; Japan invaded Thailand, Manchuria, China, Singapore and several other countries of the Far East; and, Mussolini too attacked a number of foreign lands. But Bose invaded no foreign land whatsoever – he came with his force called Azad Hind Fauz to his own country. It was no invasion; it was no crime. Fighting for the freedom or independence of one’s own people is not a crime. There are many examples of such glorious act, for example, the US people had fought the British with arms under the leadership of George Washington; and, it was no crime.

The reason lies somewhere else. In fact, the enemy was dreadful that if Bose entered the mainland India with his force and gave a call to Indians to rise against the British, millions of Indians would join his Azad Hind Fauz. In that event, it was almost impossible for them to safely escape from India to England.

It was this dread of Bose and his popularity among millions of Indians that the British (being a part of Allied Forces) declared Bose a “wanted war criminal”. It was a shame for the then political leadership of India – Congress under the leadership of Nrehru – that they did not lodge a protest to the British against such immoral act of labelling Bose a war criminal. Nehru was very active on many international burning issues. For exaple, on an appeal by Mao Tse Tung of China he had arranged to send in 1930’s a medical team of doctors under the leadership of Dr. Kotnees to nurse the wounded communist guerrilla fighters of Mao in Chinese civil war – his fight against Chang Kai Shek’s nationalist forces. Nehru could have – and should have – raised an international cry against the labelling of Bose by Britain (and its associate members of Allied Forces) as a war criminal. But he did not raise even an eye brow against such immoral branding of Bose.

It was a mistake committed in the past. Now, in our own time, it is a shame for India and Indian government that here there is no place  in free India for the fallen soldiers of Indian National Army “Who died, so that India is delivered from slavery”.

Provisional Government of India image gallery:

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videos about INA and Subhash Chandra Bose:

(1) Addressing Indians:

(2) Video giving objective analysis of how Bose created circumstances – internal and external – that forced the British to decide to leave India:

(3) Saga of INA and Bose: Part One

Saga of INA: Part Two

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Subhash Chandra Bose or Mahatma Gandhi – Who made the British make-up their mind to leave India?


1 of 3: A video

2 of 3:

By: Shreepal Singh

How do we evaluate the circumstances under which India got freedom from the British rule?
In any society, people are an amorphous tectonic force lying potent, only to be made active and utilized by individual leaders in the service of their ideas. Despite the suppression of 1857 armed revolt, the belligerent fire of Indian people against the British rule was still kindling. People were gravitating towards the revolutionary ideas of Bagha Jatin, Sri Aurobindo, Surya Sen, Ras Bihari Bose, Lala Hardayal and the likes, when Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came on the political scene of India and diverted people’s liking from revolutionary ideas to the idea of nonviolence. For the British, it was a welcome diversion of ideas from the revolutionary path to the peaceful method. As it was easy for the people to agitate peacefully and so was it easy for the British to suppress their agitation.
However, the real worry of the British was that revolutionaries, their belligerent ideas and the mass appeal of these ideas had not died down despite Gandhi’s preaching of nonviolence. The memory of 1857 was still fresh in their minds and they were really scared of the popularity of Chandra Shekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose. The descimation of their military power during WW 2, Navy’s revolt in Bombay and popular surge against the trial of Azad Hind Fauz’ soldiers in Red Fort, forced the British to hand over the rein of India to the advocates of nonviolence by passing a law in their Parliament. 

3 of 3:

By: Sundararajan

When B.P. Chakravarti was acting as Governor of West Bengal, Lord Attlee visited India and stayed as his guest for three days at the Raj Bhavan. Chakravarti asked Attlee about the real grounds for granting independence to India. Specifically, his question was, when the Quit India movement lay in ruins years before 1947 where was the need for the British to leave in such a hurry. Attlee’s response is most illuminating and important for history. Here is the Governor’s account of what Attlee told him:

In reply Attlee cited several reasons, the most important were the activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose which weakened the very foundation of the attachment of the Indian land and naval forces to the British Government. Towards the end, I asked Lord Attlee about the extent to which the British decision to quit India was influenced by Gandhi’s activities. On hearing this question Attlee’s lips widened in a smile of disdain and he uttered, slowly, putting emphasis on each single letter – “mi-ni-mal.” (Emphasis added.)

Said Sir Stafford Cripps, intervening in the debate on the motion to grant Indian Indepence in the British House of Commons in 1947 (‘The Freedom Struggle and the Dravidian Movement’ by P.Ramamurti, Orient Longman, 1987)

…The Indian Army in India is not obeying the British officers. We have recruited our workers for the war; they have been demobilised after the war. They are required to repair the factories damaged by Hitler’s bombers. Moreover, they want to join their kith and kin after five and a half years of separation. Their kith and kin also want to join them. In these conditions if we have to rule India for a long time, we have to keep a permanent British army for a long time in a vast country of four hundred millions. We have no such army….”

The crucial point to note is that thanks to Subhas Bose’s activities, the Indian Armed Forces began to see themselves as defenders of India rather than of the British Empire. This, more than anything else, was what led to India’s freedom. This is also the reason why the British Empire disappeared from the face of the earth within an astonishingly short space of twenty years. Indian soldiers, who were the main prop of the Empire, were no longer willing to fight to hold it together.

By: D.C.  Nath, Former Spl. Director, IB

In an interview to BBC in February 1955, Babasaheb elucidated the reason why the British left India in  1947. Subsequently, Attlee agreed Netaji was the toughest challenge the Empire faced. Several defence and intelligence experts agreed, too.
http://swarajyamag.com/politics/bose-not-gandhi-ended-british-rule-in-india-ambedkar/
Unfortunately, however, he is, in more than one sense, the least honoured among  the national leaders, by the nation and by the Indians as whole. Neither is there any worthwhile statue or bust of his in the capital nor is there any important road in the capital after his name. A private body has, however, been fighting for enshrining his memory in the city.
And, to cap it all, his name was something like a taboo to a large section of Congressmen and is still today. The then government had even suppressed the note of dissent by a member of a panel the Government had set up years after independence whether Netaji had indeed died in the air crash.
Is it not a shame to the nation that we have been made to remain ignorant even today about his date and time of Netaji’s death? After two made-to-order sham Commissions of Enquiry, serious attempts (conspiracy?) were made in the not-too-distant past, by a very senior Congress functionary to bring back to the country Netaji’s “ashes” (?) even when his death and the place, where he was believed to have died, had not been proved.
Things have been made so complicated that two Commissions of Enquiry could not satisfy the nation and so, a third (so far the last) Commission of Enquiry had to be set up for the same cause—to ascertain the exact circumstances around the place and cause of Netaji’s. Despite the government not having shown the necessary papers to him, on the same ground as is being offered now, the Mukherjee Commission has done some remarkable work. It is queer that the report of this Commission has not yet been placed before Parliament. We will love to be proved wrong if it is otherwise. In any case, from whatever has now been in available in the public domain, this Commission has proved beyond doubt:

·       that there had been no such plane crash at the site on the date and place, as had been given out.
·       so, the question of Netaji having died then did not arise.
·       that Netaji was found alive in Russia well after that “never happened” plan crash.
In this background, we invite your attention to the attached copy of the lead editorial in “The Pioneer” of April 16, 2015. It has rightly started:
“The need for non-prejudiced history to be told and written for the benefit of present and future generations is necessary to prevent political parties from twisting historical material to suit their purposes. This is why classified files relating to Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose must be freed from the veil of secrecy.”
So, the editorial comments, even if it may seem to some as biased, that “The allegations that these developments (non-cooperation by Nehru and Indira Gandhi) fit into the Congress” pattern  of not allowing inconvenient historical material to be revealed as it would dent the image of their iconic leaders and simultaneously raise Netaji’s stock, cannot be easily brushed aside. Nevertheless, politics on the issue is not what Netaji Bose deserves (it is good to remember). There must be a satisfactory closure to the mystery behind his disappearance and death. The BJP had before the Lok Sabha election promised to declassify the ‘Netaji files’. It has taken the first step in that direction by forming an inter-ministerial panel to do the needful.”

Dr B.R. Ambedkar speaks on M.K. Gandhi [BBC sound archives] by Channel BAWS

Speaker is a distinguished Scholar, Constitutionalist, Revolutionary and leader of the Depressed Classes. Human Rights champion of the 21st Century who played an important role at the Round Table Conferences held in London . He was opposed to Gandhi’s policy relating to a separate electorate. Memories of the few times he had met Gandhi in 1929 and after the signing of the Poona Pact in jail. Feels as he saw Gandhi in the capacity of an opponent, he saw more of the real man than his devotees. Maintains he was “an episode” rather than “an epoch-maker”.  Believes he deceived the people and was two-faced (double dealing) over caste. Dr. Ambedkar was 65 yr old and ill at the time when he talked

One must listen to Ambedkar’s views on Gandhi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bo7RmMUUz-Y&feature=related

http://c250.columbia.edu/c250_celebrates/remarkable_columbians/bhimrao_ambedkar.html

Dr B.R. Ambedkar speaks on M.K. Gandhi [BBC sound archives]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FNSQcEx02A&feature=em-share_video_user

By: C M Vikram

So, British took the American advise, and gave freedom to the colonies. The real reason why Briton and France left their colonies is the Second World Wars.  Britain, France and Spain had many colonies and through the colonies they controlled the world trade.  Germany, Italy and Japan found that they cannot expand their world trade due to British and French control on world trade.  So, these countries went on a rampage.  After the WW2, USA also placed lot of pressure on Europe to give up their colonies.  Britain and France found out that it is getting to be more expensive to keep the colonies and the economic benefit is declining. 

Subhash Chandra Bose: British Intelligence papers declassified: An assessment


By: Shreepal Singh

The history relating to Subhash Chandra Bose, his ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ and the heroic battle of this army with the army of the British rulers of India has been distorted by the acts of obliteration, omission and commission. It is still happening in India, which is free now.

You just have a look at the material available on the internet that is related to the battle of INA (Indian National Army or ‘Azad Hind Fauz’) with the British forces at Kohima in Nagaland and you will find out how the history has been distorted. This battle has been narrated as the Japanese aggression against mainland India, where the British forces fought their “Stalingrad of the East” war against the enemy-aggressors. There is no whisper of the word INA and the sacrifices made by Indian soldiers under the command of Netaji.

Was it indeed the Japanese aggression? Or, was it an assault on the British rulers of India under the leadership of Netaji with the assistance of Japanese? Historian Giles Mac Donough wrote a book ‘A Good German’ about the real happenings in Germany under the rule of Adolph Hitler and how some people were resisting the Furer under the Nazi rule. Before writing this book, Giles made an extensive research into the subject. He met individuals who had first-hand information of the events and poured himself into the available records to put the history straight. How many of the Indian historians took the pains to go to Kohima in Nagaland and to Japan to get a first-hand information about this battle; looked into the Japanese military / archives records to count the heads of Indians of INA or of Japanese who had fought that battle; and call the bluff of this battle as a Japanese aggression?

By this distorted history of INA and its battle with the British forces in India, we are being ashamed of Bose and his INA.

You go to this website and see that on the “Kohima War Cemetary” reads an epithet in honor of British soldiers who laid down their lives in this battle. A fitting prelude to British soldiers who died here reads: “When you go home, tell them of us and say, ‘For your tomorrow, we gave our today”. Did no Indian soldier of INA under the command of Bose lay down his life for the cause of India in this battle? There is no place in free India for Indians for a War Memorial of those who fought and laid down their lives in this battle.

Indeed, the history of India written in the last 60 years does not commemorate the sons and daughters of this country who laid down their lives for the cause of their mother land.

Subhash Chandra Bose – An assessment

Hindsight is a great advantage. We have the events before us; we have the circumstances then prevailing; and we have the personalities to judge how they conducted them in those circumstance. It requires an acute sense of objectivity and sympathy with the persons so judged to do complete justice to them in the matter. This privilege of hindsight is never available to a person embroiled in the thick and thin of the turmoil.

It is really very difficult to judge Bose. It involves judging his intentions and the wisdom of his actions in a very complex political situation then prevailing in India and world. It was the trying time of World War II.

In a free country, there is great paraphernalia of the governmental officialdom. A large army of officers, whose interests are wedded to the government, are there devoted to spend their lifetime in taking care of the government’s interests. If a police officer tires, another is there to take his place; if an army-man dies fighting the cause of the government, another soldier is available, without a wink, to replace the dead. It was so with the British Government of India. And, before that, in 1600 AD it was so with the Indian government of the Mughal Emperor. If there was no justification on the part of the British to maneuver their acts so as to ensure that the Indian government of the Mughal Emperor is crushed and replaced by the British, there was no justification on the part of Bose to think and act so as to ensure that the British government is crushed and replaced by the government of free India. If it was justified on the part of the British to act and ensure that the Indian government of the then Emperor was defeated and replaced by their own government, then it was also justified on the part of Bose, and justified in more measure than of the British, to take all acts within his reach and ensure that the British government was defeated and replaced by a government of his own people. Therefore, Bose did commit no crime in doing what he did. This is the first caveat one has to take care of when judging Bose. This very urge on the part of Bose, puts him on the pedestal which is beyond the pale of questioning him for the acts he did.

He was a fire in himself; but the fire is not enough to fight an Empire. He needed also the good-luck of circumstances, which have always been playing a decisive role in the lives of great man throughout the human history. In his mission, Bose – an inspiring national leader along with a group of few more patriots – was not the only actor playing a role on the stage of history in opposing the enemy of his countrymen – the British Empire lording over a slave population of India; there were also the Axis powers – Germany under the Nazi leader Hitler, Imperial Japan and Italy under the Fascist leader Mussolini – arrayed against the British. To make the world theater more complex, most of the powers of the world – U.S.A., France, Soviet Union and a host of other countries – had jumped into the fray by ganging together as Allies. Bose was an insignificant entity in this grand world affair and his wisdom lay only in his taking the advantage of this volatile situation. His destiny was tied to the fate of the side he chose; also, in serving the cause of his country he was bound to serve the dominant cause of the side he had chosen. Let us see what prompted Bose to opt for Hitler’s Germany/ Imperial Japan in seeking to serve the interests of his mission rather than other democratic countries.

Let us rewind ourselves back in times to the late 1930s. We have collected materials (verbatim) from the classified intelligence records of British Government, which have been recently declassified and are available on the net (British Archives). Read this material and decide yourself where Subhash Chandra Bose stands in comparison to those who have ruled India after its independence.

RECORDS:

(1):

27th July,1945

Mr. SILVER

Attached is a copy of an interesting letter from NAMBIAR to S. C. BOSE, the original of which was found in U-boat 234 when it surrendered to the Allies. I am having enquiries made about the identities of the various people mentioned in the latter, but some of the names are very familiar to us already. The asthmatic patient is, I believe, G. K. MUKHERJI, No. 56 in the July 1944 handbook. DUTT is Eric Chand DUTT, No. 24 in the July 1944 handbook , of whose recent whereabout we know nothing.

2. The passport and manuscript mentioned towards the end of the letter were not recovered with the letter itself but we are endeavoring to obtain them. …..”

This letter to Mr. Silver refers to, and attaches a copy of, a letter written by A. C. N. Nambiar (Arathil Candeth Narayan NAMBIAR, who had gone to Berlin in 1924 as a journalist) to S. C. BosVe on 12th July, 1945. This letter to S. C. Bose was one of the three letters which were recovered from U-boat 234 and sent by Brigadier O’Brien, British Joint Staff Mission, Washington by his letter dated 14th July, 1945. A. C. N. Nambiar was heading a group of Indians who were working in Berlin (Germany) as officials of the Provisional Government of India. It was a group of 12 persons. They were also responsible for radio broadcasting as “Azad Hind Radio, Azad Hind Muslim Radio and Azad Hind Congress Radio.” Nambiar was later on appointed by Subhash Chandra Bose a Minister without Portfolio in the Provisional Government of India.

And, who was this Mr. Silver, to whom the British communicated with an attached copy of Nambiar’s letter and asked him to help identify the persons mentioned in the letter? Mr. Silver is none other than an Indian traitor named Bhagat Ram Talwar, with whom Bose had stayed in Kabul after his (Bose’s) escape from his Calcutta house. This Talwar had helped Bose to enter into the Soviet Union territory secretly with the assistance of the Soviet ambassador in Kabul and had thus earned the complete confidence of Bose in him but he in fact was a triple espionage-agent of the British, the Soviets and the German government of Adolph Hitler.

Excerpts from the statement made by Nambiar to his British interrogators (after he and other members of the group (F.I.C.) were arrested in Berlin on its occupation by the Allied forces)

(2):

193. SECRET TRANSMITTING STATION.

Whilst BOSE was still in Europe I suspected that there was a secret transmitting station being used by him and located somewhere in tribal territory on the frontier. BOSE, however, never informed me of its existence and the first definite knowledge I had of it was in June 1943, when VON TROTT told me that the existence of the secret station and the key to the code used, had been discovered by the Russians. The Russians had apparently given an assurance that this knowledge would not be passed on to the British, but the Foreign Office was undecided whether to risk using the station any longer. TROTT was in favour, but KEPPLER wished to have BOSE’S opinion. A few days later TROTT told me that it was now necessary to inform the Japanese of all the details connected with the transmitting station in Kabul. The information was passed by TROTT to KAWAHARA, the technical details being supplied by WAGNER of the Abwehr to col. HIGUTI. It was thus decided to use the station for sending messages of a non-secret nature merely in order to maintain contact and message was received from BOSE advising us to give up using it entirely.”

Bose sent this message to Nambiar and the group working under him in Berlin through the Japanese channel:

(3):

We have embarked on an active military campaign, but it is not intended to continue our advance beyond the Brahmputra. Do not, therefore, allow our broadcasters to call for any widespread uprising or to exaggerate the possibilities of the advance.”

(4):

In July 1944 when German military situation deteriorated, it was decided to sound the Russians as to their willingness to accept Indian political refugees from Europe. Message was sent through HIGUTI to Bose in December 1944 and received reply from Bose agreeing to the proposal (about Russians’ willingness etc.), but stipulating that first Nambiar should consult German Foreign Office and Japanese Embassy about the proposal. OSHIMA was not in favor. Again in Feb. 1945 German Foreign Office was approached about the proposal to Russians. RIBBENTROP had no objection provided the move was confined to ‘finding out the Russian policy towards India and whether they intended to extend any special treatment to Indians’. But plan was dropped (when KENI could not get visa from Swedish Consul-General).

German U-boat (submarine) left with Bose (with Hassan) on board at 9 O’clock in the morning on 8th Feb. 1943, which was to meet Japanese submarine in Madagascar.

(5):

173. During the Christmas in December 1942 Bose went to Vienna with Frl. SCHENKL and his daughter (child born in September 1942) after a period of acute indecision for Bose. He rejected any other course and decided to keep the matter a very close secret, although he had considered marrying Frl. SCHENKL and accepting what he considered to be the inevitable consequence of retirement from his political career, when the story should become known to his followers in Europe and in India. FALTES had advised against marriage and Frl. SCHENKL had accepted Bose’s decision but hopping that with the success of his mission he would be able to regularize their relationship.

(6):

Bose sent message from Tokyo to Berlin through German channels in December 1944 to use the following points in the Radio broadcast propaganda: 1. The Japanese war would continue even if Germany was defeated; 2. German defeat would not ease the problem for British in Europe.

(7):

188. The last message I received from Bose through the Japanese was handed to me by col. HIGUTI in April 1945. It was to the effect that the Legion should either be committed to action or moved to the zone likely to be occupied by the Russians.”

(8):

Indian Legion in Germany was closed down in Germany in August 1944 on the approach of Allied forces.

(9):

On 7th October 1942, Bose told Nambiar:

After his arrest he started a ‘hunger strike’ which resulted in his being released for health reasons, although watch was still kept over his house. He then made arrangements to leave India; only two or three of his intimate friends being taken into his confidence. He grew a beard and when the plans were mature, escaped from the house and travelled by train to N.W.F.P., dressed as Pathan. Although he had some anxious moments when a group of three Indian Officers entered his compartment and travelled part of the way with him, he reached Kabul without any great difficulty. In Kabul things were very difficult for him; he often had to change his place of residence and on one occasion was jailed by the Afghan Police and only released on bail being produced by a friend. He contacted the Italian and German Legations with a view to obtaining a passport but for a long time they refused to help. Eventually the Italian Consul-General issued him a passport under the name of Carlando MAZOTTA and arranged his departure through Russian territory via Warsaw to Germany”.

(10):

Earlier attempt to travel to Far East:

168. Early in October 1942, Bose was informed by Dr. WERTH that arrangements for his flight to the Far East had been completed and he was to leave within a week. Two days later KEPPLER, VON TROTT, BOSE and NAMBIAR flew to RIBBNTROP’s field H. Q. then in a forest in the Ukraine. RIBBNTROP received Bose in the presence of VON TROTT, KEPPLER and MEGERLE.

(11):

157. On 25-5-42, BOSE at last secured his long sought-after meeting with HITLER. He was accompanied by KEPPLER to the Furer’s Headquarters on the Eastern front and had an interview there. Bose told me later that Hitler had rejected the idea of making a proclamation assuring independence for India until his armies were nearer the Indian frontiers. Bose had suggested that the statement made in ‘Mein Kampf’ regarding India should be publicly retracted, but Hitler made no reply. Hitler had agreed to the Bose’s decision to leave Germany for the Far East.

(12):

158. After this interview a photograph was published in German Press showing Bose with Hitler with RIBBENTROP. This put an end to Bose’s incognito and accordingly he decided to hold his first press conference in Germany. This was arranged for him by KEPPLER and was held at the Auslands Presses Club.”

India needs to judge Bose sympathetically. He needs to be put in his circumstances. He needs to be put at the highest rank of those who fought for their country and sacrificed everything for its sake.

Subhash Chandra Bose – Correct the Indian history


By: Shreepal Singh

Being brilliant in many spheres of human endeavor, India as a nation has been a colossal failure in many others. One such failure is its sense of history. It is not only the absence of cleanliness and all-pervading culture of hypocrisy that have been plaguing this country; there is also a complete loss of the sense here of putting the history in correct perspectives. It is not a nationalist call for an Indo-centric academic effort; it is a call for resorting to industry to go and find out the real facts so that the history is put in right perspective for the coming generations of this country.

There are historians in this country who have spent their life-time in cultivating their brand-names by finding out things of trivial historical importance, like ‘it was a fact’ that during the Rig-Vedic period Aryans (or modern equivalent of Hindus) were not vegetarians but ate meat'; that 'it was a fact' that for a few centuries before and after the beginning of Christian era Hindus persecuted Buddhists’ in India; or, that so-called ‘upper caste Hindus’ had been ‘socially tormenting the lower caste Shudras’ for millenniums, etc. In fact, these pseudo-historians are the foot-soldiers of the imperialists’ Grand Design – the imperialists who are the modern Avatar of the yore against whom Bose had fought and their Grand Design of ‘Breaking India’.

The history relating to Subhash Chandra Bose, his ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ and the heroic battle of this army with the army of the British rulers of India has been distorted by the acts of obliteration, omission and commission. It is still happening in India, which is free now.

You just have a look at the material available on the internet that is related to the battle of INA with the British forces at Imphal and Kohima in Nagaland and you will find out how the history has been distorted. These battles have been narrated as the Japanese aggression against mainland India, where the British forces fought their “Stalingrad of the East” war against the enemy-aggressors. There is no whisper of the word INA and the sacrifices made by the Indian soldiers under the command of Netaji.

Was it indeed the Japanese aggression? Or, was it an assault on the British rulers of India under the leadership of Netaji with the assistance of Japanese? Historian Giles Mac Donough wrote a book ‘A Good German: Adam Von Trott solz’ about the real happenings in Germany under the rule of Adolph Hitler and how some people were resisting the Furer under the Nazi rule. Before writing this book, Giles made an extensive research into the subject. He met individuals who had first-hand information of the events and poured into the available records to put the history straight. How many of the Indian historians took the pains to go to Kohima in Nagaland and to Japan to get a first-hand information about this battle; looked into the Japanese military / archives records to count the heads of Indians of INA or of Japanese who had fought that battle; and call the bluff of this battle as a Japanese aggression?

By this distorted history of INA and its battle with the British forces in India, we are being ashamed of Bose and his INA.

You go to this website and see that on the “Kohima War Cemetary” reads an epithet in honor of a British soldier who laid down his life in this battle: “When you go home, tell them of us and say, For your tomorrow, we gave our today”. Did no Indian soldier of INA under the command of Bose lay down his life for the cause of India in this battle? There is no place in free India for Indians for a War Memorial of those who fought and laid down their lives in this battle.

You visit these website to find out how the history has been distorted by omitting role or reference to INA and Bose:

(1) Wikipedia

(2) This website

(3) Wikipedia

Indeed, the history of India written in the last 60 years does not commemorate the sons and daughters of this country who laid down their lives for the cause of their mother land.

A single betrayal of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose – That changed the Indian history forever


By: Shreepal Singh

There is a discrete spot, almost unknown to the general public in India, in Kohima in Nagaland. It is known as “Kohima War Cemetary”. Today, it is a beautiful  memorial amid dense jungles. It is a place where even now the bigwigs of British military authorities on important anniversary days come to pay their respects to their comrades who lay dead there.

It was the spot where on 4th April to 22 June 1944 the British forces – mostly comprising Indian soldiers – fought their second World War’s deadliest battle with a small number of “Azad Hind Fauz” soldiers, who were fighting their adversaries with ill-equipped in firing weapons, without any support of air power, under-nourished without any supply lines from behind the front and in a terrain full of leeches and other poisonous crawling insects. Most of these ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ (Indian National Army) soldiers were erstwhile POWs (Prisoners of war) who were Indians, had fought on behalf of the British against the Japanese forces and on being defeated had surrendered to the Japanese. While being held as POW in many places in Indochina War Theater, they had been won over to the cause of ‘Mother India’ by the inspiring addresses of Subhash Chandra Bose, dearly called Netaji. This time, these Indians were fighting against the British for their mother land. In this war, they were high in spirit but low on material. The mantra – the slogan – that Netaji gave them was: ‘You give me your blood, I will give you your freedom’ (Tum mujhe khoon do, mein tumeh azadi dunga).

The British military authorities’ representatives do not come to this place on commemoration day vaingloriously to remember and pay tribute to just ‘some of their fallen comrades out of the many millions’, who had fought and sacrificed their lives in WW II. The British forces had fought many deadly battles – to the last drop of the blood – against the German, Italian and Japanese forces on many fronts. It is admitted by the British military historians that the battle their forces fought with ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ on the Indo-Burma border was the most fierce among all.The Battles of Kohima and Imphal were recently voted the “Greatest ever battles involving the British.”  It is also known as the “Stalingrad of The East.”

It is related by some of the veterans of the Netaji’s ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ that they had fought the British-Indian forces in a situation where their bullets of rifles had exhausted, there was no possibility of replenishing the ammunition, there was no food and they had to cook leeches, scorpions etc. on the make-shift ‘stone’ oven, when the British airplanes were relentlessly raining bombs on them, there was no possibility for calling the help from the Japanese Imperial Air Force. By all military accounts, the fate of ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ was sealed; it was doomed. Still, the soldiers of Netaji’s force were determined to fight; their spirit was soaring high: ‘Victory or death’. The victorious INA  had marched from Burma to Manipur and then into Kohima in Nagaland. The soldiers of INA had broken the resistance of the British forces, defeated them and entered as a victorious Indian National Army in Port Blair of Andaman and Nicobar islands. The Army opened the gates of Cellular Jail there and set all prisoners confined by the British government free. It was a piece of free India. But it was proved so free only for a moment.

Why did this particular battle in this ‘commemorative place’ in Kohima happen to be the ‘most deadly’ of all the battles that the British fought during the entire Second World War? Was this battle won by the British-Indian forces against ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ on account of their bravery – or of the superiority of their weapons? Imagine for a moment: ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ was not defeated in this battle; after conquering Andaman and Nicobar Islands, this army moved victoriously to the mainland India. It was a dreaded scenario for the British rulers of India. Had this happened, the people in the length and the breadth of India would have risen in unison to support and help this Indian National Army built and nurtured by a popular leader called Nataji. Then, what would have happened to the Indian National Congress and its leaders, who were busy negotiating with the British rulers over the fate of India? Perhaps no further imagination is necessary to visualize the consequences that this country would have undergone under a government formed with the power of ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ and under the leadership of Bose. Today India would have been a different country. Its history of the last 60 years would have been altogether a different story.

But is it not a fig of imagination only? How could Netaji’s INA win this fateful battle against the better equipped British forces? And, there was atomic bomb attack on the Japanese Imperial Forces, which forced them to surrender; what Bose and his INA could have done without the support of the Japanese under these circumstances? Indeed, the atomic assault by U.S.A. on the Japanese cities brought that country on its knees and any assistance or even support of the Japanese to ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ was after that moment out of the question. But it is also borne out by the historical records that despite the losses suffered by INA at the hands of the British at this spot and surrender of Japan, the soldiers of ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ refused to retreat back from the fighting front; Bose in the name of his authority as the Commander-in-Chief of INA had to address, persuade and direct them to retreat by saying, ‘We have not been defeated; another day will come when we will again assemble to fight’. In our imagination, the day the victorious ‘Azad Hind Fauz’ under the direct leadership of Bose would have entered mainland India, it would have been a war within India without any concern with Japan and her defeat.

We again put the question: “Why did this particular battle in this ‘commemorative place’ in Kohima happen to be the ‘most deadly’ of all the battles that the British fought during the entire Second World War?” It was so because the British rulers had been given an information in advance of the planned attack on them by INA of Netaji and the British forces had sufficiently prepared for the anticipated assault on them. In the art of war the elements of surprise, deception, information, strategy based on information etc. are more lethal than weapons in deciding the outcome of a war. Bose had lost this crucial battle (that sealed the fate of this country) because he had been betrayed by one of his confidante.

This modern ‘Jaichand’ was the person who had helped Bose in Kabul (Afghanistan) after his escape from India by arranging his stay in Kabul and his onward journey to the Soviet Union. The name of this person was Bhagat Ram Talwar.

Bhagat Ram Talwar was a prominent member of an organization called ‘Kriti Kishan’ and this Kriti Kishan was a front organization of Communist Party of India. Bhagat Ram Talwar was based in Kabul and had a house there where he arranged the stay of Bose. Being a prominent member of an organization of Communist Party of India,  Bhagat Ram Talwar was in regular communication with the ambassador of Soviet Union to Afghanistan stationed in Kabul. It was Bhagat Ram Talwar who had arranged a visa for Bose in a fictitious name and had arranged for the Bose’s entry into Soviet Union through an Afghanistan-Russian land-route border (once inside Russia, Bose had safely taken an airplane for further journey). It was only because of Bhagat Ram Talwar’s link with the Soviet ambassador that Bose’s arrival in Russia was within the knowledge of Joseph Stalin and Bose was enabled to put his idea / proposal to fight the British in India with the help of Soviet Union (of course, this proposal of Bose was not accepted by Stalin and he was allowed to go to Germany for his cause).

But Bhagat Ram Talwar was a very cunning and treacherous person. He was regularly getting money from the Soviet ambassador for providing information to him, which work is called espionage. Once he knew the utility of his work, he cultivated links with the German representative in Kabul and started getting money from him as well. As if this was not enough, he volunteered his services to the British representative based in Kabul. Now he was master of the trade and triple-agent / counter agent of three great powers of the world. The British intelligence officials in London allotted this Bhagat Ram Talwar a code name ‘Silver’. Today information technology has made it possible for people to have access to the information that was out of the bound previously. This ‘Silver’ or Bhagat Ram Talwar had installed transmitting machines in his house that directly linked him to the officials of Adolph Hitler in Berlin. He was such a willy person that while getting money from all the three great powers of the world, none of them was aware of his counter intelligence. He raked money from all the three and befooled all of them.

Historical Dictionary of British Intelligence by Nigel West at page 542 states about Bhagat Ram Talwar thus, “Silver. The D Division codename for Bhagat Ram Talwar, a 32-year-old Hindu and committed member of Kirti Kishan, the Communist Party of India (CPI), whose brother had been hanged in 1931 for assassinating a British official before World War II. In January 1941, Ram had played a role in the escape of the notorious Indian nationalist, Subhash Chandra Bose, from his house arrest in Calcutta to Afghanistan and then to Germany, but as his loy-(ality?…..)”

As Bhagat Ram Talwar had created a great impression on Bose by his ability to enable him (Bose) to communicate with Stalin, he enjoyed his complete trust and confidence. Bose considered Bhagat Ram Talwar his own man helping the cause of India. During World War II the whole world was in the churning and uncertain of the future, and many great political leaders fumbled in their assessments and moves. Bose had visualized the rising of India against the British power here as and when his INA entered the country as a victorious force. Towards this vision Bose had been regularly addressing the Indian people on radio from Berlin. He was in need of collaborators back at home for that moment and, wherever possible, he kept his contacts abreast of the latest development that were taking place on his side. It was to inculcate in them hope for the future, to make them prepared for the critical moment whenever it arrives and to seek their cooperation. The decision to attack the British forces in India in the North-East from Burma was a solemn, crucial and critical act on the part of Bose. It is a common sense, it is a guess, it is logical that on the part of the leader of INA not only the greatest planning and preparation for the planned offensive must gone into to guarantee its success, but also the information of the coming tide (attack) must have been shared with the collaborators (like Bhagat Ram Talwar) with the hope of a helping hand against their common enemy. The needle of suspicion stops at Bhagat Ram Talwar. It requires further research to pin him down to the crime of treachery against his mother land.

A poet has brilliantly penned a Urdu couplet that reflects the agony of India: “Sometimes a wrong is done by one individual in a fleeting moment; but its punishment is inflicted on generations to come for centuries.”

There is no doubt of the facts that the British rulers of India had been informed in advance of the planned offensive by INA; that on getting this information the British had prepared themselves to fight a tough battle (so tough that they had never encountered during the entire WW II); and that INA was forced to retreat back from India (after liberating Andaman and Nicobar Islands) only because of this betrayal.

 

Subhash Chandra Bose in USSR after the air crash confirmed by KGB files


By: Shreepal Singh

A few years back the Hindustan Times had published online a series of articles about Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose under the headine: The Enigma of Subhash Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 – ?) and this article is based on the information provided there.

In the section: KGB files reveal Subhash’s presence in USSR after air crash, Shali Ittaman has to say this:

There is proof in black and white locked in the high-security Paddolsk Military Archive. This is a military establishment of the erstwhile USSR and is located about 40 kilimeters from Moscow!

Alexander Kolesnikov is a person who was a Major General in the former Warsaw Pact countries’ military. He had the occassion to access these files in Paddolsk Military Archive in October 1996. He says that Josef Stalin in 1946, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was heading his government’s cabinet, was actively considering various options available to his government to deal with Subhash Chandra Bose of India. The issue before the USSR government being considered by the cabinet was: “Should Subhash Chandra Bose be kept in Russia?”

Alexander Kolesnikov was a member of the Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow in 1996 and under an Indo-Russian cultural agreement was permitted by the government to visit that high-security archive to conduct studies. As the Archive was a high-security establishment, he was not allowed by the officials there to copy the pages which dealt with the case of Subhash Chandra Bose or their file number and volume of the document where he found these startling facts.

Dr. Purabi Roy, a research scholer, was sent as a three-member group of Asiatic Society to Russia to study documents related to India in the then USSR from the period 1917 to 1947. As the Dr. Purabi Roy and his other team members were foreigners, they were not allowed to visit, look into documents and study them locked in the high-security establishment of Paddolsk Military Archive. Since this Indian study group was not permitted to visit there, Alexander Kolesnikov was assigned this task by the government of Russia. Alexander Kolesnikov conducted the study of those documents and reported his findings to the Indian delegation.

In 1996, an Indian Parliamentary delegation had gone to the Russian Federation and this delegation included late Shri Chitta Basu and Shri Jayant Roy of the Forward Block. During their meeting with Alexander Kolesnikov, he (Alexander Kolesnikov) gave a written report of his findings about the Netaji.

This Russian account of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose being not only alive after the much publicised air crash but present in the USSR is a thing which India must investigate with full force as a nation. The corrollary of its findings would change the course of this country.

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